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FOR93: Chapter 4: Plant Succession and Disturbances in the Urban Forest Ecosystem

Figure 8.4. Sequence of successional stages in an abandoned farm field in the southeastern U.S. over time. During the first years (8.1) the area is colonized by a mixture of pioneer species (8.2). This stage is gradually replaced by a shrub-pine community (8.3). In about 150-200 years, without further disturbances, an oak-hickory forest may replace the pine forest (8.4).

Credit: USDA Forest Service