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SL338: Reclaimed Water Use in the Landscape: Constituents of Concern in Reclaimed Water

Fig. 4. Premature defoliation of trees (foreground) irrigated with water of electrical conductivity ranging from <1 dS/m during spring and >8 dS/m during summer in Toronto, Canada. Trees in background were not irrigated with reclaimed water. Source: Duncan et al. (2009).