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Publication #ENY-461

Insect Management for Tomatoes, Peppers, and Eggplant1

S. E. Webb, P. A. Stansly, D. J. Schuster, J. E. Funderburk and H. Smith2

Pest management should be based on the proper identification of pests and knowledge of their biology. The major pests of tomatoes, peppers, and eggplant in Florida and guidelines for their management are described below. Some insects may be more important in some areas of the state than others. Scouting guidelines and action thresholds for tomatoes are from the Florida Tomato Scouting Guide, SP 22, 2nd edition.

For each pest described, a table of management options will be found after the damage. These tables will be expanded as more information becomes available. Tables 12-14, at the end of this publication, list pesticides labeled for each major fruiting vegetable grown in Florida: tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants. Pesticides for controlling insects not described below can be found by looking under the "Insects" column in the tables.

Silverleaf Whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii

Description

The adult silverleaf whitefly (Figure 1) [6 March 2013] is small, approximately 1/16 of an inch in length, and has powdery white wings held tent-like over a yellow body while at rest. Whiteflies are usually found on the undersides of leaves, often in pairs. Males are smaller than females. Eggs, which are yellow and football-shaped, are attached upright by a tiny stalk inserted into the lower leaf surface. A mobile first instar or crawler stage hatches from the egg and settles on the leaf. It then develops through immobile second, third, and fourth instars, which look like semi-transparent, flat, oval scales. The fourth instar or "pupa" is more yellow and more easily seen without the aid of a hand lens, typically has very distinct eyespots, and is referred to as a "red-eyed nymph."

Figure 1. 

Silverleaf whitefly.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Biology

The life cycle from egg to adult can be as short as two weeks when the weather is very warm. Adult females lay most of their eggs on young leaves so young nymphs also generally occur on the underside of younger leaves. As the plant grows, leaves bearing the maturing nymphs are found lower down on the plant, so older nymphs can be found by looking at older leaves. Whiteflies ingest sap from the plant vascular system (phloem) through stylets similar to those of aphids and, like aphids, process a relatively large volume of plant sap by excreting excess liquid in the form of a sugary substance called honeydew.

Damage

Heavy whitefly populations can damage plants directly by removing sap. The honeydew that they excrete while feeding serves as food for sooty mold, which can reduce the amount of light reaching leaves. Moderate numbers of nymphs can cause irregular ripening of tomatoes, characterized by incomplete ripening of longitudinal sections of fruit. Nymphal feeding also causes an increase in objectionable white tissue in interior fruit walls. Adults also transmit plant viruses. After feeding on infected plants, whiteflies can then transfer the virus to healthy plants. Unlike the mosaic viruses transmitted rapidly by aphids, the whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses commonly found in tomatoes are transmitted persistently. It takes longer for the whitefly to acquire the virus and the virus must pass through the body of the insect into the salivary glands before the whitefly can transmit it to a healthy plant. The whitefly has to feed on a healthy plant for some time to cause infection. Once the whitefly acquires the virus, it may transmit it for the rest of its life. In addition to Tomato mottle virus, the very severe Tomato yellow leaf curl virus is now common in Florida.

Silverleaf whitefly can reach high numbers on tomato and eggplant and can be a problem on peppers. Generally, whitefly populations are highest in South, Southwest and West Central Florida during the spring although, in West Central Florida, the number of whiteflies carrying virus is usually higher in the fall. The whitefly is less often a problem in North Florida but may reach damaging numbers in summer and fall. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus causes problems in all tomato-growing areas in Florida.

Aphids

Description and Biology

Aphids (Figure 2) are soft-bodied, sucking insects that can rapidly colonize plants due to their short generation time. Adults are delicate, pear- or spindle-shaped insects with a posterior pair of tubes (cornicles), which project upward and backward from the dorsal surface of the abdomen and which are used for excreting a defensive fluid. In Florida, winged and wingless forms are all female and give birth to living young (nymphs). Nymphs are smaller but otherwise similar in appearance to wingless adults, which they become in 7 to 10 days.

Figure 2. 

Winged aphid (top) and wingless aphid (bottom).


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The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, is the most common aphid species in Florida peppers and tomatoes, although the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) may also occur. Green peach aphid adults vary from 0.04 to 0.08 inch in length and are light green to yellow to pink and pear-shaped. The tubercles (bumps between antennae) point inward and are a distinguishing characteristic. Winged forms have a black patch on the back of the abdomen.

Damage

Heavy aphid infestations may cause stunting and leaf distortion. Feeding on blossoms reduces fruit set. Sooty mold will grow on the honeydew that the aphids excrete. They also spread plant viruses such as Tobacco etch virus, Potato virus Y, and Pepper mottle virus. Most transmission results from winged aphids probing the leaf surface, rejecting the plant as a host, flying to another plant, and probing again. Aphids that settle, feed, and reproduce on the plant are less likely to transmit virus. Aphids can acquire and transmit the virus in a matter of seconds (although they lose the virus after probing a few plants) so conventional insecticides are of no help in controlling the spread of these viruses. Sources of infection are nearby virus-infected tomato, pepper, tobacco or other host plants. Related weeds such as nightshade may also be infected and serve as a source of virus for the crop.

True Bugs (Hemiptera)

Description

Like aphids and whiteflies, true bugs are sucking insects. True bugs can be recognized by their front wings, which are leathery close to the body but membrane-like at the tips. Nymphs resemble adults in shape but are often colored differently and do not have fully developed wings. Stink bugs (Pentatomidae) (Figure 3) are green [6 March 2013] or brown shield-shaped bugs 1/2 to 2/3 of an inch long. Eggs are barrel-shaped and found on the undersides of leaves in masses of 10 to 50. Nymphs are similar in shape to adults, but more brightly colored and patterned. Leaffooted bugs [6 March 2013] (Coreidae) (Figure 4) are dark-colored true bugs with parallel sides. Three species attack tomato in Florida, two of which have flattened hind tibia (lower legs). Eggs are metallic and ovate but somewhat flattened laterally and laid in clusters. Some leaffooted bugs lay their eggs end to end in a single row or chain along a stem or leaf midrib. Nymphs are oblong in shape and red, especially on the abdomen.

Figure 3. 

Green stink bug.


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Figure 4. 

Leaffooted plant bug.


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Biology

Southern green stinkbug can complete its life cycle in 65 to 70 days. It overwinters as an adult in leaf litter, tree bark, and other protected sites. Weed hosts include beggarweed, rattlebox, Mexican clover, wild blackberry, and nutgrass. Leaffooted bugs also attack a wide variety of plants, although thistles and nightshade are principal hosts. Both stink bugs and leaffooted bugs emit a strong odor when disturbed.

Damage

Nymphs and adults of both stink bugs and leaffooted bugs suck juices from green fruit leaving a puncture which later may become surrounded by a discolored zone due to invasion of secondary pathogens. Stink bug feeding punctures are often surrounded with a lightened, sometimes depressed, blotch beneath the fruit surface caused by the removal of cell contents and the enzymes injected by the bug. Leaffooted plant bug punctures may cause fruit to become distorted as they enlarge. True bugs are occasional pests throughout Florida.

Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, and Melon Thrips, Thrips palmi

Description and Biology

Adults of the western flower thrips and adults of the melon thrips are tiny (1/16 inch), slender, dark yellow insects with brown, fringed wings. They are most often located in flowers, but rarely occur in the terminal buds and leaves. The larvae are wingless, inhabiting primarily flowers and fruits. Two pupal stages do not feed, but fall to the ground. Thrips complete their life cycle in 15 to 30 days, depending on temperature. Western flower thrips and melon thrips have a broad host range. Western flower thrips feed and reproduce on tomato, pepper and eggplant. Tomato is not a suitable host for melon thrips, although pepper and eggplant are sometimes damaged. The western flower thrips occurs statewide in Florida, whereas damage to vegetables from melon thrips is restricted to southern Florida.

Figure 5. 

Thrips.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Damage

Eggs of the western flower thrips are inserted individually in tomato fruits, causing dimples, sometimes surrounded by a white area. Heavy dimpling can result in cullout and downgrading, depending on market conditions. Dimpling is very rare on pepper and eggplant. The adults and larvae of both the western flower thrips and the melon thrips feed by sucking the contents of the epidermal cells of the plant. When feeding, primarily by the larvae, occurs on fruit, it results in a damage symptom called "flecking." The western flower thrips is the key vector of Tomato spotted wilt virus. Tomato spotted wilt virus is the key pest problem in northern Florida. It is not a serious problem in central and southern Florida, although problems sometimes occur on late-planted fruiting vegetables.

Eastern Flower Thrips, Frankliniella tritici, Florida Flower Thrips, Frankliniella bispinosa, and Tobacco Thrips, Frankliniella fusca

The eastern flower thrips is the most common thrips in northern Florida. It does not occur in central and southern Florida. The Florida flower thrips is the most common thrips in central and southern Florida. Both species have biologies similar to western flower thrips and melon thrips. Adults of the eastern flower thrips and the Florida flower thrips are not associated with dimpling or flecking, even when their numbers exceed 15 or more per flower. Further, their reproduction on fruiting vegetables is much less than the western flower thrips, and the potential for larval 'flecking' damage is minimal. Populations of these native species are considered beneficial, as they outcompete western flower thrips. The tobacco thrips is another species native to Florida. It occurs rarely in fruiting vegetables, and usually in very low numbers.

Damage

Heavy infestations cause silvered or bronzed leaves, stunted leaves and terminals, and scarred and deformed fruit. On peppers, fruit scarring emanates from the stem end following crevices between locule lobes. Foliar damage may also be severe. Melon thrips also damages eggplant. Tomatoes are not affected.

Vegetable Leafminer, Liriomyza sativae, L. trifolii

Description and Biology

The adult is a small fly (Figure 6), approximately 1/8 inch long, with a black head, yellow between the eyes, a black thorax and a tube-like “ovipositor” at the end of the abdomen used to puncture the upper leaf surface for egg laying. The white, oval egg is inserted in the leaf tissue, but many punctures (called stipples) are used by the adult for feeding and do not contain eggs. The larva, a yellow maggot with black, sickle-shaped mouth hooks, feeds between the upper and lower leaf surface for approximately seven days, leaving a serpentine mine containing a string of black frass (fecal matter). The mature larva exits from the mine and falls to the ground (or plastic mulch) where it molts to a pupa within a golden brown, barrel-shaped, and ribbed puparium from which the adult emerges in seven to 14 days. Generation time is 15 to 28 days depending upon temperature.

Figure 6. 

Vegetable leafminer.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Damage

Leafminers reduce photosynthetic area and may provide entry points for foliar pathogens. Heavily damaged leaves become necrotic, predisposing fruit to sunscald. Vegetable leafminer may be an important pest in south and central Florida but is only an occasional pest in north Florida. It is not usually a serious pest of pepper or eggplant.

Tomato Pinworm, Keiferia lycopersicella

Description

The adult is a small gray moth (wing span about 1/2 inch) with a reddish-brown, mottled head and thorax. Eggs are pale yellow to orange, oval in shape, and are usually deposited singly or in groups of two to three on lower surfaces of foliage. Larvae (Figure 7) are purplish-gray, 3/8 inch long at maturity, and found inside blotch mines, leaf folds or fruit, usually around the stem attachment. The pupa is formed in a silken cocoon covered with sand particles near the soil surface or on the plastic mulch surface.

Figure 7. 

Tomato pinworm larva.


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Biology

Moths are most active at dusk. The female emits an odor, or pheromone, which attracts males from long distances downwind for mating. After hatching, first instars spin silk over themselves and tunnel into the leaf. Third and fourth stages fold or tie leaves or feed in stems or fruit. The pupal stage can last 1 to 4 weeks. Total generation time varies from 21 to 67 days depending on temperature. Seven to eight overlapping generations a year occur in South Florida.

Damage

The tomato pinworm feeds only on solanaceous plants such as tomato, eggplant, and potato. Pepper is not a host. Heavy feeding on foliage may cause defoliation, but damage to fruit is usually the worst consequence of tomato pinworm infestations. Damaged fruits are contaminated with insect parts, silk and frass, and may rot from introduction of pathogens. The tomato pinworm is an important pest in the spring in south and central Florida and summer or late fall in North Florida, especially after populations have built up over the preceding season.

Tomato Fruitworm (corn earworm),Heliocoverpa zea

Description

The wingspan is about 1.5 inches. The forewing of the adult male is cream-colored with an orange or olive cast; the female is light yellow-brown with indistinct vertical lines. Eggs are waxy, white, dome-shaped and ribbed, with a flat base. They are deposited singly on the undersides of leaves or flower petals. Larvae (Figure 8) can vary in color from light green or pink to brown or nearly black and are lighter underneath. The body is marked with lengthwise alternating light and dark stripes. Spines have raised dark areas at their bases.

Figure 8. 

Tomato fruitworm (corn earworm) larva.


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Biology

Adults are active at night. Eggs hatch in 2 or 3 days and the larval stage lasts 14 – 21 days. Larvae move to green fruit soon after hatching, where they bore deeply into the fruit. Tomato fruitworm pupates in the soil; the adult emerges in 7 to 14 days.

Damage

Larvae chew large deep holes in tomato fruit, especially at the stem end. They occasionally feed on foliage. Eggplant and pepper fruits may also be damaged by tomato fruitworm.

Southern Armyworm, Spodoptera eridania

Description

The adult is relatively large (1.5-inch wingspan) with the front wing streaked with cream, gray, light brown and black and the hindwing white with some dark on the margins. Eggs are laid on the undersides of leaves in large masses of 100 to 200, covered with a felt-like mat of body hair. Eggs which hatch in about three to four days. Larvae are dark caterpillars, two yellowish lateral lines interrupted by a large dark spot on the first abdominal segment (Figure 9). Large larvae have two rows of dark triangles on the dorsal surface. The generation time is 29 to 35 days. Southern armyworm is the most common armyworm pest of tomato in south and central Florida but is only an occasional pest in north Florida.

Figure 9. 

Southern armyworm larva.


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Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua

Description

The adult is smaller than southern armyworm, (wingspan one inch) with the front wing light brownish gray with indistinct lines and the hindwing white. Egg masses are also smaller than southern armyworm, numbering usually 50 to 75 eggs but are otherwise similar. Larvae (Figure 10) are generally green, mottled with white spots, one to 1¼ inch long at maturity and often with a small black spot above the second pair of true legs. Generation time 25 to 35 days. Tomato is not a preferred host for beet armyworm but the insect may occasionally reach damaging levels anywhere in the state. Pepper is a preferred host, and larvae may feed on buds, silk leaves together, or may bore into fruit. The beet armyworm is more difficult to control than the southern armyworm.

Figure 10. 

Beet armyworm larva.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Yellowstriped Armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli

Description

The adults and eggs are similar to the southern armyworm. Yellowstriped armyworm larvae (Figure 11) have dark heads and dark lateral marks bisected by a thin, white line on each segment behind the true legs. The yellowstriped armyworm is a serious pest in north Florida during the fall but is rarely present in south and central Florida.

Figure 11. 

Yellowstriped armyworm larva.


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Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii

Description

The adult (Figure 12) is a small (1/6 inch) black or gray beetle with a long snout (proboscis) and elbowed antennae. Larvae are tiny, legless grubs, found inside the pepper fruit.

Figure 12. 

Pepper weevil larva and adult.


Credit: F. Drummond, University of Maine
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Biology

Adults use the mandibles at the end of the proboscis to feed on leaf or flower buds. Females also use the mandibles to bore a small hole in developing fruit or flower buds. The hole is plugged with fecal matter (frass) after an egg is deposited. A tiny legless grub hatches from the egg and eats its way toward the seed core of the fruit where it feeds on seeds and pulp, passing through larval growth stages or instars. Pupation takes place inside the fruit within a small cell created by larval feeding. The emerging adult may feed within the fruit for awhile before escaping through a circular hole chewed in the wall of the fruit.

Black nightshade can serve as a secondary host to maintain small numbers of pepper weevil during fallow periods. Because development times decrease as temperature increases and because adults will migrate readily from old fields to new plantings, populations generally build up during the season so that populations are greatest in later spring plantings.

Damage

Damaged fruit become contaminated by insect parts, frass and rotted tissue, and will eventually fall from the plant.

Broad Mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus

Description and Biology

Adults (Figure 13) are tiny, white, eight-legged mites and are usually most numerous on the underside of young, emergent foliage. Males can sometimes be seen carrying females “piggyback." Nymphs are similar though somewhat smaller than adults are. Eggs are about 1/4 the size of adults, round with white, opalescent spots, and glued to the plant surface. Generation time may be as short as 5 days, depending on temperature.

Figure 13. 

Broad mite.


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Damage

In peppers, broad mite feeding distorts plant tissue, causing leaves to become thickened and narrow, giving them a “strappy” appearance. Heavy feeding causes flower abortion and dark, smooth russeting of fruit. Infestations are often spotty, but may become more generalized, especially in late fall. Broad mite is a major pest of pepper and eggplant.

Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

Description

Adults (Figure 14) have 10 lengthwise black stripes on yellow-orange wing covers and are approximately 3/8 inch long by 1/4 inch wide. They are distinctly convex in shape. Clusters of 10 or more yellow to orange spindle-shaped eggs can be found on the undersides of leaves. The larvae are humpbacked, red to orange, and have two rows of black spots on each side of their soft bodies.

Figure 14. 

Colorado potato beetle larva and adult.


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Biology

Colorado potato beetle is primarily a pest in the northern half of the state. Adults will overwinter in debris around the edges of fields planted the previous season with potatoes, eggplant, or tomatoes. In the spring, they lay eggs in clusters of 10 – 40 that will hatch in 3 to 7 days, depending on temperature. Females may deposit over 300 eggs over a 4-to 5-week period. Larvae complete 4 instars while feeding on leaves for two to three weeks and drop to the soil to pupate. New adults emerge from the soil 5 to 10 days later, or longer, depending on temperature. Colorado potato beetle attacks primarily potatoes, eggplant, and tomatoes, but it will also feed on peppers, tobacco, and solanaceous weeds, such as nightshade, horse-nettle, and ground cherry.

Damage

They are voracious leaf feeders and will totally defoliate plants.

References

Gillett, J. L., H. N. HansPetersen, N. C. Leppla, and D. D. Thomas. 2006. Grower’s IPM Guide for Florida Tomato and Pepper Production. Univ. of Florida, IFAS, Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Available online at http://ipm.ifas.ufl.edu/resources/success_stories/T&PGuide/

Pernezny, K., D. Schuster, P. Stansly, G. Simone, V. Waddill, J. Funderburk, F. Johnson, R. Lentini and J Castner. 1996. Florida Tomato Scouting Guide with Insect and Disease Identification Keys. Univ. of Florida, IFAS, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, SP-22. Available online at http://erec.ifas.ufl.edu/tomato-scouting-guide/.

Tables

Table 1. 

Silverleaf Whitefly

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ thresholds

For tomatoes, examine six feet of row (a sample) for every 2.5 acres. When plants have three or fewer true leaves, examine six plants per sample for adult whiteflies. If plants have more than three leaves, examine the terminal leaflet of the third leaf from the top of the stalk. For nymphs, examine a terminal leaflet from the third leaf from the top until seven leaves are present and from the seventh leaf from the top thereafter. Look at six leaflets per six feet of row and calculate an average per leaflet. Tentative thresholds are 0.5 pupae or nymphs per leaflet or 10 adults per plant (0-3 true leaves) or 1 adult per leaflet (over 3 true leaves).

Note(s)

Soil application of a systemic, nicotinoid insecticide at crop initiation controls whiteflies well and reduces virus spread. To avoid the development of resistance to this insecticide, it is recommended that applications be made to the earliest “at risk” plantings using the lowest labeled rate. Fields should be scouted to determine the need for additional applications, using a different active ingredient, preferably an insect growth regulator or other selective material.

Mulches

Reflective aluminum mulches may reduce virus spread by deterring adult whiteflies from landing on plants.

Natural enemies

Parasitic wasps, lady beetles, lacewings, minute pirate bugs, fungi, particularly when whiteflies are developing on weeds.

Cultural controls

Tomato is the major source of whitefly-transmitted viruses, so attention should be paid to the probable source of whiteflies invading a field, given that highest risk is from senescing, abandoned or 'volunteer' tomatoes.

A two-month or more crop-free period will reduce virus and whitefly populations.

Table 2. 

Aphids

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ thresholds

For tomatoes, examine six feet of row (a sample) for every 2.5 acres. When plants have two or fewer true leaves, examine six plants per sample for aphids. If plants have more than three leaves but are not yet blooming, examine the terminal three leaflets (trifoliate) of the third expanded leaf from the top of the main stem. After bloom, examine the terminal trifoliate of the seventh leaf from the tip of any branch. Look at six trifoliates per six feet of row and calculate an average per trifoliate. Treat with appropriate insecticides if aphids reach 3 to 4 per plant.

Note(s)

Insecticides will not slow the spread of most aphid-transmitted plant viruses. Certain mineral oil formulations, if applied strictly according to the label before 5%-10% infection, may delay spread of these viruses by interfering with the attachment of virus to the aphid's mouthparts.

Mulches

Reflective aluminum mulches will deter aphids from landing on plants. The effect is lost once plants are large enough to cover the mulch.

Natural enemies

Parasitic wasps, ladybird beetles, syrphid fly larvae, and lacewing larvae attack aphids that reproduce on the crop. In humid weather, fungi may kill many aphids.

Table 3. 

True Bugs

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ thresholds

After fruit set, examine 10 fruit per 6-foot section of row for each 2.5 acres. If there is more than one stink bug per six plants, apply insecticide.

Natural enemies

Several species of parasitoid wasps attack eggs of leaffooted bugs. Insect predators also consume eggs. A tachinid fly parasitizes stink bug nymphs and adults, and a wasp parasitizes eggs.

Cultural controls

Trap crops (cowpeas and beans in summer, cruciferous plants in early spring and fall) may have some value. The trap crop should be sprayed before stink bug nymphs become adults. Weed management in and around the field prior to planting the crop is important.

Table 4. 

Western flower thrips and melon thrips

Management Option

Recommentation

Scouting/ thresholds

Distinguish between adult and larval thrips and identify adult thrips to species. Examine at least 10 flowers and 10 small fruits for every 2.5 acres. Place flowers and fruit on white board to observe the thrips as they crawl out. Open flowers and remove the calyx on small fruit. In tomato, treat if there are more than 1 adult western flower thrips per flower. In pepper and eggplant, treat if there are more than 6 adult western and melon thrips per flower. In tomato, pepper and eggplant, treat when larval numbers exceed 2 per small fruit. Do not treat for eastern flower thrips and Florida flower thrips.

Natural enemies

Minute pirate bugs are predators of thrips with natural populations usually sufficient in pepper and eggplant to control thrips, if a conservation biological control program is employed. When peppers and eggplants are flowering be careful to choose insecticides for thrips and other insect pest control when peppers and eggplants are flowering that have minimal impact on minute pirate bug populations. Sunflower and other refugia plants provide a source for minute pirate bugs.

Cultural practices

Use ultra-violet reflective mulches when forming beds for control of thrips and Tomato spotted wilt virus. Do not overfertilize because thrips prefer and perform better on plants that are over-fertilized.

Notes

Certain insecticides, especially pyrethroids, enhance western flower thrips and melon thrips. They should not be used on pepper and eggplant, and they should be avoided on tomato. Please note that many insecticides have a generic label for thrips, but they do not control the western flower thrips or the melon thrips. Some even enhance their populations either directly or by killing minute pirate bugs and competitor thrips.

Table 5. 

Vegetable Leafminer

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ Thresholds

For tomatoes, examine six feet of row (a sample) for every 2.5 acres. When plants have two or fewer true leaves, examine six plants per sample for leafminers. If plants have three to seven leaves, examine the terminal three leaflets (trifoliate) of the third expanded leaf from the top of the main stem. After seven leaves are present, examine the terminal trifoliate of the seventh leaf from the tip of any branch. Look at six trifoliates per six feet of row and calculate an average per trifoliate. Treat with appropriate insecticides if the average is 0.7 larvae per plant (0-2 true leaves) or 0.7 larvae per 3 terminal leaflets (>2 leaves per plant).

Note(s)

Insecticides applied for leafminer control should target small larvae for best results.

Natural enemies

A number of parasitic wasps attack vegetable leafminer in Florida and may provide high levels of mortality, especially late in the season. Therefore, insecticides with low or no toxicity to leafminer parasites should be selected for controlling leafminers and other pests.

Table 6. 

Tomato Pinworm

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ Thresholds

Count the number of larvae on the foliage of whole plants (up to 7th true leaf stage), or on one leaf selected from the lower canopy of each plants (from 8th true leaf to end of crop). Treat if the following thresholds are reached: 0.7 larva per plant (0-7 leaves), 0.7 larva per leaf (>7 true leaves). Also treat with pheromone for mating disruption if 5 or more moths are caught per night in a pheromone trap.

Note(s)

Mating disruption by application of commercially available pheromone preparations is preferred over insecticidal control in order to conserve parasites and predators of tomato pinworm.

Cultural controls

Use clean transplants, separate plantings from previous crops of tomato, eggplant, or potato. Field sanitation and destruction of crop residue from previous plantings is important for reducing summer populations.

Table 7. 

Tomato Fruitworm (corn earworm)

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ Thresholds

Examine 6 feet of row for every 2.5 acres. Concentrate on areas where there is evidence of feeding (leaves, fruit). Examine the undersides of leaves adjacent to flowers for eggs. Treat if there is one larva or more per six plants before bloom; after bloom, treat if one egg or larva is found per field. Pheromone traps, placed on the edge of the field, have been useful for monitoring purposes in the Midwest.

Note(s)

Insecticides must be present on plants when eggs hatch so that newly hatched larvae will contact a lethal dose.

Natural enemies

General predators, such as big-eyed bugs and pirate bugs, feed on eggs. Parasitoid wasps attack eggs and larvae.

Table 8. 

Management of Beet, Southern, Fall and Yellowstriped Armyworms

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ Thresholds

Examine 6 feet of row for every 2.5 acres. Concentrate on areas where there is evidence of feeding (leaves, fruit). Treat if there is one larva or more per six plants before bloom; after bloom, treat if one egg or larva is found per field.

Note(s)

Younger larvae are always easier to control than older larvae, especially when using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) products.

Natural enemies

Many natural enemies attack armyworms, including parasitoid wasps and tachinid flies. General predators feed on eggs and small larvae.

Table 9. 

Pepper Weevil

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ Thresholds

Because adults tend to move to lower, more protected and less visible plant parts as temperatures increase, scouting efforts should concentrate on a search for adults in leaf whorls, flowers, and fruit during morning hours. Commercially available pheromone traps may also aid in early detection. Fruit and flower buds should be examined for damage and fallen fruit and buds examined for presence of larvae.

Note(s)

Chemical control is difficult because all stages except the adult are protected within the fruit, so that only the adult weevil is vulnerable to insecticides. Frequent sprays may be necessary starting in the initial stages of infestation, usually pre-bloom, in order to avoid unacceptable levels of damage.

Natural enemies

A few parasites and predators are known to attack the weevil, but are not thought to be a factor in suppressing populations.

Cultural controls

If possible, all damaged and fallen fruit should be removed and destroyed. Adjacent or nearby sequential plantings should be avoided. Crops should be deep-plowed immediately following harvest and after treating with insecticide to reduce adult movement into nearby fields and to reduce survival over the summer. Nightshade in and around fields should be controlled to reduce population survival between crops.

Table 10. 

Broad Mite

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ Thresholds

None currently available for Florida. Infestations occurring during at or before the early fruiting stage of peppers cause the most damage.

Note(s)

Chemical control is not difficult but should be timely. Heavy infestation may require two applications five days apart to allow time for eggs to hatch. Specific acaricides are usually recommended over broad-spectrum acaricide/insecticides to better conserve beneficial insects.

Natural enemies

General mite predators can be effective.

Table 11. 

Colorado Potato Beetle

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ Thresholds

There are no thresholds for Florida. Other states recommend examining at least 30 plants per field and treating if more than 1 adult, larva, or egg mass per plant is found (average of 30 plants).

Note(s)

Insecticide resistance is a major problem in other parts of the country.

Natural enemies

Good results have been obtained with a tiny wasp that parasitizes eggs. The wasp, Edovum puttleri, was introduced from South America and mass-reared for release in the Northeast.

Cultural practices

Rotation with non-host plants, such as corn, is effective, because beetles are weak fliers. Plant at least 1/2 mile away from a previously infested field. Potatoes can be used as a trap crop for tomatoes. One or two rows of potatoes planted 20 to 30 days before tomatoes will attract adult beetles, which can then be killed with insecticides before they move into the tomatoes.

Table 12. 

Selected insecticides approved for use on insects attacking tomatoes.

Trade Name

(Common Name)

Rate

(product/acre)

REI

(hours)

Days to Harvest

Insects

MOA Code1

Notes

Acramite-50WS

(bifenazate)

0.75-1.0 lb

12

3

twospotted spider mite

un

One application per season. Field grown only.

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

2.0-5.5 oz

12

0

aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, stinkbugs, whitefly

4A

Maximum of 11 oz/acres per season. Do not use following a soil application of a Group 4A insecticide.

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

7-10.5 fl oz

(for rates for other brands, see labels)

12

21

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, leafhoppers, thrips (foliar feeding thrips only), whitefly

4A

Most effective if applied to soil at transplanting. Admire Pro limited to 10.5 fl oz/acre.

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

0.6 fl oz per 1000 plants

12

0 (soil)

aphids, whitefly

4A

Greenhouse Use: 1 application to mature plants, see label for cautions.

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

0.44 fl oz/10,000 plants

12

21

aphids, whitefly

4A

Planthouse: 1 application. See label.

Agree WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

armyworms, hornworms, loopers, tomato fruitworm

11

Apply when larvae are small for best control. Can be used in greenhouse. OMRI-listed2.

*Agri-Mek SC (abamectin)

1.75-3.5 fl oz

12

7

broad mite, Colorado potato beetle, Liriomyza leafminers, spider mite, Thrips palmi, tomato pinworm, tomato russet mite

6

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications. Do not apply more than 10.25 fl oz per acre per season.

*Agri-Mek 0.15 EC

8.0-16.0 fl. oz

12

7

broad mite, Colorado potato beetle, Liriomyza leafminers, spider mite, Thrips palmi, tomato pinworm, tomato russet mite

 

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications per season. Do not apply more than 48 fl oz per acre per season.

*Ambush 25W

(permethrin)

3.2-12.8 oz

12

up to day of harvest

beet armyworm, cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, granulate cutworm, hornworms, southern armyworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm

3

Do not apply more than 1.2 lb ai/acre per season (76.8 oz). Not recommended for control of vegetable leafminer in Florida.

*Asana XL (0.66EC) (esfenvalerate)

2.9-9.6 fl oz

12

1

beet armyworm (aids in control), cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, cutworms, flea beetles, grasshoppers, hornworms, potato aphid, southern armyworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, whitefly, yellowstriped armyworm

3

Not recommended for control of vegetable leafminer in Florida. Do not apply more than 0.5 lb ai per acre per season, or 10 applications at highest rate.

Assail 30 SG

(acetamiprid)

1.5-4.0 oz

12

7

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, thrips, whitefly

4A

Do not apply to crop that has been already treated with imidacloprid or thiamethoxam at planting. Begin applications for whitefly when first adults are noticed. Do not apply more than 4 times per season or apply more often than every 7 days.

Avaunt

(indoxacarb)

2.5-3.5 oz

12

3

beet armyworm, hornworms, loopers, southern armyworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, suppression of leafminers

22

Do not apply more than 14 ounces of product per acre per crop. Minimum spray interval is 5 days.

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pts, up to 3.5 pts, if needed

4

0

aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, stink bugs, thrips, weevils, whitefly

un

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, weevils, whitefly

un

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

*Baythroid XL

(beta-cyfluthrin)

1.6-2.8 fl oz

12

0

beet armyworm(1), cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, dipterous leafminers(2), European corn borer, flea beetles, hornworms, potato aphid, southern armyworm(1), stink bugs, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, variegated cutworm , western flower thrips, whitefly adults(2)

3

(1) 1st and 2nd instars only

(2) Suppression

Do not apply more than 16.8 fl oz per acre per season.

Belay 50 WDG (clothianidin)

1.6-2.1 oz (foliar application)

12

7

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, leafhoppers, leafminers (suppression), Lygus, stink bugs, whiteflies (suppression)

4A

Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant. Toxic to bees. Do not release irrigation water from the treated area.

Belay 50 WDG (clothianidin)

4.8-6.4 oz (soil application)

12

Apply at planting

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, leafhoppers, leafminers (suppression), Lygus, foliar feeding thrips, whiteflies (suppression)

4A

Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. See label for application instructions. Do not release irrigation water from the treated area.

Beleaf 50 SG (flonicamid)

2.0-2.8 oz

12

0

aphids, plant bugs

9C

Do not apply more than 8.4 oz/acre per season. Begin applications before pests reach damaging levels.

Belt SC (flubendiamide)

1.5 fl oz

12

1

Beet armyworm, cabbage looper, cutworm species, fall armyworm, southern armyworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato hornworm, tomato pinworm, yellow striped armyworm

28

Do not apply more than 1.5 oz per acre per 3 day interval. Do not apply more tha 4.5 oz per acre per crop season.

Biobit HP

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars (will not control large armyworms)

11

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used in the greenhouse. OMRI-listed2.

BotaniGard ES

(Beauveria bassiana)

Greenhouse: up to 3 quarts/100 gal.

Field: 0.5-1 quart per acre; see label for water volume

4

0

aphids, thrips, whitefly

--

May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides.

*Brigade 2EC

(bifenthrin)

2.1-5.2 fl oz

12

1

aphids, armyworms, corn earworm, cutworms, flea beetles, grasshoppers, mites, stink bug spp., tarnished plant bug, thrips, whitefly

3

Make no more than 4 applications per season. Do not make applications less than 10 days apart.

CheckMate TPW-F

(pheromone)

1.2-6.0 fl oz

0

0

tomato pinworm

--

For mating disruption -

See label.

Closer SC

(sulfoxaflor)

1.5-4.5 fl oz

12

1

aphids, plant bugs,sweetpotato whitefly, suppression of thrips

4C

Do not apply more than 4 times per crop or more than twice in succession. Maximum of 17 fl oz/acre per year.

Confirm 2F

(tebufenozide)

6-16 fl oz

4

7

armyworms, black cutworm, hornworms, loopers

18

Product is a slow‑acting IGR that will not kill larvae immediately. Do not apply more than 64 fl oz per acre per season.

Coragen

(rynaxypyr)

3.5-7.5 fl oz

4

1

beet armyworm, Colorado potato beetle, fall armyworm, hornworms, leafminer larvae, loopers, southern armyworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm

28

Can be applied by drip chemigation or as a soil application at planting. See label for details. Do not apply more than 15.4 fl oz per acre per crop.

Courier 40SC

(buprofezin)

9.0-13.6 fl oz

12

1

leafhoppers, mealybugs, planthoppers, whitefly nymphs

16

Apply when a threshold is reached of 5 whitefly nymphs per 10 leaflets from the middle of the plant. Product is a slow-acting IGR that will not kill nymphs immediately. No more than 2 applications per season. Allow at least 5 days between applications.

Crymax WDG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

armyworms, loopers, tomato fruitworm, tomato hornworm, tomato pinworm

11

Use high rate for armyworms. Treat when larvae are young.

*Danitol 2.4 EC (fenpropathrin)

10.67 fl oz

24

3 days, or 7 if mixed with Monitor 4

beet armyworm, cabbage looper, fruitworms, potato aphid, silverleaf whitefly, stink bugs, thrips, tobacco hornworm, tomato pinworm, twospotted spider mite, yellowstriped armyworm

3

Use alone for control of fruitworms, stink bugs, tobacco hornworm, twospotted spider mites, and yellowstriped armyworms. Tank‑mix with Monitor 4 for all others, especially whitefly. Do not apply more than 0.8 lb ai per acre per season. Do not tank mix with copper.

Deliver

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.25-1.5 lb

4

0

armyworms, cutworms, loopers, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm

11

Use higher rates for armyworms. OMRI-listed2.

*Diazinon AG500; *50 W

(diazinon)

AG500:

1-4 qt

50W: 2-8 lb

48

preplant

cutworms, mole crickets, wireworms

1B

Incorporate into soil - see label.

Dimethoate 4 EC

(dimethoate)

0.5-1.0 pt

48

7

aphids, leafhoppers, leafminers

1B

Will not control organophosphate-resistant leafminers.

DiPel DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used for organic production..

Durivo

(thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

10-13 fl oz

12

30

aphids, beet armyworm, Colorado potato beetle, fall armyworm, flea beetles, hornworms, leafhoppers, loopers, southern armyworm, thrips, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, whitefly, yellowstriped armywormm

4A, 28

Several methods of soil application – see label.

*Endigo ZC (lambda-cyhalothrin, thiamethoxam)

4.0-4.5 fl oz

24

5

aphids, blister beetles, cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, cucumber beetle adults, cutworms, fall, southern, and yellowstriped armyworm (1st and 2nd instars), flea beetles, grasshoppers, hornworms, leafhoppers, plant bugs, stink bugs, tomato fruitworm, vegetable weevil adult

3A, 4A

Do not exceed a total of 19.0 fl oz per acre per season. See label for limits on each active ingredient.

Entrust

(spinosad)

0.5-2.5 oz

4

1

armyworms, Colorado potato beetle, flower thrips, hornworms, Liriomyza leafminers, loopers, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm

5

Do not apply more than 9 oz per acre per crop. OMRI-listed2. For thrips, rotate to other class of effective insecticide after 2 applications of a Group 5 insecticide for at least 2 applications

Esteem Ant Bait

(pyriproxyfen)

1.5-2.0 lb

12

1

red imported fire ant

7C

Apply when ants are actively foraging.

Extinguish

((S)-methoprene)

1.0-1.5 lb

4

0

fire ants

7A

Slow‑acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks. May be applied by ground equipment or aerially.

Fulfill

(pymetrozine)

2.75 oz

12

0

green peach aphid, potato aphid, suppression of whitefly

9B

Do not apply more than 5.5 oz/acre per crop. (FL-040006) 24(c) label for growing transplants also (FL-03004).

Grandevo (Chromobacterium subtsugae)

1.0-3.0 lb

4

0

Armyworms, hornworms, loopers, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, variegated cutworm, aphids, mites, thrips, whiteflies

un

Thorough coverage is necessary for effective control.

*Hero

(Bifenthrin, zeta-cypermethrin)

4.5-11.2 oz

12

1

Armyworms, cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, cucumber beetle, cutworms, flea beetles, grasshoppers, hornworms, leafhoppers, stink bugs, tobacco budworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, vegetable leafminer, tthrips, twospotted spider mite, whiteflies

3

Check label for maximum seasonal totals.

Intrepid 2F

(methoxyfenozide)

4-16 fl oz

4

1

beet armyworm, cabbage looper, fall armyworm, hornworms, southern armyworm, tomato fruitworm, true armyworm, yellowstriped armyworm

18

Do not apply more than 64 fl oz per acre per season.

Product is a slow-acting IGR that will not kill larvae immediately.

Javelin WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.12-1.5 lb

4

0

most caterpillars, but not Spodoptera species (armyworms)

11

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. OMRI-listed2.

Kanemite 15SC (acequinocyl)

31 fl oz

12

1

twospotted spider mite

20B

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. OMRI-listed2.

Knack IGR

(pyriproxyfen)

8-10 fl oz

12

1

immature whitefly

7C

Apply when a threshold is reached of 5 nymphs per 10 leaflets from the middle of the plant. Product is a slow-acting IGR that will not kill nymphs immediately. Make no more than two applications per season. Treat whole fields.

Kryocide

(cryolite)

8-16 lb

12

14

armyworm, blister beetle, cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle larvae, flea beetles, hornworms, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm

un

Minimum of 7 days between applications. Do not apply more than 64 lbs per acre per season.

*Lannate LV, *SP

(methomyl)

LV:

1.5-3.0 pt

SP:

0.5-1.0 lb

48

1

aphids, armyworm, beet armyworm, fall armyworm, hornworms, loopers, southern armyworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, variegated cutworm

1A

Do not apply more than 21 pt LV/acre/crop (15 for tomatillos) or 7 lb SP/acre/crop (5 lb for

tomatillos).

Malathion 5

Malathion 8 F

(malathion)

1.0-2.5 pt

1.5-2 pt

12

1

aphids, Drosophila, mites

1B

Can be used in greenhouse (8F).

*Monitor 4EC

(methamidophos)

[24(c) labels]

FL-800046

FL-900003

1.5-2 pts

96

7

aphids, fruitworms, leafminers, tomato pinworm(1), whitefly(2)

1B

(1) Suppression only

(2) Use as tank mix with a pyrethroid for whitefly control.

Do not apply more than 8 pts per acre per crop season, nor within 7 days of harvest.

Movento

(spirotetramat)

4.0-5.0 fl oz

24

1

aphids, psyllids, whitefly

23

Maximum of 10 fl oz/acre per season.

M-Pede 49% EC

(Soap, insecticidal)

1-2% V/V

12

0

aphids, leafhoppers, mites, plant bugs, thrips, whitefly

--

OMRI-listed2.

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.4-4.3 oz

12

1

beet armyworm, cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, cutworms, fall armyworm, flea beetles, grasshoppers, green and brown stink bugs, hornworms, leafminers, leafhoppers, Lygus bugs, plant bugs, southern armyworm, tobacco budworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, true armyworm, yellowstriped armyworm. Aids in control of aphids, thrips and whitefly.

3

Not recommended for vegetable leafminer in Florida. Do not make applications less than 7 days apart. Do not apply more than 0.3 lb ai per acre per season.

Avoid the use of this product if western flower thrips have been a problem in the past.

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

aphids, armyworms, hornworms, psyllids, Colorado potato beetle, cutworms, leafminers, loopers, tomato fruitworm (corn earworm), tomato pinworm, whitefly

un

IGR, feeding repellant.

OMRI-listed2.

NoMate MEC TPW

(pheromone)

 

0

0

tomato pinworm

--

For mating disruption -

See label.

Oberon 2SC

(spiromesifen)

7.0-8.5 fl oz

12

1

broad mite, twospotted spider mite, whiteflies (eggs and nymphs)

23

Maximum amount per crop: 25.5 fl oz/acre. No more than 3 applications.

PFR-97 (Isaria fumosorosea Apopka strain 97)

1.0-2.0 lbs

4

0

Aphids, broad mites, rust mites, spider mites, leafminers, thrips, whiteflies

Repeat applications at 3-10 days are needed to maintain control. OMRI listed 2.

 

Platinum

Platinum 75 SG

(thiamethoxam)

5-11 fl oz

1.66-3.67 oz

12

30

aphids, Colorado potato beetles, flea beetles, leafhoppers, thrips, tomato pinworm, whitefly

4A

Soil application. See label for rotational restrictions. Do not use with other neonicotinoid insecticides

Portal

(fenpyroximate)

2.0 pt

12

1

mites, including broad mites

21A

Do not make more than two applications per growing season.

*Pounce 25 W

(permethrin)

3.2-12.8 oz

12

0

beet armyworm, cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, dipterous leafminers, granulate cutworm, hornworms, southern armyworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm

3

Do not apply to cherry or grape tomatoes (fruit less than 1 inch in diameter). Do not apply more than 0.6 lb ai per acre per season.

Avoid the use of this product if western flower thrips have been a problem in the past.

*Proaxis Insecticide

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

1.92-3.84 fl oz

24

5

aphids(1), beet armyworm(2), blister beetles, cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, cucumber beetles (adults), cutworms, hornworms, fall armyworm(2), flea beetles, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, plant bugs, southern armyworm(2), spider mites(1), stink bugs, thrips(1), tobacco budworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, vegetable weevil (adult), whitefly(1), yellowstriped armyworm(2)

3

(1) Suppression only.

(2) First and second instars only.

Do not apply more than 2.88 pints per acre per season.

Avoid the use of this product if western flower thrips have been a problem in the past.

*Proclaim

(emamectin benzoate)

2.4-4.8 oz

12

7

beet armyworm, cabbage looper, fall armyworm, hornworms, southern armyworm, tobacco budworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, yellowstriped armyworm

6

No more than 28.8 oz/acre per season.

Provado 1.6F (imidacloprid)

3.8-6.2 fl oz

12

0

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, leafhoppers, whitefly

4A

Do not apply to crop that has been already treated with imidacloprid or thiamethoxam at planting. Maximum per crop per season 19 fl oz per acre.

Pyganic Crop Protection EC 5.0 (pyrethrins)

4.5-18.0 fl oz

12

0

aphids, beetles, caterpillars, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, plant bugs, thrips, whiteflies

3

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight. Thorough coverage is important. OMRI-listed2.

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

5-10 fl oz

4

1

armyworms, Colorado potato beetle, flower thrips, hornworms, Liriomyza leafminers, loopers, Thrips palmi, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm

5

Maximum of 34 fl oz per acre per season. For thrips, if additional treatment is needed after two applications, switch to an alternate mode of action (not group 5) for at least two applications.

Requiem 25EC

(extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides)

2-4 qt

4

0

chili thrips, green peach aphid, Liriomyza leafminers, melon thrips, potato aphid, western flower thrips, silverleaf whitefly

un

Begin applications before pests reach damaging levels. Limited to 10 applications per crop cycle.

Rimon 0.83EC (novaluron)

9.0-12.0 fl oz

12

1

armyworms, Colorado potato beetle, foliage feeding caterpillars, loopers, tomato fruitworm, tomato hornworm, tomato pinworm, stink bugs, thrips, whiteflies (immatures only)

Do not apply more than 36 fl oz per acre per season. Minimum of 7 days between applications

For transplant production only. Can be applied as foliar spray or soil drench.

Safari 20 SG (dinotefuran)

7.0-14.0 oz

12

1

Aphids, leafminers, whiteflies

4A

For transplant production only. Can be applied as foliar spray or soil drench.

Sevin 80S; XLR; 4F

(carbaryl)

80S: 0.63-2.5

XLR; 4F: 0.5-2.0 A

12

3

Colorado potato beetle, cutworms, fall armyworm, flea beetles, lace bugs, leafhoppers, plant bugs, stink bugs(1), thrips(1), tomato fruitworm, tomato hornworm, tomato pinworm, sowbugs

1A

(1) suppression

Do not apply more than seven times. Do not apply a total of more than 10 lb or 8 qt per acre per crop.

10% Sevin Granules

(carbaryl)

20 lb

12

3

ants, centipedes, crickets, cutworms, earwigs, grasshoppers, millipedes, sowbugs, springtails

1A

Maximum of 4 applications, not more often than once every 7 days.

Sulfur (many brands)

See label

24

see label

tomato russet mite, twospotted spider mite

--

May burn fruit and foliage when temperature is high. Do not apply within 2 weeks of an oil spray or EC formulation.

Synapse WG

(flubendiamide)

2-3 oz

12

1

armyworms, hornworms, loopers, tomato fruitworm

28

Do not apply more than 9 oz/acre per season.

*Telone C-35 (dichloropropene + chloropicrin)

See label

5 days (See label)

preplant

garden centipedes (symphylans), wireworms

--

See supplemental label for restrictions in certain Florida counties.

*Telone II

(dichloropropene)

*Thionex EC

(endosulfan)

0.66-1.33 qt

48

2

aphids, blister beetle, cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, hornworms, stink bugs, tomato fruitworm, tomato russet mite, whitefly, yellowstriped armyworm

2

Do not exceed a maximum of 2.0 lb active ingredient per acre per season or apply more than 4 times.

Trigard

(cyromazine)

2.66 oz

12

0

Colorado potato beetle (suppression of), leafminers

17

No more than 6 applications per crop. Does not control CPB adults. Most effective against 1st & 2nd instar larvae.

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

0.5-1.0% V/V

4

0

aphids, mites, suppression of thrips and whitefly

un

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. Do not exceed 2 gal/acre per application. OMRI-listed2.

Ultra-Fine Oil, Saf-T-Side, others

JMS Stylet-Oil (oil, insecticidal)

1-2 gal/100 gal

3-6 qt/100 gal water

(JMS)

4

0

aphids, beetle larvae, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, thrips, whitefly, aphid-transmitted viruses (JMS)

--

Do not exceed four applications per season.

Organic Stylet-Oil and Saf-

T-Side are OMRI-listed2.

Venom Insecticide

(dinotefuran)

foliar: 1-4 oz

12

1

cucumber beetles, grasshoppers, stink bugs, suppression of green peach and potato aphids

4A

Use only one application method (soil or foliar). Limited to three applications per season. Toxic to honeybees.

Venom Insecticide (dinotefuran)

soil: 5.0-6.0 oz

12

21

Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, whiteflies, suppression of green peach and potato aphids

 

Use only one application method (soil or foliar). Must have supplemental label for rates over 6.0 oz/acre.

Vetica

(flubendiamide and buprofezin)

12.0-17.0 fl oz

12

1

armyworms, cabbage looper, cutworms, garden webworm, suppression of leafhoppers and mealybugs, saltmarsh caterpillar, tobacco budworm, tomato hornworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, suppression of whiteflies

28, 16

Do not apply more than 3 times per season or apply more than 38 fl oz per acre per season. Same active ingredients as Synapse, Coragen, and Courier.

Voliam Flexi

(thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

4-7 oz

12

1

aphids, beet armyworm, Colorado potato beetle, fall armyworm, flea beetles, hornworms, leafhoppers, loopers, southern armyworm, stink bugs, tobacco budworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, whitefly, yellowstriped armyworm, suppression of leafminer

4A, 28

Do not use in greenhouses or on transplants. Do not use if seed has been treated with thiamethoxam or if other Group 4A insecticides will be used. Highly toxic to bees. Do not exceed 14 oz per acre per season, or 0.172 lb ai of thiamethoxam-containing products or 0.2 lb ai of chlorantraniliprole-containing products per acre per season.

*Voliam Xpress

(lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorantraniliprole)

5.0 – 9.0 fl oz

24

5

armyworm, beet armyworm, cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, corn earworm, cutworms, cucumber beetle adults, fall armyworm, grasshoppers, hornworms, leafhoppers, leafminers, plant bugs, southern armyworm, stink bugs, tobacco budworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, vegetable weevil adults, yellowstriped armyworm, suppression of aphids and whiteflies

3, 28

Highly toxic to bees. Do not exceed a total of 31 oz of Voliam Xpress per acre per season. Do not use in areas where western flower thrips is expected to be present.

*Vydate L

(oxamyl)

foliar: 2-4 pt

48

3

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, leafminers (except Liriomyza trifolii), whitefly (suppression only)

1A

Do not apply more than 32 pts per acre per season.

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96-1.92 fl oz

24

5

aphids(1), beet armyworm(2), cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, cutworms, fall armyworm(2), flea beetles, grasshoppers, hornworms, leafhoppers, leafminers(1), plant bugs, southern armyworm(2), stink bugs, thrips(3), tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, whitefly(1), vegetable weevil adults, yellowstriped armyworm(2)

3

(1) suppression only

(2) for control of 1st and 2nd instars only.

Do not apply more than 0.36 lb ai per acre per season.

(3)Does not control western flower thrips.

Avoid the use of this product if western flower thrips have been a problem in the past.

Xentari DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

0.5-2 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. May be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production. OMRI-listed2.

The pesticide information presented in this table was current with federal and state regulations at the time of revision. The user is responsible for determining the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow label instructions.

1Mode of Action codes for vegetable pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode ofAction Classification v.7.2 February 2012. http://www.irac-online.org/wp-content/uploads/MoA-classification.pdf

1A. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Carbamates (nerve action)

1B. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Organophosphates (nerve action)

2A. GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists (nerve action)

3A. Sodium channel modulators—pyrethroids

4A. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists (nerve action)

5. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric activators—spinosins (nerve action)

6. Chloride channel activators (nerve and muscle action)

7A. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation)

7C. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation)

9B & 9C. Selective homopteran feeding blockers

10B. Mite growth inhibitors (growth regulation)

11A. Microbial disruptors of insect midgut membranes

12B. Inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase (energy metabolism)

15. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 0, lepidopteran (growth regulation)

16. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 1, homopteran (growth regulation)

17. Molting disruptor, dipteran (growth regulation)

18. Ecdysone receptor agonists (growth regulation)

20B. Mitochondrial complex III electron transport inhibitors (energy metabolism)

21A. Mitochondrial complex I electron transport inhibitors (energy metabolism)

22. Voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers (nerve action)

23. Inhibitors of acetyl Co-A carboxylase (lipid synthesis, growth regulation)

28. Ryanodine receptor modulators (nerve and muscle action)

un. Compounds of unknown or uncertain mode of action

2OMRI-listed by the Organic Materials Review Institure for Organic Production.

*Restricted Use Pesticide

Table 13. 

Selected insecticides approved for use on insects attacking peppers.

Trade Name

(Common Name)

Rate

(product/acre)

REI

(hours)

Days to Harvest

Insects

MOA Code1

Notes

Acramite-50WS

(bifenazate)

0.75-1.0 lb

12

3

twospotted spider mite

un

One application per season.

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

2.0-5.5 oz

12

0

aphids, flea beetles, pepper weevil, stink bugs, whitefly

4A

Toxic to bees. Maximum of 11 oz/acre per season.

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

(for rates for other brands, see labels)

7-14.0 fl oz

12

21

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, foliage- feeding thrips, leafhoppers, whitefly

4A

Most effective if applied to soil at transplanting.

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

0.44 fl oz/10,000 plants

12

21 (soil)

aphids, whitefly

4A

Planthouse: 1 application to transplants. See label.

Agree WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

armyworms, hornworms, loopers, tomato fruitworm

11

Apply when larvae are small for best control. Can be used in greenhouse. OMRI-listed2.

*Agri-Mek SC

(abamectin)

1.7-3.5 fl oz

12

7

broad mite, Liriomyza leafminers, spider mites, Thrips palmi

6

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications. Must be used with a non-ionic activator type wetting, spreading, or penetrating adjuvant.

*Ambush 25W

(permethrin)

6.4-12.8 oz

12

7

cabbage looper, flea beetles, pepper weevil, vegetable leafminer

3

Do not apply more than 1.6 lb ai/acre per season. Bell peppers only. Do not use in areas where western flower thrips are expected to be present.

*Asana XL (0.66EC) (esfenvalerate)

5.8-9.6 fl oz

12

7

Colorado potato beetle, corn earworm, cucumber beetles (adults), European corn borer, flea beetles, loopers, southern armyworm, aids in control of beet armyworm and pepper weevil

3

Do not apply more than 0.35 lb ai per acre per season, or treat more than 7 times at high rate. Do not use in areas where western flower thrips are expected to be present.

Assail 30SG (acetamiprid)

1.5-4.0 oz

12

7

aphids, pepper weevil, thrips, whitefly

 

Begin applications for whitefly when first adults are noticed. Do not apply more than 4 times per season or apply more often than every 7 days.

Avaunt

(indoxacarb)

2.5-3.5 oz

12

3

beet armyworm, loopers, southern armyworm, tomato fruitworm

22

Minimum spray interval is 5 days. Do not use more than 14 ounces of product per acre per crop.

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pts, up to 3.5 pts, if needed

4

0

aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, stink bugs, thrips, weevils, whitefly

un

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, weevils, whitefly

un

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

*Baythroid XL

(beta-cyfluthrin)

1.6-2.8 fl oz

12

7

beet armyworm (1), cabbage looper, corn earworm, garden webworm, leafhoppers, leafminers (2), pepper weevil (2), stink bugs, thrips (except Thrips palmi) Avoid the use of this product if western flower thrips have been a problem in the past.

3

(1) 1st and 2nd instars only

(2) aids in suppression

Do not apply more than 0.132 lb ai per acre per season. Do not use in areas where western flower thrips are expected to be present.

Belay 50 WDG (clothianidin)

1.6-3.2 oz

12

7

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, leafhoppers, leafminers (suppression), Lygus, pepper weevil, stink bugs, whiteflies (suppression)

4A

Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant. Toxic to bees. Do not release irrigation water from the treated area. Supplemental label (expires12-30-13) for rates above 2.1 oz per acre.

Belay 50 WDG (clothianidin)

4.8 -6.4 oz

(soil application)

12

Apply at planting

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, leafhoppers, leafminers (suppression), Lygus, foliar feeding thrips, whiteflies (suppression)

4A

Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. See label for application instructions. Do not release irrigation water from the treated area.

Beleaf 50 SG

(flonicamid)

2.0-2.8 oz

12

0

aphids, plant bugs

9C

Do not apply more than 8.4 oz/acre per season. Begin applications before pests reach damaging levels.

Belt SC (flubendiamide)

1.5 fl oz

12

1

armyworms,cutworms, garden webworm, hornworms, loopers,saltmarsh caterpillar, tomato fruitworm

28

Do not apply more than 4.5 fl oz per acre per season.

Biobit HP

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars (will not control large armyworms)

11

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used in the greenhouse. OMRI-listed2.

BotaniGard 22 WP, ES

(Beauveria bassiana)

WP:

0.5-2 lb 100/gal

ES:

0.5-2 qt 100/gal

4

0

aphids, thrips, whitefly

--

May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides.

*Brigade 2EC

(bifenthrin)

2.1-6.4 fl oz

12

7

armyworms, corn earworm, cucumber beetles, cutworms, leafminers, loopers, mites, pepper weevil, thrips, whitefly

3

Do not make applications less than 7 days apart. Do not apply more than 0.2 lb active ingredient per acre per season. Do not use in areas where Western flower thrips are expected to be present.

Closer SC

(sulfoxaflor)

1.5-4.5 fl oz

12

1

aphids, plant bugs,sweetpotato whitefly, suppression of thrips

4C

Do not apply more than 4 times per crop or more than twice in succession. Maximum of 17 fl oz/acre per year.

Confirm 2F

(tebufenozide)

6-16 fl oz

4

7

beet armyworm, black cutworm, cabbage looper, fall armyworm, southern armyworm, tobacco hornworm, tomato hornworm, true armyworm, yellowstriped armyworm

18

Do not apply more than 1.0 lb ai per acre per season.

Coragen

(rynaxypyr)

3.5-7.5 fl oz

4

1

beet armyworm, Colorado potato beetle, fall armyworm, hornworms, leafminer larvae, loopers, southern armyworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm

28

Can be applied by drip chemigation or as a soil application at planting. See label. For hornworms, can use as little as 2.0 fl oz/acre when applied as a foliar spray.

Courier 40SC

(buprofezin)

9-13.6 fl oz

12

1

leafhoppers, mealybugs, planthoppers, whitefly nymphs

16

Product is a slow-acting IGR that will not kill nymphs immediately. No more than 2 applications per season. Allow at least 5 days between applications.

Crymax WDG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11

Use high rate for armyworms. Treat when larvae are young.

*Danitol 2.4 EC (fenpropathrin)

10.67 fl oz

24

3

stink bug, tobacco hornworm, tomato fruitworm, twospotted spider mite, yellowstriped armyworm

3A

Maximum of 4 applications (0.8 lb ai/acre) per season.

Deliver

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-1.25 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11

Use higher rates for armyworms. OMRI-listed2.

Dibrom 8EC

(naled)

1 pt

48

1

aphids, blister beetle, flea beetles, leafminers, mites

1B

Apply no more than 1 pt/acre in Florida. Do not apply when temperature is over 90°F.

Dimethoate 4EC

(dimethoate)

4EC:

0.5-0.67 pt

48

2 - 4EC

aphids, leafminers

1B

Highly toxic to bees.

*Dimilin 25 W, 2 L

(diflubenzuron)

4-8 oz

12

7

foliage feeding caterpillars, pepper weevil (reduces hatching of eggs produced by adults that have consumed treated foliage)

15

Up to 5 applications per season, but no more than 24 oz per acre per season. IGR - effects not seen for 5-7 days.

DiPel DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. OMRI-listed2.

*Durivo

(thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

10-13 fl oz

12

30

aphids, beet armyworm, Colorado potato beetle, fall armyworm, flea beetles, hornworms, leafhoppers, loopers, southern armyworm, thrips, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, whitefly, yellowstriped armyworm

5

Several methods of soil application- see label.

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

1.5-10 fl oz

4

1

armyworms, flower thrips, hornworms, leafminers, loopers, other caterpillars, Thrips palmi, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm

5

Do not use more than 29 oz per acre per crop. Do not apply to seedlings grown for transplant.

Esteem Ant Bait

(pyriproxyfen)

1.5-2.0 lb

12

1

red imported fire ant

7C

Apply when ants are actively foraging.

Extinguish

((S)-methoprene)

1.0-1.5 lb

4

0

fire ants

7A

Slow-acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks. May be applied by ground equipment or aerially.

Fulfill

(pymetrozine)

2.75 oz

12

0

green peach aphid, potato aphid, suppression of whitefly

9B

Do not make more than two applications.

Grandevo Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1

1-3 lb

4

0

armyworms, hornworms, loopers, saltmarsh caterpillar, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, varigated cutworm

--

Can be used in organic production. OMRI-listed2.

Intrepid 2F

(methoxyfenozide)

4-16 fl oz

4

1

beet armyworm, cabbage looper, fall armyworm, hornworms, southern armyworm, tomato fruitworm, true armyworm, yellowstriped armyworm

18

Do not apply more than 64 fl oz per acre per season.

Javelin WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.12-1.50 lb

4

0

most caterpillars, but not Spodoptera species (armyworms)

11

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential.

OMRI-listed2.

Kanemite 15 SC

(acequinocyl)

31 fl oz

12

1

twospotted spider mite

20B

Allow a minimum of 21 days between treatments. Do not make more than two applications per year. Do not use an adjuvant.

Knack IGR

(pyriproxyfen)

8-10 fl oz

12

1

whitefly (immature)

7C

Do not make more than 2 applications per growing season. See supplemental label for PHI.

*Lannate LV, *SP (methomyl)

LV: 0.75-3.0 pt

SP: 0.25-1.0 lb

48

3

armyworms, beet armyworm, fall armyworm, green peach aphid, loopers, variegated cutworm

1A

No more than 10 applications per crop or 15 pt LV or 5 lb SP/

acre/crop.

Lorsban 75WG,

(chlorpyrifos)

[24(c) label]

SLN FL-040005

1.33 lb

24

7

beet armyworm

1B

Do not apply within 10 days of transplanting or to plants under severe heat or drought stress. Do not make more than 8 applications.

Malathion 8F

(malathion)

1.5 pt

12

3

aphids

1B

Maximum of 2 applications per year.

Movento

(spirotetramat)

4.0-5.0 fl oz

24

1

aphids, psyllids, whitefly

23

Maximum of 10 fl oz per acre per season.

M-Pede 49% EC

Soap, insecticidal

1-2% V/V

12

0

aphids, leafhoppers, mites, plant bugs, thrips, whitefly

--

OMRI-listed2.

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

aphids, armyworms, cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, corn earworm, cutworms, hornworms, leafminers, thrips, tomato pinworm, tomato fruitworm, weevils, whitefly

un

OMRI-listed2.

Oberon 2SC

(spiromesifen)

7.0-8.5 fl oz

12

7

broad mite, twospotted spider mite, whiteflies (eggs & nymphs)

23

Maximum amount per crop: 25.5 fl oz/acre. No more than 3 applications.

Orthene 97

(acephate)

0.25-1.00 lb—bell peppers

24

7

cabbage looper, grasshoppers, green peach aphid, tobacco hornworm

1B

Do not apply more than 2 lb ai per acre per season or 1 lb ai per acre per season for non-bell peppers

Platinum

Platinum 75 SG

(thiamethoxam)

5-11 fl oz

1.66-3.67 oz

12

30

aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, thrips, whitefly

4A

Soil application. See label for rotational restrictions.

Portal

(fenpyroximate)

2.0 pt

12

1

mites, including broad mites

whitefiles

21A

Do not make more than two applications per season.

*Pounce 25 W (permethrin)

6.4-12.8 oz

12

3

cabbage looper, corn earworm, cutworms, flea beetles, leafminers, pepper weevil

3A

Do not apply more than 0.8 lb ai per acre per season.

*Proclaim

(emamectin benzoate)

2.4-4.8 oz

12

7

beet armyworm, cabbage looper, fall armyworm, hornworms, southern armyworm, tobacco budworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, yellowstriped armyworm

6

No more than 28.8 oz/acre per season.

Prokil Cryolite 96

(cryolite)

10-12 lb

12

7 (SLN)

armyworms, cabbage looper, flea beetle, hornworms, pepper weevil

un

Do not exceed 24 lb per acre per crop. Must have supplemental label: FL-200011

Provado 1.6F (imidacloprid)

3.8- 6.2 oz

12

0

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, leafhoppers, pepper weevil, whitefly

4A

Do not apply to crop that has been treated with imidacloprid or thiamethoxam. Do not apply more than 19 ozs per acre as foliar spray.

Pyganic Crop Protection EC 5.0

4.5-18 fl oz

12

0

aphids, beetles, caterpillars, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, plant bugs, thrips, whiteflies

3

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight. Thorough coverage is important. OMRI-listed2.

Radiant

(spinetoram)

5-10 fl oz

4

1

armyworms, Colorado potato beetle, flower thrips, hornworms, Liriomyza leafminers, loopers, Thrips palmi, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm

5

Maximum of 34 fl oz per acre per season.

Requiem 25EC

(extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides)

2-4 qts

4

0

chili thrips, green peach aphid, leafminers, melon thrips, potato aphid, western flower thrips, silverleaf whitefly

un

Begin before pest reach damaging levels.

Rimon 0.83EC (novaluron)

9-12 fl oz

12

1

ge feeding caterpillars, leafminers, pepper weevil, stink bugs, thrips, whiteflies

15

Do not apply more than 36 fl oz per acre per season. Do not use with an adjuvant.

Scorpion 35SL Insecticide (dinotefuranl)

Foliar: 2-7 fl oz

Soil: 9-10.5 fl oz

12

foliar - 1, soil - 21

brown stink bug, Colorado potato beetle, cucumber beetles, flea beetles, grasshoppers, green stink bug, leafhoppers, leafminers, pepper weevil, psyllids, southern green stink bug, thrips, whiteflies, suppression of green peach aphid and potato aphid

4A

Do not apply more than 10.5 fl oz per acre per season as foliar sprays or more than 21 fl oz to soil. Use only one application method

Sevin 80S; XLR; 4F

(carbaryl)

80S: 0.63-2.5 lb

XLR; 4F: 0.5-2.0 qt

12

3

Colorado potato beetle, cutworms, fall armyworm, flea beetles, lace bugs, leafhoppers, stink bugs (suppression), tarnished plant bug, thrips (suppression), tomato fruitworm, tomato hornworm, tomato pinworm

1A

Do not apply more than seven times. Do not apply a total or more than 10 lb or 8 qt per acre per crop.

Trigard

(cyromazine)

2.66 oz

12

0

leafminers

17

No more than 6 applications per crop.

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

0.5-1.0% V/V

4

0

aphids, mites, suppression of thrips and whitefly

un

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment.

OMRI-listed2.

Ultra-Fine Oil,

JMS Stylet-Oil,

Saf-T-Side,

others

(oil, insecticide)

3-6 qt/100 gal (JMS)

1-2 gal/100 gal

4

0

aphids, beetle larvae, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, thrips, whiteflies

--

Stylet-Oil helps manage aphid-borne viruses but does not kill aphids. Organic Stylet-Oil and Saf-T-Side are OMRI- listed2.

Venom Insecticide

(dinotefuran)

foliar:

1-4 oz

soil:

5-6 oz

12

foliar: 1

soil: 21

Foliar: brown stink bug, cucumber beetles, grasshopper, green stink bug, southern green stink bug, suppression of green peach aphid and potato aphid

Soil: flea beetle, grasshopper, thrips, whiteflies, suppression of aphids

4A

Use only one application method (soil or foliar). No more than 3 applications per season. No more than 6 oz (foliar) or 12 oz (soil) per acre per season.

Vetica

(flubendiamide and buprofezin)

12.0-17.0 fl oz

12

1

armyworms, cabbage looper, cutworms, garden webworm, leafhoppers, saltmarsh caterpillar, tobacco budworm, tomato hornworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, whiteflies

28, 16

Do not apply more than 3 times per season or apply more than 38 fl oz per acre per season. Use 14 to 17 fl oz per acre to control whiteflies, leafhoppers, and planthoppers.

Voliam Flexi

(thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

4-7 oz

12

1

aphids, beet armyworm, Colorado potato beetle, fall armyworm, flea beetles, hornworms, leafhoppers, loopers, southern armyworm, stink bugs, tobacco budworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, whitefly, yellowstriped armyworm, suppression of leafminer

4A, 28

.

Do not use in greenhouses or on transplants. Do not use if seed has been treated with thiamethoxam or if other Group 4A insecticides will be used. Highly toxic to bees. Do not exceed 14 oz per acre per season, or 0.172 lb ai of thiamethoxam-containing products or 0.2 lb ai of chlorantraniliprole-containing products per acre per season.

*Vydate L

(oxamyl)

foliar: 2-4 pt

48

7

green peach aphid, leafminers, pepper weevil, thrips

1A

Do not apply more than 24 pt per acre per season.

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96-1.92 fl oz

24

5

armyworms (1st & 2nd instar), cutworms, grasshoppers, hornworms, leafhoppers, loopers, plant bugs, stink bugs, thrips(1), tomato fruitworm, vegetable weevil.

Suppression of aphids, mites, whitefly

3A

Do not apply more than 0.36 lb ai/acre per season.

(1) Does not control western flower thrips.

Do not use in areas where western flower thrips are expected to be present.

Xentari DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11A

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. May be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production.

Zeal Miticide

(etoxazole)

2-3 oz

12

7

twospotted spider mite

10B

Do not make more than one application per season. Do not use with an adjuvant or surfactant.

The pesticide information presented in this table was current with federal and state regulations at the time of revision. The user is responsible for determining the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow label instructions.

1Mode of Action codes for vegetable pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode ofAction Classification v.7.2 February 2012. http://www.irac-online.org/wp-content/uploads/MoA-classification.pdf

1A. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Carbamates (nerve action)

1B. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Organophosphates (nerve action)

2A. GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists (nerve action)

3A. Sodium channel modulators—pyrethroids

4A. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists (nerve action)

5. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric activators—spinosins (nerve action)

6. Chloride channel activators (nerve and muscle action)

7A. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation)

7C. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation)

9B & 9C. Selective homopteran feeding blockers

10B. Mite growth inhibitors (growth regulation)

11A. Microbial disruptors of insect midgut membranes

12B. Inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase (energy metabolism)

15. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 0, lepidopteran (growth regulation)

16. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 1, homopteran (growth regulation)

17. Molting disruptor, dipteran (growth regulation)

18. Ecdysone receptor agonists (growth regulation)

20B. Mitochondrial complex III electron transport inhibitors (energy metabolism)

21A. Mitochondrial complex I electron transport inhibitors (energy metabolism)

22. Voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers (nerve action)

23. Inhibitors of acetyl Co-A carboxylase (lipid synthesis, growth regulation)

28. Ryanodine receptor modulators (nerve and muscle action)

un. Compounds of unknown or uncertain mode of action

2OMRI-listed by the Organic Materials Review Institure for Organic Production.

*Restricted Use Pesticide

Table 14. 

Selected insecticides approved for use on insects attacking eggplant.

Trade Name

(Common Name)

Rate

(product/acre)

REI

(hours)

Days to Harvest

Insects

MOA Code1

Notes

Acramite-50WS

(bifenazate)

0.75-1.0 lb

12

3

twospotted spider mite

un

One application per season.

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

2.0-5.5 oz

12

0

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, leafhoppers, stink bugs, whiteflies

4A

Maximum of 11 oz/acre per season. Do not use if a soil application of a neonicotinoid has been used.

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

7-10.5 fl oz

12

21

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, foliar-feeding thrips, leafhoppers, whiteflies

4A

Most effective if applied to soil at transplanting.

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

0.44 fl oz/10,000 plants

12

21

aphids, whiteflies

4A

Planthouse: 1 application. See label.

*Agri-Mek 0.15EC

(abamectin)

8-16 fl oz

12

7

broad mite, Colorado potato beetle, Liriomyza leafminers, spider mites, Thrips palmi, tomato pinworm, tomato russet mite

6

Do not use on transplants. No more than 2 sequential applications.

*Ambush 25W

(permethrin)

6.4-12.8 oz

12

3

cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, leafminers

3

Do not apply more than 2 lb ai per acre per season. (128 oz)

Do not use in areas where western flower thrips are expected to be present.

*Asana XL (0.66 EC) (esfenvalerate)

5.8-9.6 fl oz

12

7

Colorado potato beetle, corn earworm, flea beetle, loopers

3

Do not apply more than 0.35 lb ai per acre per season.

Do not use in areas where western flower thrips are expected to be present.

Assail 30 SG

(acetamiprid)

1.5-4.0 oz

12

7

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, thrips, whiteflies

4A

Begin applications for whiteflies when first adults are noticed. Do not apply more than 4 times per season or apply more often than every 7 days.

Avaunt

(indoxacarb)

2.5-3.5 oz

12

3

beet armyworm, loopers, southern armyworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm

22

Do not apply more than 14 oz of Avaunt per acre per crop. Minimum spray interval is 5 days.

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pts, up to 3.5 pts, if needed

4

0

aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, stink bugs, thrips, weevils, whiteflies

un

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 oz

4

0

aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, weevils, whiteflies

un

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator

*Baythroid XL

(beta-cyfluthrin)

1.6-2.8 fl oz

12

7

cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, garden symphylan, garden webworm, potato aphid, potato leafhopper, stink bugs, tomato fruitworm, tomato hornworm, beet and southern armyworm (1st and 2nd instar), thrips (except Thrips palmi), tomato pinworm, flea beetles

3

Do not apply at less than 7-day intervals, maximum amount per season: 16.8 fl oz per acre.

Do not use in areas where western flower thrips are expected to be present.

Belay 50 WDG clothianidin)

1.6-3.2 oz

12

7

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, leafhoppers, leafminers, (suppression), Lygus, stink bugs, whiteflies (suppression)

4A

Do not apply more than 6.4 oz/acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant. Toxic to bees. Do not release irrigation water from the treated area. Supplemental label (expires12-30-13) for rates above 2.1 oz per acre.

Belay 50 WDG clothianidin)

4.8-6.4 oz (soil application)

12

apply at planting

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, leafhoppers, leafminers, (suppression), ), Lygus, foliar feeding thrips, whiteflies (suppression)

4A

Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. See label for application instructions. Do not release irrigation water from the treated area.

Beleaf 50 SG

(flonicamid)

2.0-2.8 oz

12

0

aphids, plant bugs

9C

Do not apply more than 8.4 oz/acre per season. Begin applications before pests reach damaging levels.

Belt SC (flubendiamide)

1.5 fl oz

12

1

armyworms,cutworms, garden webworm, hornworms, loopers,saltmarsh caterpillar, tomato fruitworm

28

Do not apply more than 4.5 fl oz per acre per season.

Biobit HP

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars (will not control large armyworms)

11B

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used in the greenhouse. OMRI-listed2.

BotaniGard 22 WP,

(Beauveria bassiana)

WP:

0.5-2.0 lb/100 gal

ES:

0.5-2 qts/100 gal

4

0

aphids, thrips, whiteflies

--

May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides.

*Brigade 2EC

(bifenthrin)

2.1-6.4 fl oz

12

7

armyworms, cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, corn earworm, cucumber beetles, flea beetles, Lygus spp., mites, plant bugs, stink bugs, thrips, tomato hornworm, tomato pinworm, vegetable leafminer, whiteflies

3

Do not make applications less than 7 days apart. Do not apply more than 0.2 lb active ingredient per acre per season.

Do not use in areas where western flower thrips are expected to be present.

Checkmate TPW-F

(pheromone)

1.2-6.0 fl oz

0

0

tomato pinworm

--

For mating disruption. See label for details of use.

Closer SC

(sulfoxaflor)

1.5-4.5 fl oz

12

1

aphids, plant bugs,sweetpotato whitefly, suppression of thrips

4C

Do not apply more than 4 times per crop or more than twice in succession. Maximum of 17 fl oz/acre per year.

Confirm 2F

(tebufenozide)

6-16 fl oz

4

7

beet armyworm, black cutworm, cabbage looper, fall armyworm, southern armyworm, tobacco hornworm, tomato hornworm, true armyworm, yellowstriped armyworm

18

Do not apply more than 16 ounces per application or more than 64 ounces product per season.

Coragen

(rynaxypyr)

3.5-7.5

4

1

beet armyworm, Colorado potato beetle, fall armyworm, hornworms, leafminer larvae, loopers, southern armyworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm

28

May be applied by drip chemigation - see label.

Courier 40SC

(buprofezin)

9.0-13.6 fl oz

12

1

leafhoppers, mealybugs, planthoppers, whiteflies

16

Immature insects only. No more than 2 applications per crop cycle.

Crymax WDG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11A

Use high rate for armyworms. Treat when larvae are young. Not for organic production.

Danitol 2.4 EC

(fenpropathrin)

10.67 fl oz

24

3

stink bug, tobacco hornworm, tomato fruitworm, twospotted spider mite, yellowstriped armyworm

3A

Maximum of 4 applications (0.8 lb ai/acre) per season.

Deliver

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.25-1.5 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11A

Use higher rates for armyworms. OMRI-listed2.

Dibrom 8 EC

(naled)

1 pt

48

1

aphids, blister beetles, flea beetles, leafminers, mites

1B

Apply no more than 1 pt/acre in Florida. Do not apply when temperature is over 90°F.

DiPel DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11A

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used in greenhouses. OMRI-listed2.

*Durivo

(thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

10-13 oz

12

30

aphids, beet armyworms, Colorado potato beetle, fall armyworm, flea beetles, hornworms, leafhoppers, loopers, southern armyworm, thrips, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, whiteflies, yellowstriped armyworm

4A, 28

May be applied to soil by one of several methods—see label.

Entrust

(spinosad)

1.5-10 fl oz

4

1

armyworms, Colorado potato beetle, flower thrips, hornworms, leafminers, loopers, other caterpillars, Thrips palmi, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, suppression of flea beetles

5

Do not use more than 29 oz per acre per crop. Do not apply to seedlings grown for transplant. OMRI-listed2.

Esteem Ant Bait

(pyriproxyfen)

1.5-2.0 lb

12

1

red imported fire ant

7C

Apply when ants are actively foraging.

Extinguish

((S)-methoprene)

1.0-1.5 lb

4

0

fire ants

7A

Slow‑acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks. May be applied by ground equipment or aerially.

Fulfill

(pymetrozine)

2.75 oz

12

0

green peach aphid, potato aphid, suppression of whiteflies

9B

Apply before populations build to damaging levels. Minimum of 7 days between applications. Do not make more than two applications.

Grandevo

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1

1-3 lb

4

0

armyworms, hornworms, loopers, saltmarsh caterpillar, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, varigated cutworm

_

Can be used in organic production. OMRI-listed2.

Intrepid 2F

(methoxyfenozide)

4-16 fl oz

4

1

beet armyworm, cabbage looper, fall armyworm, hornworms, southern armyworm, tomato fruitworm, true armyworm, yellowstriped armyworm

18

Do not apply more than 16 oz per application or more than 64 oz product per season.

Javelin WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.12-1.50 lb

4

0

most caterpillars, but not Spodoptera species (armyworms)

11A

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. OMRI-listed2.

Kanemite 15 SC (acequinocy)

31 fl oz

12

1

twospotted spider mite

20B

Allow a minimum of 21 days between treatments. Do not make more than two applications per year. Do not use an adjuvant.

Knack IGR

(pyriproxyfen)

8-10 fl oz

12

1

immature whiteflies

7C

Apply when nymphs first appear. Make no more than two applications.

*Lannate LV; *SP

(methomyl)

LV:

0.75-3.0 pt

SP:

0.25-1.0 lb

48

5

beet armyworm, corn earworm, green peach aphid, tomato pinworm (ground application only)

1A

No more than 10 applications per crop and no more than 15 pt LV/acre/crop or 5 lb SP.

Malathion 8F

(malathion)

1.56 pt

12

3

aphids, lace bugs, spider mites

1B

Maximum number of applications is 4. greenhouse.

Movento

(spirotetramat)

4.0-5.0 fl oz

24

1

aphids, psyllids, whiteflies

23

Maximum of 10 fl oz per acre per season.

M-Pede 49% EC

Soap, insecticidal

1-2% V/V

12

0

aphids, leafhoppers, mites, plant bugs, thrips, whiteflies

--

OMRI-listed2.

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.4-4.3 oz

12

1

brown stink bugs, cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, cutworms, fall armyworm, flea beetles, grasshoppers, green stink bugs, hornworms, leafhoppers, pepper weevil, plant bugs, southern armyworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, true armyworm, yellowstriped armyworm

3A

Do not make applications less than 7 days apart. Do not apply more than 0.3 lb ai/acre per season.

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

aphids, armyworms, cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, cutworms, hornworms, leafminers, saltmarsh caterpillar, tomato fruitworm (corn earworm), tomato pinworm, whiteflies

un

IGR and feeding repellant. OMRI-listed2.

Oberon 2SC

(spiromesifen)

7.0-8.5 fl oz

12

7

broad mites, twospotted spider mite, whiteflies (eggs and nymphs)

23

Maximum amount per crop: 25.5 fl oz/acre. No more than 3 applications.

Platinum

Platinum 75SG

(thiamethoxam)

5.0-11.0 fl oz

1.66-3.67 oz

12

30

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, leafhoppers, thrips, tomato pinworm, whiteflies

4A

For most crops that are not on the label, a 120-day plant-back interval must be observed. To manage resistance, avoid using Provado or other related pesticides (Actara, Assail) in conjunction with Platinum.

Portal

(fenpyroximate)

2.0 pt

12

1

mites, including broad mites

21A

Do not make more than 2 applications per season.

*Pounce 25 W (permethrin)

6.4-9.6 oz

12

3

cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, vegetable leafminer

3A

Do not apply more than 0.6 lbs ai/acre per season. Do not use in areas where western flower thrips are expected to be present.

*Proaxis Insecticide

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

1.92-3.84 fl oz

24

5

Aphids(1), beet armyworm(2), blister beetles, cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, cucumber beetles (adults), cutworms, hornworms, fall armyworm(2), flea beetles, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, plant bugs, southern armyworm(2), spider mites(1), stink bugs, thrips(1), tobacco budworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, vegetable weevil (adult), whiteflies(1), yellowstriped armyworm(2)

3A

(1)Suppression only.

(2) First and second instars only.

Do not apply more than 2.88 pints per acre per season.

*Proclaim

(emamectin benzoate)

2.4-4.8 oz

12

7

beet armyworm, cabbage looper, fall armyworm, hornworms, southern armyworm, tobacco budworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, yellowstriped armyworm

6

No more than 28.8 oz/acre per season.

Provado 1.6F (imidacloprid)

3.8-6.2 oz

12

0

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, leafhoppers, whiteflies

4A

Do not apply if imidacloprid or thiamethoxam have been used at planting.

Radiant

(spinetoram)

5-10 fl oz

4

1

armyworms (except yellowstriped armyworm), Colorado potato beetle, flower thrips, hornworms, Liriomyza leafminers, loopers, Thrips palmi, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm

5

Maximum of 34 fl oz per acre per season.

Requiem 25EC

(extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides)

2-4 qt

4

0

chili thrips, Florida flower thrips, eastern flower thrips, green peach aphid, suppression of leafminers, melon thrips, potato aphid, western flower thrips, silverleaf whitefly

un

Begin applications before pests reach damaging levels.

Rimon 0.83EC (novaluron)

9-12 fl oz

12

1

armyworms, Colorado potato beetle, foliage feeding caterpillars, leafminers, stink bugs, thrips, tomato pinworm, whiteflies

15

Do not apply more than 36 fl oz per acre per season. Do not use with an adjuvant.

Scorpion 35SL Insecticide (dinotefuranl)

Foliar: 2-7 fl oz

Soil: 9-10.5 fl oz

12

foliar - 1, soil - 21

brown stink bug, Colorado potato beetle, cucumber beetles, flea beetles, grasshoppers, green stink bug, leafhoppers, leafminers, psyllids, southern green stink bug, thrips, whiteflies, suppression of green peach aphid and potato aphid

4A

Do not apply more than 10.5 fl oz per acre per season as foliar sprays or more than 21 fl oz to soil. Use only one application method

Sevin 80 S; XLR; 4F

(carbaryl)

80S: 0.63-2.5 lb

XLR, 4F: 0.5-2 qt

12

3

Colorado potato beetle, cutworms, fall armyworm, flea beetles, lace bugs, leafhoppers, stink bugs (suppression), Colorado potato beetle, cutworms, fall armyworm, flea beetles, lace bugs, leafhoppers, stink bugs (suppression), tarnished plant bug, thrips (suppression), tomato fruitworm, tomato hornworm, tomato pinworm plant bug, thrips (suppression), tomato fruitworm, tomato hornworm, tomato pinworm

1A

Do not apply more than seven times. Do not apply more than 8 qt or 10 lb per acre per crop. Applications must be at least 7 days apart. Do not apply to crops or weeds in bloom.

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

0.5-2.0% V/V

4

0

aphids, mites, suppression of thrips and whiteflies

un

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed2.

Ultra-Fine Oil

JMS Stylet-Oil

Saf-T-Side

Others

(oil, insecticidal)

3-6 qts/100 gal (JMS)

1-2 gal/100 gal water

4

0

aphids, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, thrips, whiteflies. Aphid transmitted viruses (JMS)

--

Do not exceed four applications per season. Stylet-oil will not control aphids or beetles. Organic Stylet-Oil and Saf-T-Side are OMRI-listed2.

*Vendex 50 WP (fenbutatin-oxide)

2-3 lb

48

3

twospotted spider mite

12B

Apply when mites first appear, no more than 9 lb per year.

Venom Insecticide

(dinotefuran)

foliar: 1-4 oz

soil: 5-6 oz

12

foliar - 1

soil - 21

Colorado potato beetle, flea beetle, leafhopper, leafminer, thrips, whiteflies

4A

Do not use both application methods. Do not apply more than 6 oz, foliar; or 12 oz, soil, per season. No more than 3 applications per season.

Vetica

(flubendiamide and buprofezin)

12.0-17.0 fl oz

12

1

armyworms, cabbage looper, cutworms, garden webworm, leafhoppers, saltmarsh caterpillar, tobacco budworm, tomato hornworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, whiteflies

28, 16

Do not apply more than 3 times per season or apply more than 38 fl oz per acre per season. Use 14 to 17 fl oz per acre to control whiteflies, leafhoppers, and planthoppers. .

Voliam Flexi

(thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

4.0-7.0 oz

12

1

aphids, beet armyworm, Colorado potato beetle, fall armyworm, flea beetles, hornworms, leafhoppers, loopers, southern armyworm, stink bugs, tobacco budworm, tomato fruitworm, tomato pinworm, whiteflies, yellowstriped armyworm

4A/28

Limited to 14 oz/acre per year.

*Vydate L

(oxamyl)

2-4 pt (foliar)

48

1

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, leafminers, mites

1A

Do not apply more than 24 pt per acre per season.

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96-1.92 fl oz

24

5

armyworms (1st & 2nd instar), cutworms, grasshoppers, hornworms, leafhoppers, loopers, plant bugs, stink bugs, thrips(1), tomato fruitworm, vegetable weevil. Suppression of aphids, mites, whiteflies

3

Do not apply more than 0.36 lb ai/acre per season.

(1) Does not control western flower thrips.

Xentari DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. May be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production.

Zeal Miticide (etoxazole)

2-3 oz

12

7

twospotted spider mite

10B

Do not make more than one application per season. Do not use with an adjuvant or surfactant.

The pesticide information presented in this table was current with federal and state regulations at the time of revision. The user is responsible for determining the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow label instructions.

1Mode of Action codes for vegetable pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode ofAction Classification v.7.2 February 2012. http://www.irac-online.org/wp-content/uploads/MoA-classification.pdf

1A. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Carbamates (nerve action)

1B. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Organophosphates (nerve action)

2A. GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists (nerve action)

3A. Sodium channel modulators—pyrethroids

4A. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists (nerve action)

5. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric activators—spinosins (nerve action)

6. Chloride channel activators (nerve and muscle action)

7A. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation)

7C. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation)

9B & 9C. Selective homopteran feeding blockers

10B. Mite growth inhibitors (growth regulation)

11A. Microbial disruptors of insect midgut membranes

12B. Inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase (energy metabolism)

15. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 0, lepidopteran (growth regulation)

16. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 1, homopteran (growth regulation)

17. Molting disruptor, dipteran (growth regulation)

18. Ecdysone receptor agonists (growth regulation)

20B. Mitochondrial complex III electron transport inhibitors (energy metabolism)

21A. Mitochondrial complex I electron transport inhibitors (energy metabolism)

22. Voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers (nerve action)

23. Inhibitors of acetyl Co-A carboxylase (lipid synthesis, growth regulation)

28. Ryanodine receptor modulators (nerve and muscle action)

un. Compounds of unknown or uncertain mode of action

2OMRI-listed by the Organic Materials Review Institure for Organic Production.

*Restricted Use Pesticide

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENY-461 (IN169), one of a series of the Entomology & Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Published November 2001. Revised June 2013. For more publications related to horticulture/agriculture, please visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/.

2.

S. E. Webb, associate professor, Gainesville, P. A. Stansly, professor, Immokalee, D. J. Schuster, professor, Bradenton, and J. E. Funderburk, professor, Quincy, and H. Smith, assistant professor, Balm, Entomology and Nematology Department, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0640.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication does not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition. All chemicals should be used in accordance with directions on the manufacturer's label. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow directions on the manufacturer's label.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.