University of FloridaSolutions for Your Life

Download PDF
Publication #HS-1124

2014 Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide: Fresh Fruit Pesticide Residue Limits1

M.A. Ritenour2

Current production practices often include the use of various pre- and postharvest chemicals, many of which are pesticides. These materials must be labeled for use on citrus and used only according to label instructions. Chemical residues on the fruit after harvest are a concern to regulators and the public alike, because of their potential negative health effects. Therefore, the United States and other countries set maximum residue limits (MRLs) on fresh produce for various chemicals. It is unlikely for United States MRLs to be exceeded when label instructions are followed. However, when importing countries’ MRLs are lower than U.S. MRLs, the use of these pesticides usually must be discontinued or modified to keep from exceeding the country’s tolerances. In addition, individual buyers may set their own more restrictive standards. Similar to buyer-imposed food safety standards, buyer-imposed MRL standards, especially from large buyers, can significantly impact how pesticides are used in the field and packing facility.

Table 1 lists the MRLs (in part-per-million) for various chemicals used on fresh Florida citrus for the U.S., CODEX, and important export countries. The limit of detection for chemical residues on citrus fruit is often around 0.01 ppm, depending on the testing laboratory and chemical of interest. When no tolerance is stated, any detectable residue will violate tolerances. Violations may lead to rejected loads of product, restrictions on future shipments, and even increased requirements for the entire industry to a given market. Because MRLs change frequently, see the Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) International Maximum Residue Limits Database (http://www.mrldatabase.com) or the University of Florida’s Postharvest Resources Website (http://irrec.ifas.ufl.edu/postharvest) for the most current information. Links to MRL databases for select countries can be found at http://irrec.ifas.ufl.edu/postharvest/index/pesticides.shtml. Table 1 and the websites are intended as an initial reference source and no guarantee is made to their accuracy. Always verify these values with other knowledgeable sources within specific markets of interest.

Tables

Table 1. 

Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) in part-per-million (ppm), by country. Abbreviations: grapefruit (G), orange (O), tangerine (T), lemon (L), pummelo (P).

Chemical Name

Trade Names

U.S.

Canada

CODEX

EU

Japan

Taiwan

Korea

 

(Examples only, not exhaustive)

Citrus

Citrus

Citrus

GF & Orange

GF & Orange

GF & Orange

GF & Orange

2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)

Citrus Fix, Hivol

3

2

1

1

2

2

2

Abamectin

Agri-Mek, Clinch, Zephyr, ABBA, Epi-mek, Reaper

0.02; 0.01 (P)

0.02

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

Acephate

Acephate, Orthene

0.02

   

0.01

5

0.05

5

Acequinocyl

Kanemite

0.2

0.35

 

0.2 (G, L); 0.4 (O, T)

2

 

1

Acetamiprid

Assail

1

0.5

1

1

2

0.5

0.5

Acibenzolar-S-methyl

Actigard

0.05 (G)

   

0.02

   

0.2

Azadirachtin

Aza-Direct, Azatin, Ecozin, Neemix

exempt

   

0.5; 0.01 lime

exempt

exempt

 

Azoxystrobin

Abound, Graduate A+

15

10

15

15

10

10

7 (G); 5 (O)

Bifenazate

Acramite

nonbearing

   

0.01

0.7

 

0.1

Bifenthrin

Brigade, Capture, Telstar, Fanfare

0.05

 

0.05

0.1

2

0.5

0.5

Boscalid

A component of Pristine

1.6

 

2

2

10

 

0.5

Bromacil

Bromo, Hyvar

0.1

     

0.07; 0.05 (O)

0.5

0.1

Buprofezin

Applaud, Centaur

2.5

 

1

1

2.5; 2 (O)

0.5

0.5

Carbaryl

Sevin

10

10

15

0.01

7

2

0.5

Carfentrazone-ethyl

Aim

0.1

   

0.01

0.1

 

0.1

Chlorantraniliprole

Altacor, part of VoliamFlexi

1.4

 

0.5

0.7

1

 

1

Chlorpyrifos

Lorsban, Nufos

1

1

1

0.3 (G, O); 0.2 (L) 2.0 (T)

1

1

0.3

Clethodim

Prism

nonbearing

   

0.1

   

0.1

Copper

various

exempt

50

 

20

exempt

exempt

 

Cryolite

Kryocide

7

       

7

 

Cyfluthrin

 

0.2

 

0.3

0.02

2

0.3

2

Dicofol

Dicofol, Kelthane

6

5

 

0.02

5

1

1

Difenoconazole

A component of Quadris Top

0.6

   

0.1

(0.6 proposed)

 

1

Diflubenzuron

Micromite

0.5 (G, O, T)

 

0.5

1

3

1

3

Dimethoate

Dimethoate, Cygon

2

1.5

5

0.02

2

2

2

Diuron

Diuron, Direx, Karmex

0.05; 0.5 (L)

1

 

0.1

0.8 (G); 0.05 (O)

0.05 (G); 0.2 (O)

1

Endosulfan

Endosulfan, Phaser, Thionex

nonbearing

   

0.05

0.5

0.01

0.1

EPTC (S-Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate)

Eptam

0.1

   

0.01

0.1

   

Ethoprop[hos]

Mocap

nonbearing

   

0.02

 

0.02

0.02

Fenbuconazole

Enable

1

1

 

1 (G, O); 0.05 (L, T)

1

 

0.5

Fenbutatin Oxide

Vendex

20

2

5

5

5

2

5

Fenoxycarb

Fenoxycarb, Award, Precision

nonbearing

   

2

0.05

1 (G)

0.5

Fenpropathrin

Danitol

2

2

 

2

5

0.5

5

Fenpyroximate

Portal

0.5

 

0.5

0.5

1

0.5

0.5

Ferbam

Ferbam

4

 

10 (T); 2 (O)

 

2

2

0.3 (G); 2 (O)

Fluazifop-P-butyl

Fusilade

0.03

   

0.2; 0.1 (O)

0.1

 

0.05

Fludioxonil

Graduate, Graduate A+

10

10

10

10

10

5

10 G; 5 O

Formetanate Hydrochloride

 

1.5 (G, O); 0.03 (T), 0.6 (L)

4

 

0.05

4 (2 proposed)

1.5

 

Fosetyl-aluminum

Aliette

5

9

 

75

150

10

1

Gibberellic acid (GA; Gibberellin)

Gib Gro, ProGibb

exempt

   

5

0.2

   

Glyphosate

Roundup, Durango, Touchdown, & others

0.5

   

0.1 (G, L); 0.5 (O, T)

0.5

0.1

0.5

Harpin Protein

Messenger

exempt

           

Hexythiazox

Savey

nonbearing

 

0.5

1

2

1

0.5

Hydrogen cyanide

 

50

     

50

 

5

Imazalil

Freshgard 700,

10

5

5

5

5

2

5

Imidacloprid

Admire, Alias, Provado, Couraze, Nuprid, Pasada, Widow

0.7

1

1

1

0.7

1

0.5

Indaziflam

Alion

0.01

0.01

         

Malathion

Malathion, Atrapa, Fyfanon

8

 

7

0.02

4

2

0.5

Metalaxyl-M, Mefenoxam

Ridomil Gold, Subdue, UltraFlourish

1

5

 

0.5

0.7

0.5

 

Metaldehyde

OR-Cal Slug & Snail Bait

0.26

   

0.05

   

0.05

Methanearsonic acid (MSMA)

 

0.35

       

0.5

 

Methidathion

Supracide

4; 6 (T)

2

2; 5 (T)

0.02

5

1

2

Methoprene

Extinguish Ant Bait

exempt

   

0.05 (0.01 proposed)

   

0.2

Methoxyfenozide

Intrepid 2F

3

10

2

1

0.7

 

1

Myrothecium verrucaria

DiTera

exempt

           

NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid)

Fruit Fix

0.1 (O, T)

   

0.05

5

exempt

 

Naled

Dibrom

3; 0.5 (P)

3

   

0.2

   

Neem oil extract

Trilogy

exempt

     

exempt

   

Norflurazon

Solicam

0.2

     

0.2

0.2

0.2

Oryzalin

Oryzalin, Surflan

0.05

   

0.01

0.08

 

0.05

Oxamyl

Vydate

3

 

5

0.01

5

0.5 (G); 1 (O)

5

Oxyfluorfen

Goal

nonbearing

   

0.05

   

0.05

Paraquat Dichloride

Paraquat, Gramoxone, Boa

0.05

 

0.02

0.02

0.05

0.2

0.05

Peppermint oil, Rosemary oil

Ecotrol EC

exempt

           

Pendimethalin

Prowl, Pendimax

0.1

   

0.05

0.05

0.01

0.05

Phosmet

Imidan

5

 

3

0.2

5

1

0.05

Phosphine

 

0.01

0.01

 

0.05

0.01

 

0.01

Phosphites

Fosphite, Phostrol, ProPhyt

exempt

exempt

 

75

Not on approved food additive list

   

Piperonyl Butoxide

Evergreen EC

10; 8 (O)

8 (O)

5

 

5

 

0.05

Potassium bicarbonate

Armicarb, MilStop

exempt

   

exempt

     

Propargite

Comite, Omite

5 (G, L); 10 (O)

5

3

3

3

5

5

Propiconazole

Banner, Bumper, Tilt, Orbit, PropiMax

8

   

6

0.05

0.03

0.05

Pyraclostrobin

Headline

2

2

2

1; 2 (O)

1 (2 proposed)

1

1

Pyrethrins

Pyrellin (+ Rotenone), Evergreen (+ Piperonyl Butoxide)

1

1 (O)

0.05

1

1

 

1

Pyridaben

Nexter

0.5

   

0.5

1

2

2

Pyrimethanil

Penbotec

10; 11 (L)

10

7

10

15

7

1

Pyriproxyfen

Distance, Esteem, Knack

0.5

 

0.5

0.6

0.5

0.3 (G); 0.5 (O)

0.2

Rimsulfuron

 

0.01

   

0.05

     

Saflufenacil

Treevix, Kixor

0.03

0.03

0.01

 

0.03

 

0.03

Sethoxydim

Poast Plus

0.5

   

0.1

1

 

1

Simazine

Simazine, Princep, Sim-Trol

0.25 (G, O, L)

   

0.01

0.2

 

0.25

SOPP (2 Phenylphenol, O-phenylphenol, OPP)

FreshGard 5

10

10

10

5 (valid until 9/30/14)

10

 

10

Spinetoram

Delegate

0.3

0.3

0.07 (O)

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.5 (G); 0.07 (O-Codex)

Spinosad

Entrust, Naturalyte, Justice, Spintor

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

Spirodiclofen

Envidor

0.5

0.5

0.4

0.5

2

0.5

2

Spirotetramat

Movento

0.6

0.6

0.5

1

1

0.5 (G)

0.5

Streptomycin

FireWall

0.4 (G)

     

0.02

   

Sulfoxaflor

Closer

0.7

         

(1 T Proposed)

Sulfur

 

exempt

   

50

exempt

exempt

 

Tebufenozide

 

0.8

 

2

2

2

1.5

1

Thiabendazole (TBZ)

Freshgard 598, Alumni

10

10

7

5

10

10

10

Thiamethoxam

Actara, Platinum, part of VoliamFlexi

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.2; 0.5 (O)

1

0.4

1

Thiazopyr

Mandate

0.05 (G, O)

     

0.5 (G); 0.05 (O)

 

0.05

Trifloxystrobin

Gem

0.6

0.6

0.5

0.3

0.5

0.5

0.5

Trifluralin

Trifluralin, Treflan, Trilin

0.05

   

0.01

0.05

0.05

0.05

zeta-cypermethrin

Mustang

0.35

1

0.3; 0.5 (G, P)

2

2

2

2

Footnotes

1.

This document is HS-1124, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date December 2007. Revised September 2013. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

M.A. Ritenour, associate professor, Horticultural Sciences Department, Indian River REC, Ft. Pierce, FL; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.