Figure 2. Life cycle of Steinernema sp. entomogenous nematodes. (1) Infective juveniles enter the gut or respiratory system through body openings (mouth, anus, and breathing pores. (2) Infective juveniles actively penetrate the gut wall, enter the body cavity, and release bacteria. (3) As bacteria multiply, host dies of septicemia; juveniles feed on bacteria and host-tissues and develop into adults. (4) Adults mate and reproduce; 2-3 generations are produced if conditions are adequate. (5) When the food supply is exhausted, a new generation of infective juveniles exits the host and searches for a new one. (Adapted from Woodring and Kaya (1988).