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Publication #SS-AGR-377

Peanut Variety Performance in Florida, 2010–20131

Barry Tillman, Mark Gomillion, Justin McKinney, and George Person2

Introduction

Variety choice is a critical management decision in producing a peanut crop. Since several good peanut varieties are available, it is essential to know each variety’s attributes and how different varieties might fit into a farm plan.

When trying a new peanut variety for the first time, plant a relatively small test plot (20–50 acres) that will allow you to see the differences between varieties firsthand. Be aware, however, that comparing varieties planted in different fields, or even in different parts of the same field, can be misleading due to potential differences between fields, such as soil type, irrigation/rainfall, soil-borne diseases, and planting date. When choosing which varieties to plant, consider pod yields and grades, and also consider a variety's disease resistance, maturity, seed supply, and anticipated planting dates.

Growers planting more than 100 acres of peanuts should plant at least two varieties. Planting more than one variety can help to spread risk of losses from weather, reduce opportunities for disease, and limit delays in harvest operations. For example, if a field has a history of white mold, use varieties that have a better resistance to that disease compared to other varieties. Use the Peanut Disease Risk Index to evaluate variety disease resistance (http://www.caes.uga.edu/commodities/fieldcrops/peanuts/documents/2014-Peanut-update.pdf, pp. 38–51). Your county UF/IFAS Extension agent can provide other useful resources. A summary table from the Peanut 2014 Disease Risk Index is included in this article (see Table 4).

Variety choice is also very important because of the potentially devastating effects of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in the southeastern United States. Severity of TSWV varies from year to year, and scientists are unable to predict disease levels for a coming crop season. Because TSWV is unpredictable, planting a peanut variety with good resistance to TSWV can significantly reduce the risk of losses from that disease. Over the past several seasons (2010–2013), spotted wilt incidence has been much lower than in previous seasons. However, there is no reason to believe that the disease has disappeared or the incidence will remain low, so continue to mitigate risk of losses from spotted wilt.

This report provides data conducted from trials in Florida at UF/IFAS research centers located in Gainesville (Citra), Marianna, and Jay from 2010–2013. Among the sites in Florida where peanut variety resistance to TSWV has been tested, TSWV is usually most severe in Marianna, so variety performance in that location will give a good indication of the TSWV resistance of a given variety. Oftentimes, results are very different between Marianna, Gainesville, and Jay, depending on TSWV pressure, other disease pressure within those areas, and environmental conditions, including soil type and rainfall. Table 4 includes summarized data for variety resistance to TSWV.

Tests in Marianna and Gainesville were grown with irrigation. The tests at Jay were not irrigated except in 2012. All tests were managed for optimum production, including the use of pesticides to control various diseases, insects, and weeds. In-furrow insecticides (aldicarb [Temik] or phorate [Thimet]) were used throughout the trials. Plots consisted of two rows spaced 36 inches apart (91 cm) and were 15 feet long (4.6m). The seeding density was six seeds per foot of row. Plots were dug and inverted based on relative maturity and were allowed to dry in the field 3–5 days prior to harvest—either with a commercial two-row peanut combine or by hand using a stationary plot thresher. A subsample of 200 g of pods was used to determine the Total Sound Mature Kernels percentage (TSMK).

Peanut Varieties in the Southeastern United States

Historically, peanut acreage in the southeastern United States has been dominated by one variety during a given period. For about 20 years, from the early 1970s and continuing through the early 1990s, 'Florunner' was the dominant peanut variety grown in this region. In the mid-1990s, however, TSWV began to cause severe losses in Florunner and other varieties used at the time that did not have TSWV resistance. From the late 1990s until the 2006 and 2007 season, 'Georgia Green' was the dominant cultivar planted in this region, rising quickly in popularity due to its moderate resistance to TSWV, good grades, and good pod yield. When it was released in 1996, it was the only medium-maturity runner variety with resistance to TSWV.

Nevertheless, as the TSWV epidemic of the 1990s had demonstrated, the practice of relying heavily on one cultivar at a time is dangerous for the peanut industry. Like Florunner before it, Georgia Green occupied about 75% of the certified seed acreage in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia in 2005. In the 10 or more years before 2005, Georgia Green had also occupied at least that amount of acreage in these states. In 2006, however, other peanut varieties began to displace Georgia Green in certified seed acreage in this region. By 2009, Georgia Green occupied only about 10% of the seed acreage in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia, and by 2010, Georgia Green was only 2% of the seed acreage. By 2012–13, Georgia-06G occupied 77%–79% of the certified seed acreage similar to Georgia Green in 2005 (Figure 1 and Figure 2). In 2012, however, there were four other cultivars with at least 5% of the acreage. Maintenance of cultivar diversity requires that several cultivars have at least 5% of the seed acreage.

Figure 1. 

Certified seed acreage in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia in 2012.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 2. 

Certified seed acreage in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia in 2013.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

On an industry-wide scale, it seems preferable that no one variety occupies more than 50% of the certified seed acreage. Diversity in peanut varieties planted can reduce the risk of losses from disease and provide a buffer against differential environmental impacts on a given variety. Considering that the seed-increase ratio of peanuts is low, having several varieties in seed production at significant levels allows a much quicker shift to different varieties, if needed. Using the information on variety performance provided below, it is possible to devise a plan that uses several varieties to spread risk of losses from disease. This information also helps in choosing varieties based on their relative maturity and disease resistance to help spread harvest and planting operations over a longer period.

Recently Released Varieties

Several new runner varieties have been released over the past several years.

In 2009, ‘Georgia-09B’ was released by the University of Georgia. Georgia-09B is a backcross selection from a cross of Georgia Green and Georgia-02C developed to be high oleic. It has normal runner seed size, medium maturity, and moderate resistance to spotted wilt.

In 2010, ‘FloRunTM ‘107’ ’ was released by the University of Florida. FloRunTM ‘107’ has a normal runner seed size, medium maturity with resistance to spotted wilt, and high oleic oil chemistry.

The cultivar ‘TUFRunnerTM ‘727’ ’ was released in 2012 from the University of Florida. TUFRunnerTM ‘727’ is a high oleic, medium-late maturity variety with large runner seed and excellent disease resistance.

The University of Georgia released ‘Georgia-10T’ in 2010 and ‘Georgia-11J’ in 2011. Georgia-10T is a late maturity, normal oleic variety with excellent resistance to spotted wilt. Georgia-11J is a Virginia type with high oleic oil chemistry.

In 2012, the University of Georgia released ‘Georgia-12Y’ and in 2013 ‘Georgia-13M’. Georgia-12Y is a medium-late maturity, normal oleic runner with excellent yield potential. Georgia-13M is a medium seed size, high oleic runner type.

In 2013, the University of Florida released ‘TUFRunnerTM ‘511’ ’, a large seeded, high oleic runner with excellent yield potential and grades.

Current Varieties

Three runner type varieties are available from the University of Florida:

  • ‘Florida-07’ is a large seeded, high oleic runner type with excellent resistance to spotted wilt and white mold, combined with excellent yield and good grades. FloRunTM ‘107’ is a high oleic, runner with normal runner seed size and good resistance to TSWV.

  • The variety TUFRunnerTM ‘727’ is a large seeded runner type with very good resistance to white mold and leaf spot diseases.

  • The Virginia-type variety, 'Florida Fancy', was released by University of Florida in 2007. Florida Fancy has high oleic oil chemistry and standard Virginia-type pod and seed size. Florida Fancy has demonstrated very good yield potential, and it has among the best resistance to TSWV available in a Virginia-type variety.

University of Georgia has four runner varieties available:

  • 'Georgia-06G' was released in 2006. Georgia-06G is a large-seeded runner with good TSWV resistance.

  • 'Georgia Greener' and 'Georgia-07W' were both released in 2007, Georgia Greener has smaller seed than Georgia-06G and very good resistance to TSWV. Georgia-07W has large seed and very good resistance to TSWV and white mold.

  • 'Georgia-09B' is a high oleic variety with excellent grades, medium maturity, and competitive pod yield.

The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) released a runner variety in 2007—'Tifguard'. It is a medium-maturing, large-seeded runner. It is also the first variety to combine resistance to TSWV and a high level of resistance to root-knot nematode. That combination of resistance to disease and nematodes will allow growers in the southeastern United States to take advantage of the same root-knot nematode resistance as in 'NemaTam', a peanut variety developed in Texas and released in 2002. Seed of Tifguard have been available since the 2011 season. Growers who normally use 1,3-D (Telone) to control nematodes should be able to cultivate Tifguard on nematode-infested sites without using Telone.

2013 Results

Table 1 details pod yields, total sound mature kernels percentage (TSMK), maturity, and TSWV ratings for tests at three locations in Florida in 2013. Each entry was harvested (dug) at its apparent optimum-maturity stage (i.e., E = 125–130 days after planting [DAP]; M = 133–139 DAP; M–L = 140–145; L = 146–155 DAP). Ratings for TSWV were on a 1–10 scale, where 1 = less than 10% diseased plants, and 10 = more than 90% diseased plants.

Table 1. 

Performance of peanut varieties in three locations in Florida in 2013, with varieties sorted by market type, maturity, and then yield, in descending order (MR=Marianna, GV=Gainesville, and JY=Jay).

 

Market

 

Pod Yield (lb/acre)

TSMK (%)

TSWV (1-10 rating***)

 

Type

Maturity*

MR

GV

JY

AVG.

MR

GV

AVG.

MR

GV

AVG.

Georgia-12Y

R

M-L

6686

5472

5730

5963

76.7

77.9

77.3

1.0

1.0

1.0

TUFRunner™ '511' **

R

M

6229

5192

5285

5569

77.7

80.3

79.0

1.5

1.7

1.4

Georgia-06G

R

M

6382

5323

4869

5525

79.6

79.2

79.4

1.2

1.7

1.4

Florida-07 **

R

M

5708

4780

5737

5408

74.2

75.5

74.8

1.0

1.7

1.3

TUFRunner™ '727' **

R

M-L

5926

4766

5466

5386

77.8

79.2

78.5

1.2

1.3

1.4

Georgia-07W

R

M

5792

5176

5111

5360

77.2

76.9

77.0

1.0

1.7

1.2

Georgia-09B **

R

M

6482

5363

4230

5359

78.4

80.3

79.4

1.5

1.0

1.2

McCloud **

R

M

6003

4778

5250

5344

77.6

76.2

76.9

1.3

1.3

1.2

Georgia Greener

R

M

6108

5140

4537

5262

77.7

77.1

77.4

1.0

2.3

1.4

FloRun™ '107' **

R

M

5379

5301

5095

5258

73.2

76.1

74.6

1.8

1.3

1.4

Tifguard

R

M

5213

4744

4392

4783

77.2

78.1

77.6

1.0

1.3

1.1

Bailey

V

M

5755

5266

5424

5482

73.0

74.9

73.9

1.0

1.7

1.2

Georgia-08V **

V

M

5808

5124

5276

5403

76.5

78.5

77.5

1.2

2.0

1.4

Florida Fancy **

V

M

5658

3812

5679

5050

73.8

72.6

73.2

1.0

1.0

1.0

CHAMPS

V

M

5869

3848

4711

4809

74.6

76.3

75.4

1.2

1.7

1.4

C.V.

   

5

7

9

7

1.8

1.5

1.7

26.7

34.3

31.6

LSD

   

362

490

674

299

2.4

2.0

1.6

0.4

0.7

0.4

*E = 125–130 days after planting, DAP; M = 133–139 DAP; M-L 140-145; L = 146–155 DAP

**High oleic

***Ratings for TSWV were on a 1–10 scale, where 1 = no disease, and 10 = all plants severely diseased or dying.

Spotted wilt pressure was moderate in 2013, and yields were excellent; even though leaf spot was an issue in later planted tests, it was not a factor in these tests. Among the medium-maturity varieties tested, Georgia-12Y had the highest pod yield, which was greater than other runner cultivars. Pod yield was similar among TUFRunner™ '511', Georgia-06G, Florida-07, TUFRunner™ '727', Georgia-07W, Georgia-09B, and McCloud. Among the Virginia-type varieties, 'Bailey' had the highest pod yield. Grades were generally very good in 2013 with most cultivars TSMK percentage in the mid- to high 70% range. TUFRunnerTM ‘511’, Georgia-09B, Georgia-06G, and TUFRunnerTM ‘727’ had the highest TSMK grade among the runner cultivars.

Results from any single year should not be used to determine variety performance for the purpose of variety selection. Rather, the results from 2013 presented here are simply a reflection of the growing season that occurred in that year and how varieties performed. The multi-year results are better suited for comparison of the performance of varieties year over year and are a better estimate of how they could perform in any given season.

Multi-Year Results

Averaging over two or more years and locations is a good method of determining how a peanut variety will perform over a wide array of environments. The performance of runner market-type peanut varieties in Florida over the past four years (2010–2013) is shown in Table 2.

Table 2. 

Performance of runner market-type peanut varieties in 2–3 Florida locations over four years (2010–2013), with entries sorted by maturity and four-year average yield, in descending order.

 

YIELD (lb/acre)

TSMK (%)

Name

2013

2-YR

3-YR††

4-YR†††

2013

2-YR

3-YR

4-YR

TUFRunner™ '511' **

5569

5913

6195

6203

79.0

79.3

79.0

78.8

Georgia-06G

5525

5675

5885

5988

79.4

79.8

79.5

79.7

Florida-07 **

5408

5745

5935

5963

74.8

75.0

75.0

75.2

FloRun™ '107' **

5258

5791

5950

5917

74.6

76.7

76.6

76.6

TUFRunner™ '727' **

5386

5671

5803

5825

78.5

78.5

78.4

78.8

Georgia-07W

5360

5736

5731

5808

77.0

78.3

78.4

78.8

Georgia-09B **

5359

5603

5686

5793

79.4

79.8

79.2

79.6

Georgia Greener

5262

5288

5666

5685

77.4

78.7

79.0

79.1

McCloud **

5344

5380

5567

5545

76.9

77.4

77.3

77.4

Tifguard

4783

5155

5240

5348

77.6

78.1

77.8

77.8

C.V.

7

8

8

8

1.7

1.5

1.5

1.4

LSD

299

261

218

204

1.5

0.9

0.8

0.6

**High oleic

Average of 2011 and 2012 test data.

††Average of 2010, 2011, and 2012 test data.

†††Average of 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012 test data.

Among the medium-maturity cultivars tested during 2010–2013, TUFRunnerTM ‘511’ had the highest pod yield. TUFRunnerTM ‘511’, TUFRunnerTM ‘727, Georgia-06G, Georgia-07W, Georgia-09B, and Georgia Greener had the highest TSMK grade among the medium-maturity types.

Location Results

The pod yield of peanut cultivars grown at three Florida locations is shown in Table 3. In general, the highest-yielding entries in one location also did well in the other locations. Yields are sometimes lower in Jay because the peanuts are not irrigated at that location. Pod yields in Gainesville are generally higher because TSWV is very mild in this area. In Marianna, yields can be severely limited by TSWV. For that reason, varieties that are most resistant to TSWV usually have the highest yield in Marianna. In Marianna, TSWV pressure was much lower in 2013 compared to previous years, so the impact in these tests is minimal.

Table 3. 

Pod yield of peanut varieties in three Florida locations over four years, 2010–2013, with entries sorted by market type, maturity, and the overall average yield, in descending order.

   

Pod Yield (lb/acre)

   

Marianna (MR)

Jay (JY)

Gainesville (GV)

 

Name

Market Type

2010

2011

2012

2013

MR Average

2010

2011

2012

2013

JY Average

2010

2011

2012

2013

GV Average

Overall Average

TUFRunner™ '511' **

R

6327

7259

5460

6229

6319

-

6188

-

5285

5737

6140

6549

7398

5192

6320

6203

Georgia-06G

R

6502

6950

4437

6382

6068

-

5338

-

4869

5104

6292

6417

7366

5323

6349

5988

Florida-07 **

R

6453

6673

5408

5708

6060

-

6128

-

5737

5932

5702

5954

7092

4780

5882

5963

FloRun™ '107' **

R

5868

6279

5437

5379

5741

-

6147

-

5095

5621

5702

6219

7743

5301

6241

5917

TUFRunner™ '727' **

R

6189

6005

5060

5926

5795

-

6015

-

5466

5741

5643

6047

7135

4766

5898

5825

Georgia-07W

R

6075

6249

4982

5792

5775

-

5066

-

5111

5089

6153

5852

7620

5176

6200

5808

Georgia-09B **

R

5774

6213

4220

6482

5673

-

5628

-

4230

4929

6663

5633

7718

5363

6344

5793

Georgia Greener

R

6023

6840

3924

6108

5724

-

6135

-

4537

5336

5496

5915

6732

5140

5821

5685

McCloud **

R

5679

6247

4185

6003

5529

-

5940

-

5250

5595

5230

5448

6687

4778

5536

5545

Tifguard

R

5861

5866

4627

5213

5392

-

5045

-

4392

4719

5698

5235

6801

4744

5619

5348

Florida-EP™ '113'

R

4714

5059

4769

5309

4963

-

4969

-

4346

4658

4604

5112

6864

4388

5242

5014

Bailey

V

5943

6273

5372

5755

5836

-

6650

-

5424

6037

5950

6754

8114

5266

6521

6150

Georgia-08V **

V

6669

6744

4401

5808

5905

-

7193

-

5276

6234

5566

5814

7578

5124

6020

6017

Florida Fancy **

V

5041

5014

5150

5658

5216

-

7028

-

5679

6354

5272

5579

7417

3812

5520

5565

CHAMPS

V

-

5416

3259

5869

4848

-

5995

-

4711

5353

-

5326

7159

3848

5444

5198

C.V.

 

12

6

10

4

8

-

11

-

9

10

7

8

7

7

7

8

LSD

 

935

530

655

362

323

-

852

-

674

538

541

622

706

490

293

204

**High oleic

Varieties with the Best Resistance to TSWV and Other Diseases

Disease resistance is a very important factor in choosing a peanut variety. The reaction of most varieties to the most prevalent peanut diseases in Florida is detailed in Table 4. To optimize the disease-resistance benefits of these varieties, choose varieties based on their disease resistance in relation to diseases known to be problematic, or suspected of being problematic, in a particular field or farm.

Table 4. 

Disease resistance of major peanut varieties in the southeastern United States (fewer points mean better resistance and lower risk of losses to disease).

Variety1

Spotted Wilt Points

Leaf Spot

Points

White Mold Points

Georgia Green

30

20

25

Florida Fancy2

25

20

20

Georgia-09B2

20

25

25

FloRunTM ’107’2

20

25

20

Georgia Greener3

10

20

20

TUFRunnerTM ‘727’1,2

15

15

15

Georgia-06G

10

20

20

Florida-072

10

20

15

Georgia-07W

10

20

15

Tifguard4

10

15

15

Bailey3

10

15

10

Georgia-12Y1

5

20

15

Source: Adapted from the 2014 Peanut Rx, compiled by the University of Georgia, the University of Florida, and Auburn University.

1Adequate research data is not available for all varieties with regards to all diseases. Additional varieties will be included as data to support the assignment of an index value are available.

2High oleic variety

3Varieties Georgia Greener and Bailey have greater resistance to Cylindrocladium black rot (CBR) than do other varieties commonly planted in Georgia.

4Tifguard has excellent resistance to the peanut root-knot nematode.

Use Table 4 to find a variety with the right disease package for your situation. If white mold is a problem in some of your fields, the following varieties would be good choices:

  • Florida-07

  • Tifguard

  • TUFRunnerTM ‘727’

  • Georgia-12Y

  • Georgia-07W

For another example, Tifguard and TUFRunnerTM ‘727’ have demonstrated some resistance to leaf spot. Use of these varieties in fields with a history of leaf spot could reduce the risk of losses from that disease. In situations where leaf spot risk is low, it might also allow for a reduction in the frequency of fungicide sprays needed for leaf-spot control compared to the need for such sprays with leaf spot–susceptible varieties. The variety Tifguard has resistance to root-knot nematode and so would be a good choice in fields with a history of that pest. Varieties that have enough resistance to TSWV to be planted relatively early include the following:

  • Florida-07

  • Georgia-12Y

  • Georgia-06G

  • Tifguard

  • Georgia-07W

Summary

Variety choice is clearly a critical management decision for peanut production. Today, there are several very good peanut varieties to choose from with similar pod yield and grade performance. Many varieties with good–to-excellent resistance to TSWV are suitable for production in the southeastern United States. Additionally, several of these TSWV-resistant varieties also have resistance to other diseases. Growing disease-resistant varieties can reduce risk and production cost.

Footnotes

1.

This document is SS-AGR-377, one of a series of the Agronomy Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date May 2014. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Barry Tillman, associate professor; Mark Gomillion, biological scientist; George Person, biological scientist, UF/IFAS North Florida Research and Education Center; Justin McKinney, coordinator of research programs, Agronomy; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.