Figure 8.4. Sequence of successional stages in an abandoned farm field in the southeastern U.S. over time. During the first years (8.1) the area is colonized by a mixture of pioneer species (8.2). This stage is gradually replaced by a shrub-pine community (8.3). In about 150-200 years, without further disturbances, an oak-hickory forest may replace the pine forest (8.4).
Credit: USDA Forest Service