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Publication #RFAA082

Swine: Planning Swine Facilities1

Randy Walker2

Considerations in Establishing Swine Units

When planning facilities for swine, many facets of the industry must be taken into consideration, such as:

  1. Location of the facilities in regard to zoning in a particular county.

  2. Sufficient land to provide for future expansion.

  3. Waste disposal—consider use: such as a lagoon, separation of solids from liquids, transferring to pasture or crops via pumping or mechanically injecting into the soil.

  4. Drainage and soil type in relation to development of lagoon systems for animal wastes.

  5. Prevailing winds in relation to housing by the owner as well as potential neighbors.

  6. Decision on type of swine enterprise to be initiated, feeder pig production, farrow to finish, or feeder to finish unit.

  7. Feed source economics of supplying the unit with feed ingredients required to be able to compete with other areas of the country

  8. Market outlets available in an area; such as livestock markets, packing houses and outlets for breeding stock.

  9. Capital requirements—sufficient capital should be available to finance the operation for at least two years, and preferably three years, to allow adequate market flow.

  10. Availability of information in the area that producers can draw on—county agents, experiment stations, and related swine production resources in the area.

  11. Availability of qualified veterinary services.

Swine Production Guide

Swine Table 1, showing the swine production guide, gives guidelines for varying size units, background with needed requirements of space, equipment needs, water and storage. Careful study of this table along with the following tables 2–16 furnishes the needed information for modern swine production.

Tables

Table 1. 

Swine production guide.

Number of Farrowing Stalls (pens)

 

10

10

10*

20

20

20

30

30

30

40

40

40

Number of Sows

 

10

20

50

40

80

100

60

120

150

80

160

200

Number of Groups of Sows

 

1

2

5

2

4

5

2

4

5

2

4

5

Number of Farrowing Periods

 

2

4

12

4

8**

12

4

8**

12

4

8**

12

Number of Pigs Farrowed per Year When Litter Size Is

8-

160

320

960

640

1280

1920

960

1920

2880

1280

2560

3840

9-

180

360

1080

720

1440

2160

1080

2160

3240

1440

2880

4320

10-

200

400

1200

800

1600

2400

1200

2400

3600

1600

3200

2200

Nursery Space Required Sq.Ft.***

 

+

+

550

+

500

1100

+

750

1650

+

1000

2200

Max. Number of Pigs in Finishing at One Time

 

80

80

360

160

320

720

240

480

1080

320

640

1440

Max. Finishing Area (8 Sq. Ft./Hog)+

 

640

640

2880

1280

2560

5760

1920

3840

8640

2560

5120

115

Number of Feeder Spaces++

Nursery:

--

--

27

--

110

120

--

160

180

---

220

240

Finishing:

27

27

120

55

110

240

80

160

360

110

22

480

Waterers Needed

 

--

--

9

--

20

18

--

30

27

20

40

36

 

5

5

18

10

20

36

15

30

54

20

40

72

Avg.Gal. Water Needed per Day (Sows Included)

 

150

300

900

600

1200

1800

900

1800

2700

1200

2400

3600

Avg.Gal. Manure Storage Per Month (Increased 50% for Water Wastage)

 

4K

8K

24K

16K

32K

48K

24K

48K

72K

32K

64K

96K

* When considering large units, 100–500, multiples of the 10 stall units could be used as a guideline.

** When 8 farrowings per year is followed, then 5 to 6 week weaning may be practiced with a 4 to 5 week stay in the nursery.

*** Based on pen space of 2.5 to 3.0 sq. ft./animal.

+ In 2 and 4 farrowings per year, pigs can be left in the farrowing house from weaning until they weigh approximately 50–75 lbs. No nursery will be needed. Completely slotted farrowing pen floors work best in this system.

++ See the section "Estimated Amounts of Feed Required Per Hog by Periods."

Table 2. 

Feeders and waterers per pig.

 

Weaning to 75 lb.

75–125 lb.

125 lb. to Market

Number of Pigs per Automatic Waterer

10

10–15

10–15

Number of Pigs per Self-Feeder Hole (or per linear foot)

Confinement

4

3

3

Pasture

4–5

3–4

3–4

Table 3. 

Average feed consumption per day.

Sow Size

Method

Amount Daily*

Daily Gain

During Gestation

Limit Feed

 

(Pasture)

3 lb.

---

(Confinement)

4 lb.

---

Lactation

Full Feed

12 lb.

---

Growing Hogs

10 lb.

Full Feed

.5 lb.

.3 lb.

30 lb.

Full Feed

1.9 lb.

1.0 lb.

75 lb.

Full Feed

4.6 lb.

1.6 lb.

150 lb.

Full Feed

7.0 lb.

2.0 lb.

250 lb.

Full Feed

10.0 lb.

2.2 lb.

* Properly balanced diet that meets animal's daily nutrient requirements.

Table 4. 

Average water consumption.

Weight of Hog

Lb. of Water Daily*

Gallons

12

4.0

0.5

50

8.0

1.0

100

8–12

1.0–1.5

150

12–17

1.5–2.0

200

17–21

2.0–2.5

250

21–25

2.5–3.0

Sow during gestation

25.0

3.0-4.0

Sow during lactation

50.0

4–7

* When water is used for cleaning and mist coolers, double water requirements given in table.

Note: As a rule of thumb, water consumption by swine will be about twice the feed intake. They will tend to drink somewhat more in hot weather. Lactating sows will have a water intake of about three times their feed intake.

Table 5. 

Slatted floor material.

Material

Expected Life*

Advantages

Disadvantages

Aluminum

8–10

Easy installation and long life

Temperature-cold

Concrete

10

Long life

Temperature-cold

Expanded metal

3

Dry, easily cleaned

Short life

Expanded metal

(plastic coated)

3–8

Comfortable, easily cleaned

Questionable life span

Plastic fiberglass

4–6

Easily installed

Questionable life span

Steel

3–5

Easily installed and cleaned

Temperature-cold

Stainless steel

10

Easily installed and cleaned

Temperature-cold

Wood

3

Lowest installation cost

Short life

* Quality of material installed determines life expectancy.

Table 6. 

Slatted floor spacing.

Type

Width

Space

Farrowing

3"–5"

3/8"*

Early weaning**

2"–4"

3/4"

Nursery

4"–5"

1"

Growing

4"–5"

1"

Finishing

4"–8"

1"

* Widen spacing to 1 1/4 inch at rear of sow and cover with grate while farrowing.

** Early weaning at 2 weeks or older.

Table 7. 

Square feet per animal.

Weight of Pig

Slatted

Solid Floor

 

Winter

Summer

Winter

Summer

10–25

2

2

3

3

25–40

3

3

4

4

40–100

4

4

5

5

100–150

6

6

7

8

150–200

7

8

8

10

200

8

10

10

12

Sow

15

17

15

17

Table 8. 

Pigs per pen.

Size of Pig

Optimum

Maximum

Weaning to 75 lb.

16

30–30

75 lb. to market

5–15

25–50

Table 9. 

Ventilation rates, cfm.

Life stage

Unit

Cold Weather

Mild Weather

Hot* Weather

cfm/hd (or sow + litter)

Prenursery pig

12–30 lb.

2

10

25

Nursery pig

30–75 lb.

3

15

35

Growing pig

75–150 lb.

7

24

75

Finishing pig

150–220 lb.

10

35

120

Gestating sow

325 lb.

12

40

150

Boar/Breeding sow

400 lb.

14

50

300

* These rates may be reduced when supplemental cooling is available in hot weather; and may be increased when air velocities on pigs are low in summer.

** 500 cfm is the generally recommended hot weather rate in farrowing, however local recommendations range from 250 cfm in northern areas of the United States to 1000 cfm or more in the southeast and southwest.

The rate for each season is the total capacity needed. For sow and litter: 20 cfm/unit (cold weather) + 60 cfm/unit = 80 cfm unit (mild); add 420 cfm/unit for 500 cfm/unit total hot weather rate.

Cold weather rate: In some cases, this airflow needs to be adjustable, due to a change in the number of animals in the room or due to their growth. Ideally, at least one fan should operate at all times when the inside temperature is above 35°F. Set a thermostat to shut the fan off when the inside temperature drops below 35°F and activate an alarm to notify the operator. This fan should supply the cfm rate listed in Table 9 under "Cold Weather". The should exhaust the air from above any stored liquid manure

Mild weather rate: Provide additional airflow, thermostatically set to start in 3-5 degree steps, from lowest desired temperature to prevent sudden drops in temperature. These fans, together with the cold weather fans, provide the capacity for outdoor temperatures up to about 55°F.

Hot weather rate: Provide additional fans to supply the cfm rates listed under "Hot weather". Some or all of these fans should be operated when the inside building temperature is above 75°F. Hot weather rate airflow capacity of sows and litters and breeding animals can be reduced somewhat by utilizing drip cooling or zone cooling (water evaporation or mechanical air conditioning) of sows and boars.

Most growing-finishing facilities in the southeastern US are curtain-sided buildings that utilize natural ventilation. The curtains can be opened or closed depending upon temperature. This type of ventilation works well if the building is not too wide.

Table 10. 

Liquid manure capacity conversion guides.

Cu. Ft.

= Length x width x depth

1 Cu. Ft.

= 7.5 gal.

1 gal.

= 8.35 lbs.

1 Cu. Ft.

= 62.5 lbs.

1 Ton

= 32 Cu. Ft.

1 Cu. Yd.

= 27 Cu. Ft.

Storage Capacity Needed

No. animals x daily manure production x days storage time desired + extra water.

Table 11. 

Approximate daily manure production.

Weight of Hog

Cu.Ft./Day–Solid & Liquid

Gallons/Day

50 lbs.

1/15

.5

100 lbs.

1/8

1.0

150 lbs.

1/5

1.7

200 lbs.

1/4

2.0

250 lbs.

1/3

2.6

Bred Sows

1/8

1.0

Lactating Sows

1/2

3.5

Table 12. 

Manure disposal systems.

Type

Requirements

Storage Tank

1–2 gal. per day per head. Plan for 2–6 month storage capacity. Manure is removed and spread on crop land. Commercial pumps and spreaders available.

Lagoon System

50–100 square feet of surface per pig. Water volume required: 2 cubic feet X number of animals X max. animal weight.

Table 13. 

Manure tank storage needs.

Size of Hog

1 Month

3 Months

6 Months

50 lbs.

16 gal.

48 gal.

96 gal.

100 lbs.

30 gal.

90 gal.

180 gal.

200 lbs.

60 gal.

180 gal.

360 gal.

Gestating Sow

30 gal.

90 gal.

180 gal.

Lactating Sow

105 gal.

315 gal.

630 gal.

Table 14. 

Tank storage size (capacity of tank 5 feet deep).

 

When Tank Length Is

Inside Tank Width

10 Feet

20 Feet

30 Feet

40 Feet

4 feet

1,500 gal.

3,000 gal.

4,500 gal.

6,000 gal.

6 feet

2,250 gal.

4,500 gal.

6,750 gal.

9,000 gal.

8 feet

3,000 gal.

6,000 gal.

9,000 gal.

12,000 gal.

Table 15. 

Approximate dry matter and fertilizer nutrient composition of swine manure at time applied to the land.1

Manure Handling System

Dry Matter

Ammonium N2

P2O53

K2O4

Total N5

Solid

lb./ton

Without bedding

18(15–20)

7( 6–9)

9( 7–13)

8( 6–10)

10( 9–11)

With bedding

18(17–20)

6( 5–8)

7( 5–10)

7( 6–9)

8( 7–10)

Liquid

lb./1,000 gal

Anaerobic storage

4( 2–7)

26(21–31)

27(13–30)

22(12–30)

36(28–55)

Lagoon6

1(.3–2)

4( 2–5)

2( 1–4)

4( 2–6)

4( 3–6)

1Application conversion factors: 1 bu. = 40-60 lb. solid manure; 1,000 gal. = about 4 tons.

2Ammonium N, which is available to the plant during the growing season.

3To convert to elemental P, multiply by 0.44.

4To convert to elemental K, multiply by 0.83.

5Ammonium-N plus organic N, which is slow releasing.

6Includes feedlot runoff water and is sized as follows: single cell - 2 cu. ft./lb. animal weight; two-cell lagoon-cell 1, 1-2 cu. ft./lb. animal wt. and cell 2, 1 cu. ft./lb. animal weight.

Table 16. 

Concrete conversion guide.

Cu. Yd.

= 81 Sq. ft. 4" floor

= 54 Sq. ft. 6" floor

* Recommended minimum 3,000 psi and maximum 4,000 psi concrete and use medium aggregates.

Flush systems: Two different types of flush systems are presently being used, dump and syphon, in confinement housing. They do an excellent job when constructed properly. Contact UF/IFAS Extension agriculture engineer for assistance before construction begins to be assured of a working system.

Footnotes

1.

This document is RFAA082, one of a series of the Animal Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date December 1992. Revised August 2015. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Randy Walker, former Extension swine specialist, Department of Animal Sciences, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611-0910. Reviewed by J. Brendemuhl.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.