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Publication #RFAA084

Swine: Feeding1

Randy Walker2

Feed Substitutions

See Table 2 for suggested feed substitutions.

Mass Conversion Equivalents

See Table 3 for metric system-mass conversion equivalents.

Vitamins

Vitamins which are of concern and which should be added to swine rations include Vitamin A, Vitamin D, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and Vitamin B12. Sometimes choline, biotin, Vitamin K and Vitamin E are added. Table 4 lists vitamin requirements for starting, growing and finishing swine. Table 5 contains suggested vitamin-trace mineral premix for swine.

Protein

Protein is made up of a combination of amino acids linked together like a chain with links of different size and shape. There are 20 amino acids and 10 of these are essential or must be found in the diet at a particular level for optimum growth or performance. Essential amino acids are: arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine. Table 6 lists protein feed recommendations for swine. Lysine is the essential amino acid of most concern since this amino acid is usually in shortest supply in protien of typical swine diets.

Minerals

Minerals are inorganic elements that are essential for many vital metabolic processes which take place in the animal and are important constituents of the skeleton. Table 7 lists mineral element recommendations for swine feed.

Estimated Feed Required Per Hog By Periods

Table 8 lists recommendations for feed required per hog by age periods.

Protein, Feed Intake and Daily Gain Expected Birth to Market

Table 9 lists the protein, feed intake and daily gain expected for growing and finishing pigs. Table 10 lists the protein, feed intake and daily gain expected for gilts, sows and boars. Table 11 lists free choices feeding of protein. Table 12 lists protein supplements for when feeding is free choice.

Mineral Supplements

Table 13 contains an analysis of mineral supplements. Table 14 recommends mixtures for self-feeding minerals.

Recommended Rations

Table 15 recommends rations for the age group known as creep or early weaning (3 weeks) to market age/weight. Table 16 recommends rations for sows and boars.

Tables

Table 1. 

Maximum Amount of Different Feeds for Various Rations

 

% Complete Ration

Feed

Gestation

Lactation

Starter

Grower

Finisher

Alfalfa meal

90

10

0

5

5

Barley

80

80

25

80

90

Blood meal

3

3

0

3

3

Corn

85

85

70

80

90

Corn and cobmeal

70

10

0

0

0

Cottonseed meal

5

5

0

5

5

Dist. dried sol. corn

5

5

5

5

5

Fish meal

10

10

5

10

5

Fats and oils

0

5

5

5

5

Linseed meal

5

5

5

5

5

Meat and bone meal

10

10

5

5

5

Grain Sorghum

85

85

70

80

90

Molasses

5

5

5

5

5

Oats

70

15

10

30

30

Skim milk, dried

0

0

40

0

0

Soybean meal

20

20

30

25

20

Tankage

10

5

0

5

5

Triticale

85

85

70

80

90

Wheat

85

85

70

80

90

Whey, dried

5

5

20

5*

5*

* Recent research indicates higher levels may be fed without reducing performance.

Table 2. 

Feed Substitutions

Feed

Feeding Value Compared to Corn (%)

Corn in Diet it can Replace (%)

Initial Pigs' Weight Best Suited for Feed

Corn, No. 2

100

100

10

Barley

90-100

100

35

Beets, carrots or turnips

12-20

25

125

Bread

75-80

50

50

Fats and oils

175-225

5

10

Hominy Feed

95

50

100

Millet

85-90

50

125

Molasses, cane

70-75

20-40

100

Molasses, citrus

70-75

10-20

100

Oats

80-90

10-35

35

Peanuts*

120-125

100

35

Peas, dried

90-100

50

50

Potato (Irish)

25-28

25-50

125

Potato (Sweet)

20-25

35

100

Rice (rough)

80-85

50

75

Rice bran*

100

35

100

Rye

90

25-50

125

Sorghum (grain)**

90-95

100

10

Triticale

95-100

100

10

Wheat

95

100

10

Wheat bran

75

15-25

125

Wheat shorts

115-120

25

35

* High levels fed produce soft pork.

** Two varieties: bird and nonresistant. Bird resistant may have a lower feed value.

Table 3. 

Metric System Mass Conversion Equivalents

Equivalents

1 pound (lb) = 454 grams (g)

1 mcg/lb = 2 mg/ton

1 kilogram (kg) = 2.2 lb = 1000 g

1 mg/lb = 2 g/ton

1 g = 1000 milligrams

1 mg/lb = 2.2 ppm

1 mg = 1000 micrograms (mcg)

1 mcg/g = 1 ppm

1 mg/kg = 1 part/million (ppm)

mg/g to mg/lb multiply by 454

mg/lb to ppm - multiply by 2.2

mcg/g to mg/g divide by 1000

g/lb to % - divide by 4.54

mcg/lb to mg/lb divide by 1000

% to g/lb - multiply by 4.54

mg/lb to mcg/g divide by 0.454

Conversion Table

%

ppm

g/ton

mg/lb

0.0001

1.0

1.9

0.45

0.00011

1.1

1.0

0.5

0.001

10.0

9.1

4.55

0.0011

11.0

10.0

5.0

0.01

100.0

90.8

45.4

0.011

110.0

100.0

50.0

0.1

1000.0

908.0

454.0

0.11

1100.0

1000.0

500.0

Table 4. 

Vitamin Requirement of Starting, Growing and Finishing Swine

   

Vitamin Amount per Pound of Feed

Vitamins

 

10-25

25-45

45-130

130-240

Gestation

Lactation

Vitamin A

IU

1,000

800

600

600

1,800

900

Vitamin D

IU

100

90

90

70

90

90

Vitamin E

IU

7.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

10

10

Vitamin K

mg

.2

.2

.2

.2

.2

.2

Riboflavin

mg

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

1.7

1.7

Niacin

mg

7.0

6.0

6.0

4.0

5.0

5.0

Pantothenic

Acid

mg

5.0

4.0

3.0

3.0

6.0

6.0

Vit.B12

mcg

8.0

7.0

4.0

2.5

7.0

7.0

Choline

mg

225

200

150

150

600

500

Thiamin

mg

.5

.5

.5

.5

.5

.5

Vit. B6

mg

.7

.7

.5

.5

.5

.5

Biotin

mg

.02

.02

.02

.02

.10

.10

Folacin

mg

.15

.15

.15

.15

.15

.15

Table 5. 

Suggested Vitamin Mineral Premix for Swine

 

Nutrient

 

Amount per pound of premix

 

Vitamin A

 

900,000 IU

 

Vitamin D

 

100,000 IU

 

Vitamin E

 

5,000 IU

 

Vitamin K (Menadione Equivalent)

 

660 mgs

 

Riboflavin

 

1,200 mgs

 

Pantothenic Acid

 

4,500 mgs

 

Niacin

 

7,000 mgs

 

Choline Chloride

 

20,000 mgs

 

Vitamin B12

 

5 mgs

 

Folic Acid

 

300 mgs

 

Biotin

 

40 mgs

 

Copper

 

.4 %

 

Iodine

 

.008 %

 

Iron

 

4.0 %

 

Manganese

 

.8 %

 

Zinc

 

4.0 %

 

Selenium

 

.012 %

  1. Vitamin and trace mineral mixes may be purchased separately. This is advisable if a combination vitamin-trace mineral premix is to be stored longer than three months. Vitamins may lose their potency in the presence of trace minerals if stored for a prolonged period.

  2. Premix is designed to be used at a rate of 5 lb. per ton of complete feed for sows and baby pigs and 3 lb. per ton of complete feed for growing-finishing swine.

Table 6. 

Protein Feeds

 

*Relative

Value

Percent to Use in:

 

Feed

 

Ration

Supplement

Evaluation as Protein Source

Soybean Meal (44%)

100

5-25

50-90

high quality protein

Soybean Meal (48%)

112

5-5

50-90

high quality protein

Peanut Meal (47%)

75

0-5

0-30

low in lysine

Cottonseed Meal (41%)

70

0-5

0-30

gossypol (toxic if not processed properly, low in lysine)

Linseed Meal (35%)

70

0-5

0-30

low in lysine

Meat and Bone Meal** (50%)

75-85

0-5

0-30

low in lysine & tryptophan, high in mineral matter (ash)

Tankage (55%)**

85-90

0-5

0-30

low in tryptophan & isoleucine

Fish Meal

(Menhaden) (60%)

100-110

0-10

0-30

high quality protein - expensive

Dry Skim Milk (34%)

100

0-20

0-20

excellent quality protein expensive

Canola Meal (38%)

75

0-10

0-40

relatively high in fiber content

* When fed as recommended

** The value of MeatMeal and Tankage varies in quality University of Florida tests in

comparison to soybean meal has shown advantage to soybean meal.

Table 7. 

Mineral Element Recommendations for Swine

   

Amount or Percent Per Pound of Feed

Mineral Elements

10-25

25-45

45-130

130-240

Gestation

Lactation

Calcium

%

.80

.70

.60

.50

.75

.75

Phosphorus

%

.65

.60

.50

.40

.60

.50

Sodium

%

.10

.10

.10

.10

.15

.20

Chlorine

%

.08

.08

.08

.08

.12

.16

Potassium

%

.28

.26

.23

.17

.20

.20

Magnesium

%

.04

.04

.04

.04

.04

.04

Iron

mg

45.0

40.0

30.0

20.0

40.0

40.0

Zinc

mg

45.0

40.0

30.0

25.0

25.0

25.0

Manganese

mg

2.0

1.5

1.0

1.0

5.0

5.0

Copper

mg

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

2.5

2.5

Iodine

mg

.06

.06

.06

.06

.06

.06

Selenium

mg

.14

.12

.07

.05

.07

.07

Table 8. 

Estimated Feed Required Per Hog by Periods

Weaning at 3 weeks:

Sow per year:*

 

Lactation diet

550

Gestation diet

1200

Total

1750

Per pig to market weight:

 
Creep feed

15

Nursery diet (weaning to 20 lb.)

15

Starter diet (20 to 40 lb.)

40

Grower feed (40 to 125 lb.)

230

Finisher feed (125 to 240 lb.)

400

Total

690

   

Weaning at 5 weeks:

 

Sow per year:**

 
Lactation diet

850

Gestation diet

1050

Total

1900

Per pig to market weight

 
Creep feed

10

Starter feed (weaning to 40 lb.)

30

Grower feed (40 to 125 lb.) 230
Finisher feed (125 to 240 lb.)

400

Total

670

* Assuming 2.2 litters per sow per year  

** Assuming 2.0 litters per sow per year

 
Table 9. 

Protein Content, Feed Intake and Daily Gain Expected for Growing and Finishing Pigs

Pig Size

Protein Content

of Ration (%)

Average Daily

Feed Intake (lb)

Expected

Daily Gain

Creep feed (suckling), 5 to 40 lb

22

.5

0.70

Nursery diet (weaned), 10 to 20 lb.

22

----

0.30

Pig Starter (weaned), 20 to 40 lb

18 - 20

1.00

0.90

Grower, 40 to 125 lb

16

4.25

1.50

Finisher, 125 to 240 lb

13 - 14

7.00

1.80

Table 10. 

Protein Content, Feed Intake and Daily Gain Expected for Gilts, Sows and Boars

Pig Age

Protein Content

of Ration (%)

Average Daily

Feed Intake (lb)

Expected

Daily Gain (lb.)

Gestation

     

Gilts

Sows, first 2/3

Sows, last 1/3

14

14

14

3.5 to 6.0

3.0 to 4.5

3.5 to 5.5

0.60

0.35

0.45

Boars*

     

Young (less than 15 mo.)

Mature (over 15 mo.)

14

14

2.0 to 6.0

2.0 to 6.0

 

* Regulate as needed during breeding season.

Table 11. 

Free Choice Feeding of Protein Supplement

Live Weight

Crude Protein, %

Supplement to

Corn Ratio

Daily Protein

Supplement

Pigs in Confinement

     

40 to 125 lb

125 to 240 lb.

16

14

1-3.2

1-5.0

.8

.8

Pigs On Pasture

     

40 to 125 lb.

125 to 240 lb.

15

13

1-3.5

1-7

.8

.6

These figures are based on corn that contains 8.5 to 9.0% protein and supplements that contain 38-42%

protein. If the quantity or quality of pasture is low, use confinement recommendations.

Table 12. 

Protein Supplements (When feeding protein supplement free choice)

 

Free Choice Feeding

 

Supplement

Sow

Breeder

Rations

Pig

Up To

125 Lb

Hog

125 Lb

And Up

Complete

Grower

16%

Mix Diets

Finisher

14%

Protein percent

38.5

42

40

44

42

Soybean meal (48%)

1100

1200

1200

1780

1740

Meat and bone scraps,

         

tankage or fishmeal

340

440

340

   

Alfalfa meal (dehydrated)

400

200

300

   

Minerals

Defluorinated Phosphate

80

80

100

200

180

Salt

40

40

50

40

50

Vitamin - Trace Mineral Additions

Suggested Vitamin-Trace

         

Mineral Swine Premix**

12

15

10

20

15

* Prefer 60% meal if Meat and Bone scraps or Tankage are used.

** Refer to Table 5.

Table 13. 

Analysis of Mineral Supplements

 

Calcium %

Phosphorus %

Sodium %

Bone Meal

24.0

12.0

0.46

Calcium Carbonate

38.0

--

0.06

Defluorinate Phosphate

32.0

18.0

5.0

Dicalcium Phosphate

22.0

18.5

0.08

Monoammonium Phosphate

0.5

24.0

0.05

MonoPhosphate

16.0

21.0

0.07

Phosphoric Acid

--

23.8

--

Rock Phosphate, Low Fluorine

36.0

14.0

0.6

Sodium Tripolyphosphate

--

25.0

31.0

Tricalcium Phosphate

32.0

18.0

5.0

Table 14. 

Self-Feeding Minerals

The following mineral mixture is recommended when mineral is self fed:

(1)

Ground limestone

Steamed bonemeal or dicalcium phosphate

Trace mineral salt mix

2 parts

2 parts

1 part

(2)

Defluorinated phosphate

Trace mineral salt

4 parts

1 part

A three-compartment mineral box can be used and the limestone, bonemeal or dicalcium phosphate and the trace mineral salt can be fed in separate compartments.

When "hogging" peanuts, calcium is the mineral likely to be deficient. Keep ground limestone and trace mineral salt before them in a mineral box.

Table 15. 

Suggested Swine Diets (lb/ton)

Ingredient

Starter1

20 to 40 lb.

Grower

40 to 125 lb.

Finisher

125 to 240 lb.

Ground corn or grain sorghum

1245

1570

1680

Soybean meal (48%)

500

380

270

Dried whey

200

--

--

Base mix2

Calcium carbonate

13

15

15

Dicalcium phosphate3

30

25

25

Salt

7

7

7

Vitamin-trace mineral premix*

5

3

3

 

2000

2000

2000

Total Calculated Analysis:

Crude protein, %

20.0

16.0

13.9

Lysine, %

1.0

.79

.62

Calcium, %

.75

.65

.62

Phosphorus, %

.65

.55

.52

*Suggested vitamin-trace mineral premix given in Table 5.

  1. For pigs under 20 lb (i.e., 3 week weaned pigs), a nursery diet is suggested. It is best that this diet be purchased as they are rather complex and only a small amount is required. This diet should contain 20-24% crude protein (1.1 - 1.4% lysine) and include dried skim milk as one of its ingredients. This diet type may also be called baby pig feed or prestarter.

  2. A complete mineral-vitamin premix or complete mineral premix and separate vitamin premix may be used instead of the suggested base mix. Follow manufacturer's guidelines. If needed, increase or decrease the grain portion of the ration so that the total would equal 2000 lb.

  3. Defluorinated phosphate or mono-dicalcium phosphate, if available, may be substituted for dicalcium phosphate. However, if a substitution is made, the rations need to be reformulated since these products contain different calcium and hos horus levels than does dicalcium phosphate see Table 13

Table 16. 

Suggested Sow (and boar) Diets (lb/ton)

Ingredient

Gestation1

Lactation2

Ground corn or grain sorghum

1625

1585

Soybean meal (48%)

300

350

Base mix3

Dicalcium phosphate4

40

30

Calcium carbonate

20

20

Salt

10

10

Vitamin-trace mineral premix*

5

5

 

2000

2000

Total Calculated Analysis:

Crude protein, %

14.3

15.4

Lysine, %

.66

.74

Calcium, %

.90

.80

Phosphorus, %

.70

.60

  1. It is suggested that this ration be fed at a level of 3 to 6 lb. per head per day. The exact level to feed during gestation depends on weight, age and condition of the animal and climatic conditions. Sows should gain about 30 to 60 lb and gilts should gain about 70 to 100 lb during gestation. For bred sows and gilts on good quality pasture, 2 to 4 lb per head per day should suffice. For feeding bred sows that are maintained in confinement in individual pens or are tethered, an additional 100 lb of soybean meal and 15 lb of dicalcium phosphate should be added to the gestation ration at the expense of grain since these sows usually receive 1/2 to 1 lb less feed per day.

  2. The suggested lactation ration could also be fed during gestation for those who want to use a single gestation-lactation ration. During lactation, the ration should be limit fed during the first few days following farrowing. Increase the daily feed gradually up to full feed or slightly less by 3 to 7 days after farrowing. If constipation in a problem around farrowing time, substitute approximately 20% wheat bran, 40% oats or 10% ground good quality hay or alfalfa meal for grain in the lactation ration starting 3 to 4 days before farrowing and continuing 2 to 5 days following farrowing. Constipation may also be treated by adding 15 to 20 lb potassium chloride or magnesium sulfate per ton of lactation ration.

  3. A complete commercial mineral-vitamin premix or a complete mineral premix and separate vitamin premix may be used instead of the suggested base mix. Follow manufacturer's guidelines. If needed, increase or decrease the grain portion of the ration so that the total would equal 2000 lb.

  4. Defluorinated phosphate or mono-dicalcium phosphate, if available, may be substituted for dicalcium phosphate. However, if a substitution is made, the rations need to be reformulated since these products contain different calcium and phosphorus levels than does dicalcium phosphate (see Table 13).

  5. See Table 5.

Footnotes

1.

This document is RFAA084, one of a series of the Animal Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date December 1992. Revised June 2003. Reviewed by R. Myer, October 2011. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Extension Swine Specialist, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.