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Publication #AN290

The Florida Bull Test 2012-20131

G. Cliff Lamb and Nicolas DiLorenzo2

Test Procedures

The 2012-2013 Florida Bull Test consisted of a 112-day performance test and a breeding soundness evaluation of each bull that qualified for the auction. Upon arrival, bulls were sorted into contemporary groups based on consignor and breed (8–12 bulls per pen) and housed in the University of Florida North Florida Research and Education Center Feed Efficiency Facility where they received free-choice access to feed and water with a target rate of gain of 3.5 lb/day. The diet consisted of 42% pelleted soy hulls, 41% pelleted corn gluten feed, 12% loose peanut hulls, and 5% molasses liquid supplement containing vitamins, minerals, and ionophore (monensin) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The diet was formulated to contain 16.3% crude protein (CP) and 0.51 Mcal net energy of gain (NEg) per lb of diet DM.

After a three-week adaptation period, bulls were weighed on two consecutive days to obtain an objective average unshrunk starting weight, which became the on-test starting weight. Bulls were inspected daily for any arising health problems. An intermediate unshrunk weight was obtained 28 days after starting the test, followed by unshrunk weights on two consecutive days to obtain an accurate 56-day weight and complete the feed efficiency portion of the test. On day 56 of the test, bulls were moved from the feed efficiency facility to 3.25 acre pastures where they stayed for the remainder of the test. On the pasture, bulls remained in the same groups assigned in the feed efficiency facility pens. Bulls also continued receiving free-choice access to the same diet fed in the facility, with the addition of free-choice bermudagrass hay. An additional intermediate unshrunk weight was assessed on day 84 of the test. At the conclusion of the 112-day feeding period, bulls were weighed again on two consecutive days to determine the final test weight. Animal performance, specifically average daily gain (ADG), was calculated using only the official starting and finishing test weights. Throughout the test, bulls were observed and screened for structural soundness and disposition. Bulls deemed structurally unsound or those having poor disposition did not qualify for the sale.

Assessment of Feed Efficiency

After bulls arrived at the feed efficiency facility, they were fitted with electronic identification (EID) tags to monitor daily feed intake using the GrowSafe system, and ADG was calculated for the 56-day feed efficiency portion of the test. Residual feed intake (RFI) was the measure of feed efficiency used to rank the bulls in the test, and it was calculated as the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake. Daily feed intake was measured on each individual bull, and RFI was calculated as described previously by Maddock and Lamb (2009), available at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an217.

Test Rules and Regulations

General Policies and Procedures

  1. Bulls must have been born between August 15 and December 31, 2011.

  2. All consignors’ herds must have been enrolled in their respective breed association performance records program. State beef cattle improvement association programs are acceptable for herds whose breed association does not have a performance records program.

  3. Calves must have completed the weaning phase of the performance records program with their contemporary group, and this information must be presented at delivery. If data was not returned from the association, a copy of the weight data with the number of contemporaries must be provided.

  4. All calves must be purebred or full blood and registered with their breed association. Composite bulls must have both sire and dam registered in an acknowledged beef breed association. In order to participate, each bull must have a registration certificate and pedigree when delivered to the test station.

  5. A bull must weigh 2.5 lb/day of age when delivered to the test station. A shrink of 1% per hour of transit time is allowed.

  6. Bulls must be weaned a minimum of three weeks prior to delivery.

  7. Bulls must be structurally sound and show evidence of good growth potential.

  8. Bulls’ actual birth weight is required.

  9. Consignments over 10 head will be accepted on a space-available basis.

  10. Priority for space will be given to Florida residents. Bulls from other states will be accepted on a space-available basis.

  11. Sire-group testing of bulls is more desirable than individual testing, because it provides more information to both breeders and prospective buyers. Therefore, they will receive preference if space becomes limited.

  12. Preference will be given to breeders/consignors who are members of the Florida Cattlemen's Association.

  13. Embryo transfer bulls must be designated as such, and the breed of the recipient cow designated.

  14. Bulls must have legible permanent identification (tattoo or brand) corresponding to the registration paper at delivery.

  15. Horned bulls will be grouped separately. It is recommended that they be dehorned and healed by delivery.

Health Requirements

  1. All bulls must be in good health and accompanied by a health certificate showing they are from a Brucellosis-free accredited or certified free herd with the herd number on the certificate, or they must have a negative test for Brucellosis not more than 30 days before delivery. Bulls originating from a state that is not TB-free must also be accompanied by a health certificate showing they are a certified TB-free herd or have a negative test for TB not more than 30 days before delivery.

  2. Bulls must have been vaccinated twice (minimum 21 days between vaccinations) for 5-way leptospirosis, 7- or 8-way clostridium with Haemophilus somnus, and IBR/PI3/BVD/BRSV, with the last vaccination at least three weeks or more prior to delivery. Vaccination for Pasteurella is optional. Intranasal IBR/PI3 is recommended.

  3. Consignors are responsible for the cost of treatment if their bull requires examination by a veterinarian.

  4. Consignors should contact their local or state veterinarian for interstate permit and health requirements. An official certificate of veterinary inspection (health paper) is required for each bull.

Test Results

The Florida Bull Test focuses on testing bulls on a diet that includes a grain-based supplement and ad libitum access to forage. Overall ranking for the test is based on ADG and the weight per day of age (WDA), generating an index ratio. The top performing bull and top performing Charolais bull was owned by Rogers Bar HR of Collins, MS, who indexed 136 with an ADG of 5.42 and WDA of 3.60 lb/day. The top SimAngus bull, Jenkins Bold Y178 owned by Jenkins Cattle Co. from Moultrie, GA, was ranked 2nd overall and indexed 123 with an ADG of 4.71 and WDA of 3.48 lb/day.

The top Angus bull, Hollywood 11 owned by Pintlala Cattle Co. from Hope Hull, AL, was ranked 5th overall and indexed 120 with an ADG of 4.57 and WDA of 3.39 lb/day. The top Simmental bull, BTC Making the Grade Y155 owned by Broken T Cattle Co. from Grand Ridge, FL, was ranked 11th overall and indexed 112 with an ADG of 4.13 and WDA of 3.35 lb/day. The only Brangus consignment, SS Brinks HL 797Y owned by Seldom Seen Ranch from Robertsdale, AL, was ranked 42nd overall and indexed 101 with an ADG of 3.72 and WDA of 2.98 lb/day.

The top Braford bull, RMR 0162 Next Step 2084 owned by Running M Ranch of Tallahassee, FL, was ranked 67th overall and indexed 92 with an ADG of 3.30 and WDA of 2.84 lb/day. The top Brahman bull, FF Mr Manso 201 owned by Ford Farms of Malone, FL, was ranked 71st overall and indexed 91 with an ADG of 3.66 and WDA of 2.41 lb/day. The top Hereford bull, JTN Revolution 0620 Y15 owned by J Taylor Neighbors of Americus, GA, was ranked 76th overall and indexed 89 with an ADG of 2.89 and WDA of 3.03 lb/day. Table 1 summarizes feed efficiency data; Table 2 summarizes individual feed intake and feed efficiency; and Table 3 summarizes individual animal performance.

Sale Summary

The Florida Bull Test Sale was held on January 19, 2013. Of the 93 bulls tested, 77 qualified for the sale, but only 61 were on offer at the UF/IFAS North Florida Research and Education Center in Marianna, FL. The sale grossed $197,400 with an average of $3,273.87 per lot. Angus bulls averaged $3,014 on 25 lots. A single Brahman bull was sold for $3,600, and a single Brangus bull was sold for $5,300. Charolais bulls averaged $3,000 on two lots, SimAngus bulls averaged $3,254 on 23 lots, and Simmental bulls averaged $3,589 on nine lots. The high-selling bull was lot 40, Phillips Pen 1P3, selling for $5,350. He was purchased by Mike Henry of Hope Hull, AL. The consignor was the John B Ranch of R&A Angus of Hope Hull, AL.

References

Maddock, T. D., and G. C. Lamb. 2009. The Economic Impact of Feed Efficiency in Beef Cattle. AN217. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an217.

Tables

Table 1. 

Summary of feed efficiency data for bulls in the 2012-2013 Florida Bull Test

Item

Daily Intake, lb of DM/day

RFI, lb of DM/day

Feed:Gain

Average

21.89

0.00

6.91

Range

14.44–31.49

-4.11–7.05

4.38–12.96

Table 2. 

2012-2013 Florida Bull Test individual feed efficiency and feed intake data

Test ID

Breed

28-day Daily Feed Intake, lb/d

Feed:Gain

Gain:Feed

56-day RFIa, lb/d

56-day Feed Efficiency Rank

1032

Simmental

18.95

5.50

0.18

-4.11

1

1026

Angus

14.46

4.38

0.23

-3.80

2

1025

SimAngus

16.94

7.13

0.14

-3.47

3

996

Charolais

20.46

5.06

0.20

-3.32

4

1063

Angus

16.24

7.71

0.13

-3.13

5

1029

SimAngus

17.54

5.61

0.18

-2.90

6

1028

SimAngus

21.71

5.48

0.18

-2.88

7

1039

Simmental

19.13

5.10

0.20

-2.75

8

1062

SimAngus

22.19

6.54

0.15

-2.69

9

995

Charolais

23.55

5.33

0.19

-2.60

10

1012

Hereford

16.92

9.34

0.11

-2.49

11

1034

SimAngus

18.63

5.68

0.18

-2.30

12

985

Simmental

20.35

5.57

0.18

-2.18

13

1050

Angus

20.65

7.23

0.14

-2.18

14

1005

Simmental

21.21

6.15

0.16

-2.18

15

993

Charolais

26.50

5.18

0.19

-2.10

16

1006

SimAngus

22.53

5.19

0.19

-1.88

17

1000

Angus

14.49

5.75

0.17

-1.80

18

1058

SimAngus

20.13

7.14

0.14

-1.78

19

1004

Simmental

16.76

6.26

0.16

-1.77

20

1065

Angus

18.53

6.87

0.15

-1.76

21

1008

SimAngus

22.56

6.00

0.17

-1.71

22

1016

Angus

20.19

9.04

0.11

-1.62

23

1035

SimAngus

21.93

5.82

0.17

-1.58

24

1047

Angus

24.20

5.75

0.17

-1.50

25

1030

SimAngus

23.61

7.05

0.14

-1.36

26

984

SimAngus

21.82

6.43

0.16

-1.22

27

1024

Simmental

23.39

6.34

0.16

-1.19

28

987

Braford

14.96

5.82

0.17

-1.17

29

1048

Angus

23.62

7.67

0.13

-1.01

30

1061

Angus

23.78

7.50

0.13

-0.92

31

1020

SimAngus

23.84

7.85

0.13

-0.91

32

1071

SimAngus

21.00

5.65

0.18

-0.83

33

1007

Simmental

20.24

6.85

0.15

-0.69

34

1043

Angus

18.20

7.08

0.14

-0.66

35

1060

Angus

22.40

6.24

0.16

-0.65

36

1044

Angus

19.18

8.39

0.12

-0.65

37

1059

Angus

19.92

7.67

0.13

-0.58

38

1003

Angus

18.55

6.30

0.16

-0.53

39

1002

Angus

18.18

5.56

0.18

-0.49

40

1042

Angus

22.75

7.47

0.13

-0.33

41

1022

Simmental

22.40

6.09

0.16

-0.31

42

986

Braford

19.17

5.90

0.17

-0.26

43

990

Angus

17.64

5.31

0.19

-0.24

44

1041

SimAngus

23.73

8.18

0.12

-0.19

45

1073

Angus

22.99

5.31

0.19

-0.02

46

1033

SimAngus

21.18

7.04

0.14

0.00

47

1010

Angus

20.30

8.24

0.12

0.00

48

1038

Simmental

16.72

7.55

0.13

0.02

49

1049

Angus

20.94

7.26

0.14

0.05

50

1076

Brahman

21.79

5.06

0.20

0.11

51

1001

Angus

20.24

7.43

0.13

0.13

52

1040

SimAngus

24.11

5.59

0.18

0.29

53

1036

SimAngus

21.01

7.84

0.13

0.34

54

1072

Angus

25.71

5.61

0.18

0.53

55

989

Angus

18.91

5.82

0.17

0.65

56

991

Angus

14.44

7.03

0.14

0.71

57

997

Charolais

21.77

7.13

0.14

0.81

58

1057

Brangus

19.72

5.94

0.17

0.82

59

1070

Angus

21.79

6.20

0.16

0.88

60

992

Charolais

25.68

5.70

0.18

0.94

61

1066

Angus

21.58

5.92

0.17

1.04

62

1075

Brahman

21.06

5.43

0.18

1.06

63

999

Charolais

23.79

6.56

0.15

1.09

64

994

Charolais

27.08

6.28

0.16

1.29

65

1017

Angus

27.82

7.00

0.14

1.42

66

1027

SimAngus

25.65

6.79

0.15

1.42

67

1014

Angus

24.92

10.34

0.10

1.55

68

998

Charolais

25.92

6.73

0.15

1.64

69

1054

SimAngus

26.13

7.14

0.14

1.65

70

1031

SimAngus

26.84

7.23

0.14

1.65

71

1055

SimAngus

27.84

6.69

0.15

1.71

72

1021

Simmental

22.93

6.57

0.15

1.73

73

1069

Angus

23.89

8.49

0.12

1.79

74

988

Braford

19.85

6.11

0.16

1.79

75

1013

Hereford

20.41

12.49

0.08

1.81

76

1053

SimAngus

23.33

7.32

0.14

1.93

77

1011

Angus

21.18

8.92

0.11

1.94

78

1023

Simmental

23.72

12.96

0.08

1.97

79

1018

SimAngus

18.35

8.29

0.12

2.07

80

1009

SimAngus

21.91

6.07

0.16

2.11

81

1052

Angus

24.80

8.49

0.12

2.18

82

1045

Angus

25.09

7.68

0.13

2.24

83

1068

Angus

23.41

10.37

0.10

2.41

84

1074

SimAngus

26.42

6.42

0.16

2.69

85

1037

SimAngus

22.93

6.42

0.16

2.75

86

1046

Angus

27.89

6.67

0.15

2.78

87

1015

Angus

26.79

8.15

0.12

2.95

88

1019

SimAngus

22.33

8.51

0.12

3.04

89

1056

SimAngus

29.80

7.10

0.14

3.22

90

1051

Angus

31.49

8.71

0.11

4.46

91

1067

Angus

26.35

9.16

0.11

7.05

92

a RFI = residual feed intake

Table 3. 

2012-2013 Florida Bull Test individual bull performance in order of final test index

Test ID

Breed

Start Weight, lb

28-day Weight, lb

56-day Weight, lb

84-day Weight, lb

Final Weight, lb

Final Test ADGa, lb/d

Final Test WDAb, lb/d

Final Test Indexc, lb/d

Final Index Ratio

Frame Score

993

Charolais

991

1120

1278

1475

1598

5.42

3.60

9.01

136

8.0

1056

SimAngus

1012.5

1125

1248

1425

1540

4.71

3.48

8.19

123

7.1

994

Charolais

946

1090

1188

1345

1473

4.70

3.42

8.13

122

7.2

1028

SimAngus

928

1025

1150

1270

1393

4.15

3.87

8.02

121

6.9

1072

Angus

866

1005

1123

1270

1378

4.57

3.39

7.96

120

5.0

995

Charolais

950

1045

1198

1315

1448

4.44

3.35

7.79

117

6.8

999

Charolais

867

980

1070

1260

1378

4.56

3.23

7.78

117

7.3

1046

Angus

926

1045

1160

1295

1420

4.41

3.28

7.69

116

6.1

1008

SimAngus

942

1055

1153

1340

1443

4.47

3.18

7.65

115

5.3

1054

SimAngus

970

1070

1175

1345

1425

4.06

3.50

7.56

114

7.5

985

Simmental

853

950

1058

1245

1315

4.13

3.35

7.48

112

5.3

1047

Angus

957

1075

1193

1355

1425

4.18

3.26

7.44

112

6.2

984

SimAngus

925

1030

1115

1245

1358

3.86

3.54

7.41

111

6.3

1006

SimAngus

857

972

1100

1235

1323

4.16

3.19

7.34

110

6.4

1055

SimAngus

992

1110

1225

1365

1460

4.18

3.16

7.34

110

5.5

1030

SimAngus

1050

1125

1238

1350

1473

3.77

3.50

7.27

109

7.3

998

Charolais

927

1025

1143

1340

1378

4.02

3.23

7.26

109

8.0

1005

Simmental

937

1060

1130

1305

1408

4.20

3.03

7.23

109

6.0

1066

Angus

737

830

941

1135

1225

4.36

2.87

7.23

109

4.6

1062

SimAngus

1037.5

1145

1228

1395

1493

4.06

3.16

7.22

109

4.8

1040

SimAngus

826

942

1068

1225

1273

3.99

3.24

7.22

109

5.8

992

Charolais

850

992

1103

1205

1313

4.13

3.09

7.22

109

7.2

1070

Angus

779

864

976

1140

1273

4.41

2.78

7.19

108

5.1

1024

Simmental

971

1045

1178

1360

1428

4.08

3.07

7.15

107

5.4

996

Charolais

866

964

1093

1215

1318

4.03

3.08

7.11

107

7.1

1009

SimAngus

700

798

902

1050

1130

3.84

3.25

7.09

107

5.8

1027

SimAngus

936

1040

1148

1300

1355

3.74

3.34

7.08

106

6.1

1071

SimAngus

802

916

1010

1160

1255

4.04

2.97

7.01

105

5.3

1041

SimAngus

1057.5

1150

1220

1400

1443

3.44

3.54

6.98

105

6.2

997

Charolais

854

962

1025

1180

1295

3.94

3.02

6.96

105

7.4

1019

SimAngus

822

902

969

1130

1213

3.49

3.46

6.95

105

6.3

1074

SimAngus

852

972

1083

1220

1288

3.89

3.03

6.92

104

5.3

1039

Simmental

798

890

1008

1180

1248

4.01

2.87

6.88

103

5.9

1007

Simmental

867

960

1033

1145

1308

3.93

2.94

6.87

103

6.0

1053

SimAngus

859

934

1038

1195

1293

3.87

2.96

6.83

103

5.4

1067

Angus

784

876

945

1120

1235

4.03

2.78

6.81

102

4.5

1031

SimAngus

1004.5

1115

1213

1310

1388

3.42

3.38

6.80

102

7.1

1015

Angus

991

1100

1175

1355

1408

3.72

3.06

6.78

102

5.7

1022

Simmental

859

962

1065

1180

1238

3.38

3.37

6.75

102

6.8

1061

Angus

1062.5

1165

1240

1390

1468

3.62

3.10

6.71

101

6.2

1049

Angus

876

948

1038

1175

1268

3.50

3.21

6.70

101

4.7

1057

Brangus

693

770

879

1010

1110

3.72

2.98

6.70

101

6.6

1048

Angus

1072.5

1180

1245

1405

1470

3.55

3.13

6.68

100

5.7

1069

Angus

960

1000

1118

1240

1350

3.48

3.19

6.67

100

6.2

1052

Angus

974

1060

1138

1295

1398

3.78

2.88

6.66

100

4.7

990

Angus

635

724

821

966

1085

4.02

2.61

6.63

100

4.9

1051

Angus

1135

1230

1338

1455

1523

3.46

3.16

6.62

100

5.8

1014

Angus

1102.5

1160

1238

1400

1478

3.35

3.26

6.61

99

7.6

1017

Angus

1037.5

1155

1260

1360

1428

3.48

3.12

6.61

99

5.6

1032

Simmental

917

1025

1110

1235

1320

3.60

3.00

6.60

99

5.8

1029

SimAngus

811

884

986

1115

1193

3.41

3.07

6.47

97

5.9

1073

Angus

775

888

1018

1070

1158

3.42

3.05

6.47

97

5.1

989

Angus

666

750

848

1005

1078

3.67

2.76

6.44

97

5.3

1035

SimAngus

894

994

1105

1185

1280

3.45

2.95

6.40

96

4.9

1011

Angus

858

936

991

1160

1220

3.23

3.13

6.36

96

5.2

1037

SimAngus

727

796

927

1070

1113

3.44

2.91

6.35

96

4.9

1060

Angus

894

996

1095

1205

1298

3.60

2.72

6.32

95

5.0

1065

Angus

869

930

1020

1180

1255

3.45

2.84

6.29

95

5.4

1025

SimAngus

927

996

1060

1230

1313

3.44

2.83

6.27

94

4.9

1001

Angus

855

942

1008

1150

1235

3.39

2.87

6.26

94

5.1

1050

Angus

997.5

1080

1158

1265

1358

3.21

3.00

6.21

93

5.0

1043

Angus

805

872

949

1110

1195

3.48

2.69

6.17

93

5.0

1023

Simmental

1095

1165

1198

1355

1438

3.06

3.10

6.16

93

5.9

1000

Angus

666

732

807

960

1065

3.56

2.60

6.16

93

5.0

1021

Simmental

799

884

995

1130

1148

3.11

3.04

6.15

92

5.7

988

Braford

655

728

837

934

1025

3.30

2.84

6.14

92

5.0

986

Braford

733

806

915

1010

1065

2.96

3.14

6.11

92

6.2

1016

Angus

1035

1090

1160

1335

1383

3.10

2.99

6.10

92

5.8

1010

Angus

907

974

1045

1160

1250

3.06

3.03

6.09

92

6.0

1018

SimAngus

712

766

836

968

1053

3.04

3.03

6.07

91

5.6

1075

Brahman

670

782

887

972

1080

3.66

2.41

6.07

91

5.8

1033

SimAngus

874

946

1043

1175

1243

3.29

2.74

6.03

91

4.4

1045

Angus

932

1020

1115

1225

1295

3.24

2.77

6.01

90

5.7

1026

Angus

658

746

843

974

1035

3.37

2.63

6.00

90

4.6

1034

SimAngus

817

896

1001

1100

1185

3.29

2.71

6.00

90

5.9

1012

Hereford

956

992

1058

1190

1280

2.89

3.03

5.92

89

5.3

1076

Brahman

702

832

943

1015

1088

3.44

2.44

5.89

89

5.6

1058

SimAngus

947

1015

1105

1205

1278

2.95

2.93

5.88

88

5.2

1020

SimAngus

1087.5

1145

1258

1410

1405

2.83

3.00

5.84

88

4.9

1002

Angus

687

782

870

990

1060

3.33

2.50

5.83

88

5.2

1059

Angus

897

968

1043

1195

1248

3.13

2.69

5.82

87

4.9

1036

SimAngus

895

944

1045

1185

1243

3.10

2.70

5.80

87

4.9

1003

Angus

760

854

925

1035

1115

3.17

2.62

5.79

87

5.2

987

Braford

650

706

794

894

974

2.89

2.87

5.77

87

5.5

1068

Angus

981

1025

1108

1225

1305

2.89

2.86

5.75

87

5.7

1004

Simmental

770

838

920

998

1103

2.97

2.69

5.66

85

5.6

1042

Angus

982

1080

1153

1290

1305

2.88

2.76

5.64

85

4.6

1044

Angus

907

948

1035

1180

1238

2.95

2.65

5.60

84

4.6

1013

Hereford

936

984

1028

1115

1235

2.67

2.91

5.58

84

6.1

1038

Simmental

736

774

860

1005

1035

2.67

2.89

5.56

84

4.7

991

Angus

596

662

711

838

891

2.63

2.41

5.04

76

3.9

1063d

Angus

907

994

1025

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

1064d

Angus

815

896

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

a Final Test ADG = average daily gain during the 112-day test

b Final Test WDA = weight per day of age for each bull from birth until the last day of the test

c Final Test Index = the sum of Final Test ADG and Final Test WDA

d Bulls were removed from the test prior to completion.

 

Footnotes

1.

This document is AN290, one of a series of the Department of Animal Sciences, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date: October 2013. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

G. Cliff Lamb, professor, Department of Animal Sciences, North Florida Research and Education Center, Marianna, FL; and Nicolas DiLorenzo, assistant professor, Department of Animal Sciences, North Florida Research and Education Center, Marianna, FL; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.