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Publication #SS-AGR-392

Weed Management in Sesame1

Jason Ferrell and Ramon Leon2

Sesame is a relatively new grain crop being grown in Florida. Though this crop provides many system benefits as a rotation partner, weed control is an important consideration. Currently, there are very few herbicides registered for use in sesame (Table 1). Therefore, choosing a field with a history of low weed pressure will be helpful. Additionally, the use of stale seedbed techniques should be considered. (A stale seedbed means that the soil is prepared a few weeks or months ahead of planting.) Then remove the weeds that germinate—with tillage or, preferably, with herbicides—multiple times prior to planting. This will help deplete the seedbank in the upper few inches of soil and result in fewer weeds emerging during the cropping season.

Figure 1. 

For sesame, weed control is an important consideration.


Credit:

Doug Mayo, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Rotational Considerations

Sesame is highly susceptible to herbicides used in soybean, peanut, and cotton—such as Pursuit (imazethapyr), Cadre (imazapic), and Envoke (trifloxysulfuron). Sesame should not be planted in fields treated with these herbicides within the past 26 months. Rotational intervals vary depending on herbicide, soil type, and rate. Check rotational intervals specified in the label before planting. Field bioassays are highly recommended before planting in fields treated with the aforementioned herbicides.

Tables

Table 1. 

Herbicides for use in sesame.

Trade Name and Broadcast Rate/Acre of Commercial Product

Common Name

Remarks

Preplant burndown

glyphosate

22 oz/ac (5.5 lb ai/gallon)

glyphosate

Glyphosate can be applied before, during, or after planting—but prior to crop emergence.

paraquat

(2 lb ai/gallon product)

2–4 pt/ac

(3 lb ai/gallon product)

1.3–2.7 pt/ac

paraquat

Paraquat can be applied before, during, or after planting—but prior to crop emergence.

ET

0.5–2 oz/ac

pyraflufen ethyl

For control of broadleaf weeds. Do not exceed 5.5 oz/ac/yr. The addition of a crop oil adjuvant will improve control. Planting can occur within 1 day of application. Can be mixed with glyphosate to increase weed spectrum.

Preemergence

Dual Magnum

1–1.3 pt/ac

S-metolachlor

Effective on most annual grasses as well as pigweeds and Florida pusley. Sesame response to Dual Magnum can be variable, ranging from no injury to complete crop loss. Though crop loss is not common, it does occur. Therefore, Dual Magnum has an indemnified label. It can only be obtained by going to www.farmassist.com. You must register and accept the indemnification before the label can be downloaded. Follow label directions to reduce the likelihood of injury.

Though the risk of Dual Magnum injury is real, the risk of crop loss due to uncontrolled weeds is likely worse. Therefore, using Dual Magnum will be necessary in most fields.

Sonalan HFP

1–1.5 pt/ac

(ethalfluralin)

Sonalan HFP is registered for use in oil seed crops, including sesame. It will control a variety of annual grasses and some broadleaf weeds (such as Florida pusley). However, no research has been conducted in Florida to determine crop safety to sesame. Use this product with caution. It is likely that Sonalan HFP should be applied 45 days ahead of planting to allow soil concentrations to decline to levels that are non-injurious to sesame.

Postemergence

Poast

1.5–2.5 pt/ac

Sethoxydim

Effective on most annual grasses, but weaker on perennial grasses such as common bermudagrass. Do not exceed 5 pt/ac/yr. All applications should contain either a crop oil concentrate or methylated seed oil, not a surfactant. Do not harvest within 60 days of application.

Poast Plus is not registered for use in sesame.

Select Max

9–16 oz/ac

clethodim

Effective on most annual grasses and more effective on perennial grasses than Poast. Apply with a non-ionic surfactant. To control bermudagrass, make a second application 14 days after the first. Do not exceed 64 oz/ac/yr. Do not harvest with 14 days of application.

Do not apply during flowering or unacceptable crop injury will result. Therefore, this product should be used early in the season, prior to flowering, or at the end of the season when flowering has ceased.

clethodim (various suppliers)

6–8 oz/ac

clethodim

Effective on most annual grasses and more effective on perennial grasses than Poast. Apply 6–8 oz/ac with a crop oil adjuvant. To control bermudagrass, make a second application 14 days after the first. Do not harvest with 14 days of application.

Do not apply during flowering (see statement for Select Max).

Harvest Aid

Roundup Weathermax

32 oz/ac

glyphosate

Only use Roundup Weathermax (which has a supplemental label for this use) or other glyphosate products that specify use as a harvest aid in sesame.

Apply when 50% of sesame leaves are brown to terminate the crop for harvest.

Footnotes

1.

This document is SS-AGR-392, one of a series of the Agronomy Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date June 2015. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Jason Ferrell, professor, Agronomy Department; and Ramon Leon, assistant professor, UF/IFAS West Florida Research and Education Center; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.