Figure 15. Shorten limbs a, b, and c because they are growing into the upper third of the canopy and they originate from the bottom half of the tree (left). Most, if not all, of these shortened limbs will eventually be removed from the tree as it grows in the landscape. They were shortened using reduction cuts (center). If the lateral branch left after making a reduction cut is too long, also shorten the lateral branch with a reduction cut (bottom detail). This essentially results in making two reduction cuts to accomplish subordination of a limb. Branch d was shortened because it was forming a codominant stem in the upper canopy (center).