Figure 8. (A) Heading a young unbranched shoot will force two to four buds back from the cut into vigorous upright growth. Undesireable multiple leaders with included bark will develop on trees from this type of pruning, so it is not recommended; however, properly placed, these cuts can create and maintain a nicely formed shrub. (B) Growth from an unpruned shoot will be more typical of the natural form and more uniformly distributed along the stem. Note the horizontal branching habit.