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FOR93: Chapter 4: Plant Succession and Disturbances in the Urban Forest Ecosystem

Figure 14. American kestrels are widely distributed in North America. They feed on insects and small mammals, which are present in early stages of succession (grasses and forbs). However, the American kestrel also requires intermediate and late stages of succession, such as mixed woodlands (shrubs and trees) for nesting.

Credit: David Sarkosi