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Publication #HS965

Chapter 15. Root Crop Production in Florida1

Peter J. Dittmar, Eugene J. McAvoy, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Richard Raid, Hugh A. Smith, Bonnie Wells, Julien Beuzelin, Joseph W. Noling, Lincoln Zotarelli, Shouan Zhang, Christian F. Miller, and Qingren Wang2

This is Chapter 15 of the Vegetable Production Handbook of Florida, 2017–2018 edition. The most current version of this chapter may be found at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/cv/cv30000.pdf.

I. Beet, Carrot, Radish, and Sweetpotato Botany and Planting

Beet—Beta vulgaris, Chenopodiaceae

Carrot—Daucus carota, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)

Radish—Raphanus sativus, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)

Sweetpotato—Ipomoea batatas, Convolvulaceae

Table 1. 

Planting information for beet, carrot, radish and sweetpotato.

Planting Dates

Beet

Carrot

Radish

Sweetpotato

North Florida

Aug–Feb

Aug–Mar

Sept–Mar

Mar–June

Central Florida

Sept–Feb

Aug–Mar

Sept–Mar

Feb–June

South Florida

Oct–Jan

Sept–Mar

Oct–Mar

Dec–Sept (orange flesh type) Year round (boniato/batatas type)

Planting Information

Distance between rows (in)

12–30

10–12

6

36–48

Distance between plants (in)

2–4

1–3

1

10–12

Seeding depth (in)

0.5–1.0

0.25

0.25

3–4

Seed per acre (lb)

10–15

2–4

10–20

9,000–15,000

Days to maturity from seed

50–70

70–120

20–30

85–130

Plant population (acre)

261,360

630,000

1 million+

9,000–15,000

Cultivars

Table 2. 

Common cultivars of beet, carrot, and sweetpotato.

Beet

Carrot

Radish

Sweetpotato

Asgrow Wonder

Apache

Escala F1

Beauregard

Bulls Blood (tops)

Choctaw

Fuego1

Covington

Golden Beets (yellow)

Navajo

Red castle

Evangeline

Green Top

Top Notch

Red Satin F1

Hernandez

Pacemaker III

 

Red Silk2

Picadito (Boniato)

Red Ace

 

Rudi

 

1 Resistant to yellows; Tolerant to black root and rhizoctonia scurf

2 Resistant to pithing; Intermediate resistance to black root, yellows, clubroots, rhizoctonia scurf.

II. Tropical Root Crops

Tropical root crops are planted primarily for their edible roots, corms or cormels. In this regard, tropical root crops require a longer period of time to mature than many other vegetable crops. Some root crops take as long as 14 months to reach maturity. Some people also eat the edible leaves of both cassava and taro. In the case of both these crops, plants grown for edible leaves can be grown it cooler locations than would otherwise be possible. For pest control products, these crops are included in root and tuber vegetables.

Botany and Planting

Table 3. 

Planting information for cassava, taro and malanga.

Planting dates

Cassava

Taro

Malanga

Miami-Dade County

Year-round (mainly February to April)

Year-round

Year-round

Planting information

Distance between rows (in)

48

52

52

Distance between plants (ft)

2

1

1

Planting depth (in)

3–4

4 - 6

4 - 6

Propagules needed per acre

5,445

2,420–3,630

2,420–3,630

Minimum propagule size

10–12” stick or micro-propagules

2 oz

2 oz

Bedded

No

Yes

Yes

Months to harvest from planting

8–12

6–10

9–14

Plant populations (acre)

5,445

10,052

10,052

Cultivars

Cassava—known the world over by a variety of names including manioc, yuca, mandioca, balinghoy, kamoteng, kahoy (Philippines), mogo (Africa), tapioca-root (India) and manioc root in its native of South America. Though the exact origins of cassava are unknown, it was likely domesticated between 7,000 and 9,000 years ago in the Amazon. This root crop is grown throughout tropics and has become an important dietary stable in many parts of the world.

Varieties are often separated based of their cyanogenic glucoside (HCN) content into either low HCN, a.k.a. “sweet,” or high HCN, a.k.a. “bitter,” types. The term “bitter” comes from a bitter flavor that is commonly believed to accompany the HCN. Though no named varieties are currently known in southern Florida, ‘Senorita’ was locally popular in the 1980s and attempts were made to introduce the CIAT variety ‘Mantiqueira’ at that same time because it produced acceptable yields even with high levels of rootknot nematode infestation. The range of local genotypes covers a few unnamed clones that have been imported from various Caribbean basin countries. Federal regulations prohibit further importation of cuttings or botanical seed.

Root development may occur as early as 28 days after planting though it may take about six weeks before fibrous roots begin to thicken rapidly with starch granules. There does not appear to be any specific trigger to root thickening but the number of roots that will eventually thicken is determined early in the life of the crop with little change in the number of thickened roots after three months. A soil fertility analysis is conducted as a routine practice to ensure an adequate amount of potassium is maintained in the soil to improve root development for improved yield. The amount of nitrogen available to the crop is often limited because excessive nitrogen increases vegetative growth rather than the root development.

For people who are able to find cuttings, follow the technique developed by scientists at the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in Ibadan, Nigeria where one makes 2-node cuttings or ministakes that can provide a 5-fold increase in the production of propagules from each parent cassava plant. According to IITA, “[t]hese ministakes are easily moved and protected in plastic sacks until they can be grown on and hardened in individual plastic bags or nursery beds before being planted in the field.”

It takes 8–12 months for cassava roots to reach maturity. Plants are often cut back two weeks prior to harvest resulting in increased tuber size and yields about 10% higher.

Preferences for specific varieties of cassava used for edible leaves may exist among consumers, though the ability to satisfy these requests is very limited given the very small number of varieties currently grown in the US.

Taro—‘Malanga Isleña,’ produces one large white-fleshed central corm; a few unnamed Polynesian types are grown for the Asian market. The name taro is generally used to refer to Colocasia esculenta, one of several major root crops in the Araceae (Aroid) family.

There are several important crops throughout the tropical regions of the world related to taro and grown in certain Florida locations. These include the giant swamp taro, the giant taro, and cocoyam. Each of these Aroids has several other common names depending on the region of the world.

Information about taro in Florida is limited due to a small acreage. However taro can be cultivated under both wetland and dryland conditions with with the latter reffered to as ‘dasheens’ in Florida. Most will mature in 6 to 10 months with corms being dug up with modified potato harvesters in commercial production. The corms are washed of soil, sorted by size, and packed. The recommended cold room temperature for prolonged storage is 45–50°F with a relative humidity of 85.

Tannia—is widely grown and used in the tropics and has been grown on a limited commercial sale since 1963 in south Florida where it typically planted in the spring since the crop requires 9 to 10 months to reach maturity and can be injured by frosts. Tannia can be propagated by several methods: (1) plant the top (head), (2) plant the whole main tuber, (3) plant pieces of the main tuber, or (4) plant individual secondary tubers. Propaga- tive materials should be set 3 to 5 inches below the surface. ‘South Dade White,’ producies white-fleshed cormels; ‘Malanga Amarilla,’ produces a yellow-fleshed edible corm; and ‘Vinola,’ produces purple-fleshed cormels.

Tropical sweetpotato – ‘Picadito’ is the main variety grown in Miami- Dade County. It has deeply lobed leaves and wine colored skin.

It is illegal to import sweetpotatoes into the US and there is no program to produce disease-free planting material of ‘Picadito’ in Florida. Other sweetpotato growing states have developed red-skinned, white-fleshed sweetpotatoes which may grow well in Florida and which may be available from those plant breeders or through certified slip producers.

Tables

Table 4. 

Herbicides approved for managing weeds in beets.

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Active ingredient lb. a.i./A

Trade name product/A

MOA Code

Weeds controlled / remarks

*** PREEMERGENCE ***

Carfentrazone up to 0.031

(Aim) 1.9 EW up to 2 fl. oz.

(Aim) 2 EC up to 2 fl. oz

14

Apply as a preplant burn down for emerged broadleaf weeds. Use crop oil concentrate, methylated seed oil, or nonionic surfactant at recommended rates. Maximum rate of 0.096 lb. a.i./A per season. No pretransplant interval.

Glyphosate

(various fromulations) consult labels

9

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burn down. Consult labels for individual product directions.

Pelargonic acid

(Scythe) 4.2

EC 3–10% v/v

27

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burn down treatment. Scythe is a contact and nonresidual herbicide and can be tank mixed residual preemergence herbicides to lengthen control.

Pyraflufen

0.001–0.003

(ET Herbicide ) 0.208 EC

0.5–2.0 fl. oz.

14

Emerged broadleaf weeds and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown treatment.

*** POSTEMERGENCE ***

Carfentrazone

up to 0.031

(Aim) 1.9 EW up to 2 fl. oz.

(Aim) 2 EC up to 2 fl. oz.

14

Emerged broadleaf weeds. Apply as a hooded application to row middles only. Use crop oil concentrate or nonionic surfactant at recommended rates. May be tank mixed with other herbicides. Do not exceed 6.1 fl. oz. per cropping season. PHI 0 days.

Clethodim 0.09–0.13

0.07–.25

(Select, Arrow) 2 EC 6–8 fl. oz.

(Select Max) 1 EC 9–16 fl. oz.

1

Perennial and annual grass weeds. In fields with heavy grass pressure or larger grass weeds, use higher rates or repeat application 14 days apart. Use a crop oil concentrate at 1% v/v in the finished spray volume. Consult the label for nessary surfactant. PHI 30 days.

Pelargonic acid

(Sythe) 4.2 EC

3–10% v/v

27

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Direct spray to row middles. Product is a contact, nonselective, foliar applied herbicide with no residual control. May be tank mixed with several soil residual compounds.

S-metolachlor

(Dual Magnum) 7.62 EC

15

Grass and broadleaf weeds and nutsedge. Label is a Third-Party Registration (TPR, Inc.). Use without a signed authorization and waiver of liability is a misuse of the product.

Sethoxydim

0.28 - 0.47

(Poast) 1.5 EC

1.5–2.5 pt.

1

Emerged grass weeds. A maximum of 5 pt./A applied in one season. Include a crop oil concentrate. Unsatisfactory results may occur if applied to grasses under stress. PHI 60 days.

Table 5. 

Herbicides approved for managing weeds in radish.

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Active ingredient lb. a.i./A

Trade name product/A

MOA Code

Weeds controlled / remarks

*** PREPLANT / PREEMERGENCE ***

Carfentrazone

up to 0.031

(Aim) 1.9 EW up to 2 fl. oz.

(Aim) 2.0 EC a.i./A per season. No retransplant interval. up to 2 fl. oz.

14

Apply as a preplant burn down for emerged broadleaf weeds. Use crop oil concentrate,

methylated seed oil, or nonionic surfactant at recommended rates. Maximum rate of 0.096 lb.

Glyphosate

(various formulations) consult labels

9

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown. Consult label for individual

product directions.

Pelargonic acid

(Scythe) 4.2 EC

3–10% v/v

27

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown before planting.

Pyraflufen

0.001–0.003

(ET Herbicide) 0.208 EC

0.5–2.0 fl. oz.

14

Emerged broadleaf weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown treatment.

Trifluralin

0.5–0.75

(Treflan HFP, Trifluralin, Trilin) 4 EC 1.0–1.5 pt.

(Treflan) 4 L 1.0–1.5 pt.

3

Annual broadleaf and grass weeds. Incorporate or irrigate 4 in. within 8 hrs. Results in Florida

are erratic on soils with low organic matter and clay contents.

S-metolachlor

(Dual Magnum) 7.62 EC

15

Grass, broadleaf weeds and nutsedge. Label is a Third-Party Registration (TPR, Inc.). Use without a signed authorization and waiver of liability is a misuse of the product.

*** POSTEMERGENCE ***

Clethodim

0.09–0.13

0.07–0.13

(Select, Arrow) 2 EC

6–8 fl. oz.

(Select Max) 1 EC

9–16 fl. oz.

1

Emerged annual and perennial grass weeds. For repeat application, minimum of 14 days between applications. Do not exceed 0.25 lb. a.i./ha. PHI 15 days.

Sethoxydim

0.47

(Poast) 1.5 EC

2.5 pt.

1

Emerged grass weeds. Do not exceed 3.0 pt./A. per season. Include a crop oil concentrate. Head lettuce and radicchio PHI 30 days. Leaf lettuce and endive PHI 15 day.

Table 6. 

Herbicides approved for managing weeds in sweet potato.

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Active ingredient lb. a.i./A

Trade name product/A

MOA code

Weeds controlled / remarks

*** PRETRANSPLANT ***

Carfentrazone up to 0.031

(Aim) 1.9 EW up to 2 fl. oz

(Aim) 2.0 EC up to 2 fl. oz

14

Apply as a preplant burn down for emerged roadleaf weeds. Use crop oil concentrate, methylated seed oil, or nonionic surfactant at recommended rates. Maximum rate of 0.096 lb. a.i./A per season. No pretransplant interval.

Clomazone 0.49–0.75

(Command) 3 ME 1.3–2.0 pt.

13

Annual broadleaf and grass weeds. Use lower rates on coarse soils. Apply within 5 days of transplanting.

DCPA 4.5–6.0

(Dacthal) W-75 6–8 lb.

(Dacthal) 6F 6–8 pt.

3

Annual broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply immediately after transplanting. May be applied as a layby later in the season for preemergence control.

Flumioxazin 0.096

(Valor) 51 WDG 3 oz.

14

Annual broadleaf weeds. Do not use transplants that were harvested 2 days before application. Severe injury occurs if applied after transplanting. Apply 2–5 days before transplant and minimize soil disturbance after application.

Glyphosate

(various formulations) consult labels

9

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown. Consult label for individual consult labels product directions.

Napropamide 1.0–2.0

(Devrinol DF XT) 50 DF 2.0–4.0 lb.

15

Annual broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply immediately after transplanting. If rainfall does not occur within 24 hr. after application then incorporate or irrigate 2–4 in. deep.

Pelargonic acid

(Scythe) 4.2 EC 3–10% v/v

27

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown treatment. Product is a contact, nonselective, foliar applied herbicide with no residual control. May be tank mixed with soil residual compounds.

Pyraflufen 0.0010.003

(ET Herbicide) 0.208 EC 0.5–2.0 fl. oz

14

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown treatment.

*** POSTTRANSPLANT ***

Carfentrazone up to 0.031

(Aim) 1.9 EW up to 2 fl. oz.

(Aim) 2.0 EC up to 2 fl. oz.

14

Emerged broadleaf weeds. Apply as hooded application to row middles only. Use of COC or NIS at recommended rates. Contact with the leaves will cause injury. PHI 0 days.

Clethodim

0.09–0.25

0.070.25

(Arrow, Select) 2 EC 6–16 fl. oz.

(Select Max) 1 EC 9–32 fl. oz.

1

Perennial and annual grass weeds. Use higher rates under heavy grass pressure or larger grass weeds. Do not apply more than 0.5 lb. a.i./A. Consult the label for required adjuvant. PHI 30 days.

Fluazifop 0.10.25

(Fusilade DX) 2 EC 6–16 fl. oz.

1

Perennial and annual grass weeds. Include a NIS or COC in the spray solution. PHI 55 days.

Pelargonic acid

(Scythe) 4.2 EC 3–10% v/v

27

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a hooded application to row middles only. Contact with the leaves will cause injury.

S-metolachlor

(Dual Magnum) 7.62 EC

15

Grass, broadleaf weeds and nutsedge. Label is a Third-Party Registration (TPR, Inc.). Use without a signed authorization and waiver of liability is a misuse of the product.

Sethoxydim 0.19–0.47

(Poast) 1.5 EC 1.0–2.5 pt.

1

Controls growing grass weeds. A total of 5.0 pt./A applied in one season. Include a COC. Unsatisfactory results may occur if applied to grasses under stress. PHI 30 days.

Table 7. 

Insecticides labeled for management of arthropod pests of carrots and garden beets.

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Also refer to Table 19.2 for biopesticide and other alternative products labeled for disease management.

Pest

MOA

Code1

Trade Name (Active Ingredient)

Rate Product/acre

REI (hours)

Days to Harvest

Notes2

Aphids

1B

Malathion 5EC (malathion)

1.5–2.0 pt

Beets: 12

Carrots: 24

7

Maximum number of applications is 3 for beets and 2 for carrots.

1B

Malathion 8F (malathion)

1.25

12

7

Beets only. Maximum number of applications is 3.

3A

*Brigade 2EC (bifenthrin)

5.12–6.4 fl oz

12

Carrots: 21

Beets: 1

Do not apply more than 0.5 lb ai/acre per season for carrots or 0.4 lb ai/acre per season for beets. Apply no more than once every seven days.

3A

Pyganic Crop Protection EC 5.0 (pyrethrins)

4.5–18 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed.

3A

Pyronyl Crop Spray (pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide)

1–12 fl oz

12

0

 

4A

Actara (thiamethoxam)

1.5–4.0 oz

12

7

Do not exceed 8 oz product/acre/season.

4A

Admire Pro (imidacloprid)

4.4–10.5 fl oz—Soil; 1.2 fl oz—Foliar

12

Soil: 21

Foliar: 5

Limited to one soil application. If applied as a foliar spray, use no more than 3.7 fl oz per acre per season. Leaves may be used for food.

4A

Platinum, 75SG (thiamethoxam)

5.0–12.0 fl oz; 75SG—1.7–4.0 oz

12

at planting

Do not exceed 12 oz Platinum or 4.0 oz. Platinum 75SG per acre per season.

4C

Closer SC (sulfoxaflor)

1.5–2.0 fl oz

12

7

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications or apply more than four total applications per crop.

4D

Sivanto Prime (flupyradifurone)

7–14 fl oz

4

7

Maximum allowed per year: 28 fl oz. Minimum interval between applications: 10 days. Foliar application only.

29

Beleaf 50 SG (flonicamid)

2.0–2.8 oz

12

3

Do not apply more than 3 times at high rate.

--

Aza-Direct (azadirachtin)

1–2 pts, (max 3.5 pts)

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI- listed.

--

Azatin XL (azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

--

Botanigard ES (Beauvaria bassiana strain GHA)

0.25–1 quart per acre. Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage, typically 5–100 gallons per acre.

0

4

 

--

Grandevo (Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1–3 lb

4

0

Greens and roots. OMRI-listed.

--

M-Pede (potassium salts of fatty acids)

1–2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed.

--

Neemix 4.5 (azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

12

0

Acts as IGR and feeding repellent. OMRI-listed.

--

Trilogy (extract of neem oil)

0.5–2.0% v/v

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI- listed.

Beetles (includes blister beetles, cucumber beetles, flea beetles)

1A

Sevin 80S; XLR; 4F (carbaryl)

80S: 0.63–2.5lb

XLR, 4F: 0.5–2 qt

12

7

Highly toxic to bees. Repeat applications, as needed up to 6 times, at least 7 days apart.

1B

Malathion 8F (malathion)

1.25 pt

12

7

Beets only. Maximum number of applications is 3.

3A

*Baythroid XL (beta-cyfluthrin)

1.6–2.8 fl oz

12

0

Do not exceed 14 fl oz/acre per season. Carrots only.

3A

*Brigade 2EC (bifenthrin)

5.12–6.4 fl oz

12

Carrots: 21

Beets: 1

Do not apply more than 0.5 lb ai/acre per season for carrots or 0.4 lb ai/acre per season for beets. Apply no more than once every seven days.

3A

*Mustang (zeta-cypermethrin)

1.4–4.3 oz

12

1

A maximum of 0.3 lb ai/acre per season may be applied. Leaves cannot be used for food or feed.

3A

Pyganic Crop Protection EC 5.0 (pyrethrins)

4.5–18 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed.

3A

Pyronyl Crop Spray (pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide)

1–2 fl oz

12

0

 

4A

Actara (thiamethoxam)

1.5–4.0 oz

12

7

Do not exceed 8 oz product/acre/season.

4A

Admire Pro (imidacloprid)

Soil: 4.4–10.5 fl oz

Foliar: 1.2 fl oz

12

Soil: 21

Foliar: 5

Limited to one soil application. If applied as a foliar spray, use no more than 3.7 fl oz per acre per season. Leaves may be used for food.

4A

Platinum, 75SG (thiamethoxam)

5.0–12.0 fl oz

75SG: 1.7–4.0 oz

12

at planting

Do not exceed 12 oz Platinum or 4.0 oz Platinum 75SG per acre per season.

5

Entrust SC (spinosad)

Roots: 3–6 fl oz

Beet greens: 1.5–10 fl oz

4

3

Do not apply more than a total of 21 fl oz/acre per crop (29 for beet greens) or apply more than 4 times. OMRI- listed.

--

Aza-Direct (azadirachtin)

1–2 pts (max 3.5 pts)

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

--

Azatin XL (azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

Caterpillars (includes beet armyworm, celery leaf-tier, corn earworm, cutworms, fall armyworm, loopers)

1A

Sevin 80S; XLR; 4F (carbaryl)

80S: 0.63–2.5 lb

XLR, 4F: 0.5–2 qt

12

7

Highly toxic to bees. Repeat applications, as needed up to 6 times, at least 7 days apart.

1B

*Diazinon AG500, *50W (diazinon)

AG500: 1–4 qt

50W: 2-8 lb

72

preplant

Do not make more than one application per year.

1B

Malathion 8F (malathion)

1.25 pt

12

7

Beets only. Maximum number of applications is 3.

3A

*Baythroid XL (beta-cyfluthrin)

1.6–2.8 fl oz

12

0

Do not exceed 14 fl oz/acre per season. Carrots only.

3A

*Brigade 2EC (bifenthrin)

5.12–6.4 fl oz

12

Carrots: 21

Beets: 1

Do not apply more than 0.5 lb ai/acre per season for carrots or 0.4 lb ai/acre per season for beets. Apply no more than once every seven days.

3A

*Mustang (zeta-cypermethrin)

1.4–4.3 oz

12

1

A maximum of 0.3 lb ai/acre per season may be applied. Leaves cannot be used for food or feed.

3A

Pyganic Crop Protection EC 5.0 (pyrethrins)

4.5–18 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed.

3A

Pyronyl Crop Spray (pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide)

1–12 fl oz

12

0

 

5

Entrust SC (spinosad)

Roots: 3–6 fl oz

Beet Greens: 1.5–10 fl oz

4

3

Do not apply more than a total of 21 fl oz/acre per crop (29 for beet greens) or apply more than 4 times. OMRI-listed.

5

Radiant SC (spinetoram)

Leaves: 5–10 oz

Roots: 6–8 fl oz

4

3

Maximum of 4 applications per year. If roots will be harvested, lower rate must be used.

11A

Agree WG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

0.5–2.0 lb

4

0

Apply when larvae are small for best control. Leaves and roots. OMRI-listed.

11A

Biobit HP (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5–2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used in the greenhouse.

11A

Crymax WDG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5–2.0 lb

4

0

Use high rate for armyworms. Treat when larvae are young.

11A

Deliver (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.25–1.5 lb

4

0

Use higher rates for armyworms. OMRI-listed.

11A

DiPel DF (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5–2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used for organic production.

11A

Javelin WG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.12–1.50 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. OMRI-listed.

11A

Xentari DF (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

0.5–2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. May be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production.

18

Intrepid 2F (methoxyfenozide)

Leaves: 4–16 Roots: 8–16 fl oz

4

Leaves: 1

Roots: 14

Do not apply more than 64 fl oz per acre per season.

22

Avaunt (indoxacarb)

3.5–6.0 fl oz

12

7

Do not use adjuvants. Do not apply more than 24 oz per acre per crop. Beets only.

--

Coragen (chlorantraniliprole)

3.5–5.0 fl oz

4

1

Do not apply more than 15.4 fl oz product per acre per year. Make no more than 4 applications.

--

Aza-Direct (azadirachtin)

1–2 pts, (max 3.5 pts)

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

--

Azatin XL (azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

--

Grandevo (Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1–3 lb

4

0

Greens and roots. OMRI-listed.

--

Neemix 4.5 (azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

12

0

Acts as IGR and feeding repellent. OMRI-listed.

Fire ants

3A

*Brigade 2EC (bifenthrin)

5.12–6.4 fl oz

12

Carrots: 21

Beets: 1

Do not apply more than 0.5 lb ai/acre per season for carrots or 0.4 lb ai/acre per season for beets. Apply no more than once every seven days.

3A

Pyronyl Crop Spray (pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide)

1–12 fl oz

12

0

 

7A

Extinguish Fire Ant Bait ((S)-methoprene)

1.0–1.5 lb

4

0

Slow-acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks.

Grasshoppers

3A

*Mustang (zeta-cypermethrin)

1.4–4.3 oz

12

1

A maximum of 0.3 lb ai/acre per season may be applied. Leaves cannot be used for food or feed.

3A

Pyganic Crop Protection EC 5.0 (pyrethrins)

4.5–18 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed.

Leafhoppers

1A

Sevin 80S; XLR; 4F (carbaryl)

80S: 0.63–2.5 lb

XLR, 4F: 0.5–2.0 qt

12

7

Highly toxic to bees. Repeat applications, as needed up to 6 times, at least 7 days apart.

1B

Malathion 5 EC (malathion)

1.5–2.0 pt

Beets: 12

Carrots: 24

7

Maximum number of applications is 3 for beets and 2 for carrots.

3A

*Asana XL (0.66EC) (esfenvalerate)

5.8–9.6 fl oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 0.5 lb ai/acre per season. Carrots only.

3A

*Baythroid XL (beta-cyfluthrin)

1.6–2.8 fl oz

12

0

Do not exceed 14 fl oz/acre per season. Carrots only.

3A

*Mustang (Zeta-cypermethrin)

1.4–4.3 oz

12

1

A maximum of 0.3 lb ai/acre per season may be applied. Leaves cannot be used for food or feed.

3A

Pyganic Crop Protection EC 5.0 (pyrethrins)

4.5–18 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed.

3A

Pyronyl Crop Spray (pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide)

1–12 fl oz

12

0

 

4A

Actara (thiamethoxam)

1.5–4.0 oz

12

7

Do not exceed 8 oz product/acre/season.

4A

Admire Pro (imidacloprid)

Soil: 4.4–10.5 fl oz

Foliar 1.2 fl oz

12

Soil: 21

Foliar: 5

Limited to one soil application. If applied as a foliar spray, use no more than 3.7 fl oz per acre per season. Leaves may be used for food.

4A

Platinum, 75SG (thiamethoxam)

5.0–12.0 fl oz

75SG: 1.7–4.0 oz

12

at planting

Do not exceed 12 oz Platinum or 4.0 oz Platinum 75SG per acre per season.

4C

Closer SC (sulfoxaflor)

2.75–5.75

12

7

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications or apply more than four total applications per crop.

4D

Sivanto Prime (flupyradifurone)

7–14 fl oz

4

7

Maximum allowed per year: 28 fl oz. Minimum interval between applications: 10 days. Foliar application only.

--

Aza-Direct (azadirachtin)

1–2 pts, (max 3.5 pts)

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI- listed.

--

Azatin XL (azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

--

Grandevo (Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1–3 lb

4

0

Greens and roots. OMRI-listed

3A

Pyganic Crop Protection EC 5.0 (pyrethrins)

4.5–18 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed.

5

Entrust SC (spinosad)

Roots: 3–6 fl oz

Beet greens: 1.5–10 fl oz

4

3

Do not apply more than a total of 21 fl oz/acre per crop (29 for beet greens) or apply more than 4 times. OMRI-listed.

5

Radiant SC (spinetoram)

Leaves: 5–10 oz

Roots: 6–8 fl oz

4

3

Maximum of 4 applications per year. If roots will be harvested, lower rate must be used.

--

Aza-Direct (azadirachtin)

1–2 pts, (max 3.5 pts)

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

--

Azatin XL (azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

--

M-Pede (potassium salts of fatty acids)

1–2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed.

--

Neemix 4.5 (azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

12

0

Acts as IGR and feeding repellent. OMRI-listed.

Mole crickets and wireworms

1B

*Diazinon AG500, *50W (diazinon)

AG500: 1–4 qt

50W:2–8 lb

72

preplant

Do not make more than one application per year.

Plant bugs

29

Beleaf 50 SG (flonicamid)

2.0–2.8 oz

12

3

Do not apply more than 3 times at high rate.

Stink bugs

1A

Sevin 80S; XLR; 4F (carbaryl)

80S: 0.63–2.5 lb

XLR, 4F: 0.5–2 qt

12

7

Highly toxic to bees. Repeat applications, as needed up to 6 times, at least 7 days apart.

3A

Pyganic Crop Protection EC 5.0 (pyrethrins)

4.5–18 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed.

--

Aza-Direct (azadirachtin)

1–2 pts, (max 3.5 pts)

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

Tarnished plant bug

1A

Sevin 80S; XLR; 4F (carbaryl)

80S: 0.63–2.5 lb

XLR, 4F: 0.5–2 qt

12

7

Highly toxic to bees. Repeat applications, as needed up to 6 times, at least 7 days apart.

3A

*Mustang (zeta-cypermethrin)

1.4–4.3 oz

12

1

A maximum of 0.3 lb ai/acre per season may be applied. Leaves cannot be used for food or feed.

Weevils

3A

*Asana XL (0.66EC) (esfenvalerate)

5.8–9.6 fl oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 0.5 lb ai/acre per season. Carrots only.

3A

*Baythroid XL (beta-cyfluthrin)

1.6–2.8 fl oz

12

0

Do not exceed 14 fl oz/acre per season. Carrots only.

3A

*Mustang (zeta-cypermethrin)

1.4–4.3 oz

12

1

A maximum of 0.3 lb ai/acre per season may be applied. Leaves cannot be used for food or feed.

--

Aza-Direct (azadirachtin)

1–2 pts, (max 3.5 pts)

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

--

Azatin XL (azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

1 Mode of Action (MOA) codes for plant pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode of Action Classification v. 8.2, March 2017. Number codes (1 through 29) are used to distinguish the main insecticide mode of action groups, with additional letters for certain sub-groups within each main group. All insecticides within the same group (with same number) indicate same active ingredient or similar mode of action. This information must be considered for the insecticide resistance management decisions. -- = unknown, or a mode of action that has not been classified yet.

2 Information provided in this table applies only to Florida. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any product. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in the publication does not imply endorsement by UF/IFAS Extension nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. OMRI listed: Listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute for use in organic production.

* Restricted use insecticide.

Table 8. 

Insecticides labeled for management of arthropod pests of radish.

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Also refer to Table 19.2 for biopesticide and other alternative products labeled for disease management.

Insect or

mite pest

MOA Code1

Trade Name

(Active Ingredient)

Rate

Product/acre

REI

(hours)

Days to

Harvest

Notes2

Aphids

1B

Malathion 5EC, 8F

(malathion)

5EC: 1.5 pt; 8F: 1.0 pt

12

7

Maximum of 3 application per year.

3A

*Brigade 2EC

(bifenthrin)

5.12-6.4 fl oz

12

21

Do not apply more than 0.5 lb ai/acre per season.

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

3.4-4.3 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 25.8 fl oz/acre per season.

3A

Pyganic Crop Protection EC 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5-18 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed

4A

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

1.5-3.0 oz

12

7

Maximum of 4 oz/acre per year.

4A

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

Foliar: 1.2 fl oz;

Soil: 4.4-10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7;

Soil: 21

Maximum of 1.2 fl oz (foliar) or 10.5 fl oz (soil)/acre per year.

4A

Platinum 75 SG

(thiamethoxam)

1.7-2.17 oz

12

at planting

Do not exceed 2.17 oz per acre per crop.

4C

Closer SC

(sulfoxaflor)

1.5-2.0 fl oz

24

7

Maximum of 17 fl oz/acre per year.

4D

Sivanto Prime

(flupyradifurone)

7-14 fl oz

4

7

Maximum of 28 fl oz/acre per year.

29

Beleaf 50 SG

(flonicamid)

2.0-2.8 oz

12

3

Do not apply more than 3 times at high rate.

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pts, up to 3.5 , if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

--

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

--

Botanigard ES

(Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

0.25-1 qt

4

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage, typically 5-100 gallon/acre.

--

M-Pede 49% EC Soap, insecticidal

1-2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed.

--

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

OMRI-listed.

--

Sun Spray 98.8%, others

Oil, insecticidal

1-2 gal/100 gal

4

0

 

--

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

1.0-2.0% v/v

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed.

Caterpillars

(includes cutworms, armyworms, corn earworm, hornworm, loopers, webworms,

saltmarsh caterpillar)

1A

*Lannate SP, *LV

(methomyl)

SP: 0.5 lb; LV: 1.5 pt

48

3

SLN [24(c)] label for Florida.

1A

Sevin 4F, XLR Plus

(carbaryl)

1-2 qt

12

7

Maximum of 6 qt/acre per year.

1B

Lorsban 15G, *Advanced (chlorpyrifos)

15G: 3.3 oz per 1000 ft of row (at planting in-furrow);

Advanced: 1.6-3.3 fl oz/1000 ft of row (at planting or postplant), 5.5 pt (preplant incorporated)

24

15G: 7;

Advanced:

30

One application per season. At planting: root maggot. Preplant incorporated application of Lorsban Advanced: cutworms.

1B

*Diazinon AG-500, *50 W (diazinon)

AG500: 2-4 qt; 50W: 4-8 lb

72

preplant

No more than one application per year.

3A

*Asana XL

(0.66 EC)

(esfenvalerate)

5.8-9.6 fl oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 0.1 lb active ingredient (19.2 oz of product) per acre per season.

3A

*Baythroid XL

(beta-cyfluthrin)

1.6-2.8 fl oz

12

0

Do not consume tops. Maximum of 14.0 fl oz/acre per season.

3A

*Brigade 2EC

(bifenthrin)

5.12-6.4 fl oz

12

21

Do not apply more than 0.5 lb ai/acre per season.

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

1.4-4.3 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 25.8 fl oz/acre per season.

3A

Pyganic Crop Protection EC 5.0 (pyrethrins)

4.5-18 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed

5

Entrust SC (spinosad)

3-6 fl oz

4

3

3 applications per year. No more than 18 fl oz per acre per crop. OMRI-listed.

5

Radiant SC (spinetoram)

Foliage harvest: 5-10 fl oz,

root harvest: 6-8 fl oz

4

3

Maximum of 34 fl oz (foliage harvest) or 24 fl oz (root harvest) /acre per year.

11A

Biobit HP (Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production.

11A

Agree WG (Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies aizawai)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

Apply when larvae are small for best control. OMRI-listed.

11A

Crymax WDG (Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

Use high rate for armyworms. Treat when larvae are young. Not for organic production.

11A

Deliver (Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies kurstaki)

0.25-1.5 lb

4

0

Use higher rates for armyworms. OMRI-listed.

11A

DiPel DF (Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used in organic production.

11A

Javelin WG (Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies kurstaki)

0.12-1.5 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. OMRI-listed.

11A

Xentari DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies aizawai)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. May be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production.

18

Intrepid 2F

(methoxyfenozide)

4-16 fl oz for leaves, 8-16 for

roots

4

leaves:

1, roots:

14

Do not apply more than 64 fl oz per acre/season.

28

Coragen

(chlorantraniliprole)

3.5-5.0 fl oz

4

1

Do not make more than 4 applications per acre per crop or a maximum of 15.4 fl oz per acre per year.

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pts, up to 3.5 , if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

--

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

--

Grandevo

(Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1-3 lb

4

0

OMRI-listed.

--

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

Does not kill adult insects. IGR and feeding repellant. OMRI-listed.

Beetles (includes

cucumber beetle,

flea beetles) and

weevils

1A

Sevin 4F, XLR Plus

(carbaryl)

0.5-1.0 qt

12

7

Maximum of 6 qt/acre per year.

1B

Malathion 8F

(malathion)

1.0 pt

12

7

Maximum of 3 application per year. Flea beetles only.

3A

*Asana XL (0.66 EC)

(esfenvalerate)

5.8-9.6 fl oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 0.1 lb active ingredient (19.2 oz of product) per acre per season.

3A

*Baythroid XL

(beta-cyfluthrin)

1.6-2.8 fl oz

12

0

Do not consume tops. Maximum of 14.0 fl oz/acre per season.

3A

*Brigade 2EC

(bifenthrin)

5.12-6.4 fl oz

12

21

Do not apply more than 0.5 lb ai/acre per season.

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

1.9-4.3 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 25.8 fl oz/acre per season.

3A

Pyganic Crop Protection EC 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5-18 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed.

4A

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

1.5-3.0 oz

12

7

Maximum of 4 oz/acre per year. Flea beetles only.

4A

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

1.2 fl oz

12

7

Maximum of 1.2 fl oz/acre per year. Toxic to bees.

4A

Platinum 75 SG

(thiamethoxam)

1.7-2.17 oz

12

at planting

Do not exceed 2.17 oz per acre per crop.

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

3-6 fl oz

4

3

3 applications per year. No more than 18 fl oz per acre per crop. OMRI-listed.

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pts, up to 3.5 , if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

--

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

--

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

Does not kill adult insects. IGR and feeding repellant. OMRI-listed.

Stink bugs, plant

bugs, meadow

spittlebug

1A

Sevin 4F, XLR Plus

(carbaryl)

1-2 qt

12

7

Maximum of 6 qt/acre per year.

 

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

3.4-4.3 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 25.8 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

Pyganic Crop Protection EC 5.0 (pyrethrins)

4.5-18 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed.

 

29

Beleaf 50 SG

(flonicamid)

2.0-2.8 oz

12

3

Do not apply more than 3 times at high rate.

 

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pts, up to 3.5 , if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

Fire ants

3A

*Brigade 2EC

(bifenthrin)

5.12-6.4 fl oz

12

21

Do not apply more than 0.5 lb ai/acre per season.

7A

Extinguish

((S)-methoprene)

1-1.5 lb

4

0

Slow-acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks. May be applied by ground equipment or aerially.

Grasshoppers, mole crickets

1B

*Diazinon AG-500, *50 W

(diazinon)

AG500: 1 qt; 50W: 2 lb

72

preplant

No more than one application per year.

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

3.4-4.3 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 25.8 fl oz/acre per season.

3A

Pyganic Crop Protection

EC 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5-18 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed.

Leafhoppers

1A

Sevin 4F, XLR Plus

(carbaryl)

0.5-1.0 qt

12

7

Maximum of 6 qt/acre per year.

1B

Malathion 8F

(malathion)

1.0 pt

12

7

Maximum of 3 application per year.

3A

*Baythroid XL

(beta-cyfluthrin)

1.6-2.8 fl oz

12

0

Do not consume tops. Maximum of 14.0 fl oz/acre per season.

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

1.9-4.3 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 25.8 fl oz/acre per season.

3A

Pyganic Crop Protection

EC 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5-18 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed.

4A

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

1.5-3.0 oz

12

7

Maximum of 4 oz/acre per year.

4A

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

Foliar: 1.2 fl oz; Soil: 4.4-10.5

fl oz

12

Foliar: 7;

Soil: 21

Maximum of 1.2 fl oz (foliar) or 10.5 fl oz (soil) /acre per year.

4A

Platinum 75 SG

(thiamethoxam)

1.7-2.17 oz

12

at planting

Do not exceed 2.17 oz per acre per crop.

4C

Closer SC

(sulfoxaflor)

2.75-5.75 fl oz

24

7

Maximum of 17 fl oz/acre per year.

4D

Sivanto Prime

(flupyradifurone)

7-14 fl oz

4

7

Maximum of 28 fl oz/acre per year.

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pts, up to 3.5 , if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

--

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

--

Grandevo

(Chromobacterium

subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1-3 lb

4

0

OMRI-listed.

--

M-Pede 49% EC Soap,

insecticidal

1-2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed.

--

Sun Spray 98.8%, others

Oil, insecticidal

1-2 gal/100 gal

4

0

 

Leafminers

3A

Pyganic Crop Protection

EC 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5-18 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed.

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

3-6 fl oz

4

3

3 applications per year. No more than 18 fl oz per acre per crop. OMRI-listed.

5

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

Foliage harvest: 6-10 fl oz,

root harvest: 6-8 fl oz

4

3

Maximum of 34 fl oz (foliage harvest) or 24 fl oz (root harvest) /acre per year.

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pts, up to 3.5 , if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

--

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

--

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

Does not kill adult insects. IGR and feeding repellant. OMRI-listed.

--

Sun Spray 98.8%, others

Oil, insecticidal

1-2 gal/100 gal

4

0

 

Mites: carmine

spider mite,

twospotted spider

mite

3A

*Brigade 2EC

(bifenthrin)

5.12-6.4 fl oz

12

21

Do not apply more than 0.5 lb ai/acre per season.

3A

Pyganic Crop Protection

EC 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5-18 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed.

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pts, up to 3.5 , if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

--

M-Pede 49% EC Soap,

insecticidal

1-2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed.

--

Sun Spray 98.8%, others

Oil, insecticidal

1-2 gal/100 gal

4

0

 

--

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

1.0-2.0% v/v

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed.

Thrips (check label for species controlled)

3A

Pyganic Crop Protection

EC 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5-18 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed.

4A

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

4.4-10.5 fl oz

12

21 (soil

application)

Maximum of 10.5 fl oz (soil) /acre per year.

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

3-6 fl oz

4

3

3 applications per year. No more than 18 fl oz per acre per crop. OMRI-listed.

5

Radiant SC (spinetoram)

Foliage harvest: 6-10 fl oz,

root harvest: 6-8 fl oz

4

3

Maximum of 34 fl oz (foliage harvest) or 24 fl oz (root harvest) /acre per year.

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pts, up to 3.5 , if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

--

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

--

Botanigard ES

(Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

0.25-1 qt

4

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage, typically 5-100 gallon/acre.

--

M-Pede 49% EC Soap,

insecticidal

1-2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed.

--

Sun Spray 98.8%, others

Oil, insecticidal

1-2 gal/100 gal

4

0

 

--

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

1.0-2.0% v/v

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed.

Whiteflies

3A

*Brigade 2EC

(bifenthrin)

5.12-6.4 fl oz

12

21

Do not apply more than 0.5 lb ai/acre per season.

3A

Pyganic Crop Protection

EC 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5-18 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed.

4A

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

3.0-4.0 oz

12

7

Maximum of 4 oz/acre per year.

4A

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

Foliar: 1.2 fl oz; Soil: 4.4-10.5

fl oz

12

Foliar: 7;

Soil: 21

Maximum of 1.2 fl oz (foliar) or 10.5 fl oz (soil) /acre per year.

4A

Platinum 75 SG

(thiamethoxam)

1.7-2.17 oz

12

at planting

Do not exceed 2.17 oz per acre per crop.

4C

Closer SC

(sulfoxaflor)

4.25-5.75 fl oz

24

7

Maximum of 17 fl oz/acre per year.

4D

Sivanto Prime

(flupyradifurone)

10.5-14.0 fl oz

4

7

Maximum of 28 fl oz/acre per year.

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pts, up to 3.5 , if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

--

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

--

Botanigard ES

(Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

0.25-1 qt

4

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage, typically 5-100 gallon/acre

--

Grandevo

(Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1-3 lb

4

0

OMRI-listed.

--

M-Pede 49% EC Soap,

insecticidal

1-2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed.

--

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

Does not kill adult insects. IGR and feeding repellant. OMRI-listed.

--

Sun Spray 98.8%, others

Oil, insecticidal

1-2 gal/100 gal

4

0

 

--

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

1.0-2.0% v/v

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed.

Wireworms

1B

*Lorsban Advanced

(chlorpyrifos)

4.5 pt (preplant incorporated)

24

30

One application per season.

1 Mode of Action (MOA) codes for plant pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode of Action Classification v. 8.2 March 2017. Number codes (1 through 29) are used to distinguish the main insecticide mode of action groups, with additional letters for certain sub-groups within each main group. All insecticides within the same group (with same number) indicate same active ingredient or similar mode of action. This information must be considered for the insecticide resistance management decisions. -- = unknown, or a mode of action that has not been classified yet.

2 Information provided in this table applies only to Florida. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any product. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in the publication does not imply endorsement by UF/IFAS Extension nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. OMRI listed: Listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute for use in organic production.

* Restricted use insecticide.

Table 9. 

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Also refer to Table 19.2 for biopesticide and other alternative products labeled for disease management.

Insect or mite pest

MOA

Code1

Trade Name

(Active Ingredient)

*Restricted

Rate

(Product/acre)

REI

(hours)

Days to

Harvest

Notes

Aphids

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

1.4-4.3 oz

12

1

A maximum of 0.3 lb ai/acre per season may be applied.

Leaves cannot be used for food or feed.

3A, 28

*Besiege

(lambda-cyhalothrin,

chlorantraniliprole)

5-9 oz

24

14

Do not apply more than 27.0 fl. oz of product per acre per season. Supplemental label.

4A

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

1.5-3.0 oz

12

14

Toxic to bees. Do not use after Platinum.

4A

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

soil: 4.4-10.5 fl oz

foliar:

1.2 fl oz

12

soil: 125

foliar: 7

One application to soil per season. If using as a foliar spray, no more than 3.7 fl oz per acre per season.

4A

Assail 30SG

(acetamiprid)

1.5-4.0 oz

12

7

Whiteflies not on label for sweet potatoes but are for other crops on label. No more than 4 applications per season.

4A

Belay Insecticide

(clothianidin)

in-furrow or side dress: 9-12 fl oz, foliar: 2-3 fl oz

12

foliar: 14

In-furrow or side-dress application, including chemigation up to 50% ground cover. Do not apply more than 12 fl oz per acre per year.

4A

Platinum 75SG

(thiamethoxam)

1.66-2.67 oz

12

Applied at planting

To manage resistance, avoid using other Group 4A insecticides in conjunction with Platinum. Highly toxic to bees. Do not allow to drift to blooming weeds or crops.

4D

Sivanto Prime

(flupyradifurone)

7-14 fl oz

4

7

Minimum interval between applications = 7 days. Maximum allowed per acre per year = 28 fl oz.

9B

Fulfill

(pymetrozine)

2.75-5.5 oz

12

14

Allow a minimum of 7 days between applications. Do not exceed 11 oz/acre per season.

23

Movento

(spirotetramat)

4.0-5.0 fl oz

24

7

Maximum of 10 fl oz/acre per season.

28

Verimark

(cyantraniliprole)

6.75-13.5 fl oz

4

at planting

pH of application solution should be between 4 and 6.

29

Beleaf 50 SG

(flonicamid)

2.0-2.8 oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 8.4 oz per acre per season.

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pt, up to 3.5 pt, if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

--

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

--

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

Does not kill adult insects. IGR and feeding repellant.

OMRI-listed2.

--

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

0.5-2.0% v/v

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn.

Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed2.

--

BotaniGard ES

(Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

0.25-1 quart per acre. Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage, typically 5-100 gallons per acre.

4

0

May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides.

--

Grandevo

(Chromobacterium

subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1-3 lb

4

0

OMRI-listed2.

--

M-Pede 49% EC

(Soap, insecticidal)

1-2 % v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed2.

Beetles (including cucumber beetle, Japanese beetle, tortoise beetle, flea beetle, whitefringed beetle)

1A

Sevin 80S; XLR; 4F

(carbaryl)

80S: 1.25-2.5 lb XLR

4F: 1-2 qt

12

7

Do not apply more than 10 lb (80S) per acre per crop or 8 qt (4F, XLR). See label for preplant dip treatment.

1B

Imidan 70 W

(phosmet)

1.3 lb

4 days for seedbed treatment, 5 days for foliar

7

No more than 5 applications per season. Do not apply through irrigation system. Crop must be mechanically harvested.

1B

Lorsban 15G, 75WG, *Advanced

(chlorpyrifos)

See labels for rates

24

preplant broadcast treatment,

125 days before harvest

See label. Must be incorporated into soil. Only one application per season.

1B

*Mocap 15 G, *EC

(ethoprop)

See labels

48

preplant, see labels

Two to three weeks before planting.

3A

*Baythroid XL

(beta-cyfluthrin)

0.8-2.8 fl oz

12

0

No more than 16.8 fl oz/acre per season.

3A

*Brigade 2 EC

(bifenthrin)

soil: 9.6-19.2 oz at-plant and 3.2-9.6 oz at lay-by

foliar: 2.1-6.4 oz

12

21

No more than 2 foliar applications, at least 21 days apart. Do not apply more than 0.5 lb active ingredient per acre per season, including soil applications.

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

1.4-4.3 oz

12

1

A maximum of 0.3 lb ai/acre per season may be applied. Leaves cannot be used for food or feed.

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96-1.92 fl oz

24

7

Do not apply more than 7.68 fl oz of product per acre per season.

4A

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

1.5-3.0 oz

12

14

Toxic to bees. Do not use after Platinum.

3A, 28

*Besiege

(lambda-cyhalothrin,

chlorantraniliprole)

5-9 oz

24

14

Do not apply more than 27.0 fl. oz of product per acre per

season. Supplemental label.

3A, 4A

*Endigo ZC

(lambda-cyhalothrin,

thiamethoxam)

3.5-4.5 fl oz

24

14

Do not exceed a total of 10 fl oz of product per acre per growing season. Do not use with other Group 4A insecticides.

4A

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

soil: 4.4-10.5 fl oz

foliar: 1.2 fl oz

12

soil: 125

foliar: 7

One application to soil per season. If using as a foliar spray, no more than 3.7 fl oz per acre per season. Flea beetles only.

4A

Assail 30SG

(acetamiprid)

1.5-4.0 oz

12

7

Whiteflies not on label for sweet potatoes but are for other

crops on label. No more than 4 applications per season.

4A

Belay Insecticide

(clothianidin)

in-furrow or side dress: 9-12 fl oz

foliar: 2-3 fl oz

12

foliar: 14

In-furrow or side-dress application, including chemigation

up to 50% ground cover. Do not apply more than 12 fl oz

per acre per year. Flea beetles only.

4A

Platinum 75SG

(thiamethoxam)

1.66-2.67 oz

12

at planting

To manage resistance, avoid using other Group 4A

insecticides in conjunction with Platinum. Highly toxic to

bees. Do not allow to drift to blooming weeds or crops.

Flea beetles only.

4A

Scorpion 35 SL

(dinotefuran)

foliar: 2.0-2.75 fl

soil: 11.5-13.25 fl oz

12

foliar: 7

soil: apply preplant, preemergence or at ground crack

Do not apply more than 8 fl oz per acre per season as foliar sprays, or more than 13.25 fl oz as a soil application.

Highly toxic to bees for 38 hours after application. Do not

apply to crops in bloom or allow to drift to weeds or other

crops in bloom. Flea beetles only.

4A, 28

Voliam Flexi

(thiamethoxam and

chlorantraniliprole)

4 oz

12

14

Do not exceed a total of 8 oz of product per acre per

season.

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pt, up to 3.5 pt, if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

--

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

--

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

Does not kill adult insects. IGR and feeding repellant.

OMRI-listed2.

Caterpillars (including armyworms, loopers, corn earworms, hornworms, webworms, saltmarsh caterpillars)

1A

Sevin 80S; XLR; 4F

(carbaryl)

80S: 1.25-2.5 lb

XLR 4F: 1-2 qt

12

7

Do not apply more than 10 lb (80S) per acre per crop or 8

qt (4F, XLR). See label for preplant dip treatment.

3A

*Baythroid XL

(beta-cyfluthrin)

0.8-2.8 fl oz

12

0

No more than 16.8 fl oz/acre per season.

3A

*Brigade 2 EC

(bifenthrin)

soil: 9.6-19.2 oz at-plant and 3.2-9.6 oz at lay-by foliar: 2.1-6.4 oz

12

21

No more than 2 foliar applications, at least 21 days apart.

Do not apply more than 0.5 lb active ingredient per acre

per season, including soil applications.

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

1.4-4.3 oz

12

1

A maximum of 0.3 lb ai/acre per season may be applied.

Leaves cannot be used for food or feed.

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96-1.92 fl oz

24

7

Do not apply more than 7.68 fl oz of product per acre per

season.

3A, 28

*Besiege

(lambda-cyhalothrin,

chlorantraniliprole)

5-9 oz

24

14

Do not apply more than 27.0 fl. oz of product per acre per

season. Supplemental label.

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

4.5-10 fl oz

4

7

Do not make applications less than 7 days apart or apply

more than 4 times per crop. Do not apply more than 21 fl

oz/acre per crop. OMRI-listed2.

5

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

6-8 fl oz

4

7

Do not make more than 4 applications per year.

11A

DiPel DF (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential.

Can be used in organic production.

11A

Xentari DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

Catepillars only. Treat when larvae are young. Thorough

coverage is essential. May be used in the greenhouse.

Can be used in organic production.

15

Rimon 0.83 EC

(novaluron)

6-12 fl oz

12

14

Do not apply more than 24 oz per acre per season. Limited

to two applications for whiteflies (12-oz rate).

18

Intrepid 2F

(methoxyfenozide)

6-10 fl oz

4

7

Do not apply more than 64 fl oz of product per acre per

year or apply more often than every 14 days.

22

Avaunt

(indoxacarb)

2.5-6.0 oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 24 oz/acre per crop.

28

Coragen

(chlorantraniliprole)

3.5-5.0 fl oz

4

1

Foliar only. No more than 4 applications per crop. Do not

make more than 2 successive applications in a 30-day period. Do not apply more than 15.4 fl oz per acre per crop.

28

Verimark

(cyantraniliprole)

6.75-13.5 fl oz

4

at planting

pH of application solution should be between 4 and 6.

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pt, up to 3.5 pt, if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

--

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

--

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

Does not kill adult insects. IGR and feeding repellant.

OMRI-listed2.

--

Grandevo

(Chromobacterium

subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1-3 lb

4

0

OMRI-listed2.

Fire ants

1B

*Mocap 15 G, *EC

(ethoprop)

See labels

48

preplant, see labels

Two to three weeks before planting.

7A

Extinguish

((S)-methoprene)

1.0-1.5 lb

4

0

Slow-acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied

early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies

will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8

to 10 weeks.

7D

Esteem Ant Bait

(pyriproxyfen)

1.5-2.0 lb

12

1

Do not exceed a total of 0.109 lb pyriproxyfen per acre (all

formulations, i.e., Knack IGR). Ant Bait contains 0.5% ai,

or 0.10 lb at 2-lb rate.

Leafhoppers

1B

Malathion 5 EC

(malathion)

5EC: 1.5-2.5 pt

8F: 1-1.5 pt

12

5EC: 0

8F: 3

Maximum of two applications per year.

3A

*Baythroid XL

(beta-cyfluthrin)

0.8-2.8 fl oz

12

0

No more than 16.8 fl oz/acre per season.

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96-1.92 fl oz

24

7

Do not apply more than 7.68 fl oz of product per acre per

season.

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

1.4-4.3 oz

12

1

A maximum of 0.3 lb ai/acre per season may be applied.

Leaves cannot be used for food or feed.

3A, 28

*Besiege

(lambda-cyhalothrin,

chlorantraniliprole)

5-9 oz

24

14

Do not apply more than 27.0 fl oz of product per acre per

season. Supplemental label.

3A, 4A

*Endigo ZC

(lambda-cyhalothrin,

thiamethoxam)

3.5-4.5 fl oz

24

14

Do not exceed a total of 10 fl oz of product per acre

per growing season. Do not use with other Group 4A

insecticides.

4A

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

soil: 4.4-10.5 fl oz

foliar: 1.2 fl oz

12

soil: 125

foliar: 7

One application to soil per season. If using as a foliar

spray, no more than 3.7 fl oz per acre per season.

4A

Assail 30SG

(acetamiprid)

1.5-4.0 oz

12

7

Whiteflies not on label for sweet potatoes but are for other

crops on label. No more than 4 applications per season.

4A

Platinum 75SG

(thiamethoxam)

1.66-2.67 oz

12

at planting

To manage resistance, avoid using other Group 4A insecticides in conjunction with Platinum. Highly toxic to bees. Do not allow to drift to blooming weeds or crops.

4A

Scorpion 35 SL

(dinotefuran)

foliar: 2.0-2.75 fl oz

soil: 11.5-13.25 fl oz

12

foliar: 7

soil: apply preplant, preemergence, or at ground crack

Do not apply more than 8 fl oz per acre per season as

foliar sprays, or more than 13.25 fl oz as a soil application.

Highly toxic to bees for 38 hours after application. Do

not apply to crops in bloom or allow to drift to weeds or

other crops in bloom.

4A, 28

Voliam Flexi

(thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

4 oz

12

14

Do not exceed a total of 8 oz of product per acre per

season.

4C

Closer

(sulfoxaflor)

0.75-2.25 oz

24

7

Do not make more than 2 consecutive or 4 total applications per year. No bloom restrictions.

4D

Sivanto Prime

(flupyradifurone)

7-14 fl oz

4

7

Minimum interval between applications=7 days. Maximum

allowed per acre per year=28 fl oz.

23

Movento

(spirotetramat)

4.0-5.0 fl oz

24

7

Maximum of 10 fl oz/acre per season.

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pt, up to 3.5 pt, if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

--

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

--

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

Does not kill adult insects. IGR and feeding repellant.

OMRI-listed2.

--

Grandevo

(Chromobacterium

subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1-3 lb

4

0

OMRI-listed2.

Liriomyza

Leafminers

1B

Malathion 5 EC

(malathion)

5EC: 1.5-2.5 pt

8F: 1-1.5 pt

12

5EC: 0

8F: 3

Maximum of two applications per year.

4A

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

1.5-3.0 oz

12

14

Toxic to bees. Do not use after Platinum.

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

4.5-10 fl oz

4

7

Do not make applications less than 7 days apart or apply

more than 4 times per crop. Do not apply more than 21 fl

oz/acre per crop. OMRI-listed2.

5

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

6-8 fl oz

4

7

Do not make more than 4 applications per year.

6

*Agri-Mek SC

(abamectin)

1.75-3.5 fl oz

12

14

Must be used with a non-ionic activator type wetting,

spreading and/or penetrating adjuvant, not a binder

sticker type adjuvant.

15

Rimon 0.83 EC

(novaluron)

6-12 fl oz

12

14

Do not apply more than 24 oz per acre per season. Limited

to two applications for whiteflies (12-oz rate).

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pt, up to 3.5 pt, if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

--

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

--

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

Does not kill adult insects. IGR and feeding repellant.

OMRI-listed2.

--

Oil, insecticidal

1-2 gal/100 gal

12

Up to day of harvest

 

Mites

6

*Agri-Mek SC

(abamectin)

1.75-3.5 fl oz

12

14

Must be used with a non-ionic activator type wetting,

spreading and/or penetrating adjuvant., not a binder

sticker type adjuvant.

23

Oberon 2SC

(spiromesifen)

8-16 fl oz

12

7

Maximum amount per crop: 32 oz/acre. No more than 2

applications.

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pt, up to 3.5 pt, if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

--

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

0.5-2.0% v/v

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn.

Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed2.

--

Oil, insecticidal

1-2 gal/100 gal

12

Up to day of harvest

 

Stinkbugs, plant bugs

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

1.4-4.3 oz

12

1

A maximum of 0.3 lb ai/acre per season may be applied.

Leaves cannot be used for food or feed.

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96-1.92 fl oz

24

7

Do not apply more than 7.68 fl oz of product per acre per

season.

3A, 28

*Besiege

(lambda-cyhalothrin,

chlorantraniliprole)

5-9 oz

24

14

Do not apply more than 27.0 fl. oz of product per acre per

season. Supplemental label.

3A, 4A

*Endigo ZC

(lambda-cyhalothrin,

thiamethoxam)

3.5-4.5 fl oz

24

14

Do not exceed a total of 10 fl oz of product per acre

per growing season. Do not use with other Group 4A

insecticides.

29

Beleaf 50 SG

(flonicamid)

2.0-2.8 oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 8.4 oz per acre per season.

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pt, up to 3.5 pt, if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

Thrips (check label for species

controlled)

5

Entrust SC (spinosad)

4.5-10 fl oz

4

7

Do not make applications less than 7 days apart or apply

more than 4 times per crop. Do not apply more than 21 fl

oz/acre per crop. OMRI-listed2.

5

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

6-8 fl oz

4

7

Do not make more than 4 applications per year.

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pt, up to 3.5 pt, if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

--

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

--

Trilogy (extract of neem oil)

0.5-2.0% v/v

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn.

Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed2.

--

BotaniGard ES

(Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

0.25-1 quart per acre. Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage, typically 5-100 gallons per acre.

4

0

May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides.

Sweetpotato weevil

1B

Imidan 70 W

(phosmet)

1.3 lb

4 days for seedbed treatment, 5 days for foliar

7

No more than 5 applications per season. Do not apply through irrigation system. Crop must be mechanically harvested.

3A

*Baythroid XL

(beta-cyfluthrin)

0.8-2.8 fl oz

12

0

No more than 16.8 fl oz/acre per season. Adults only.

4A

Belay Insecticide

(clothianidin)

9-12 fl oz

   

In furrow or side dressing.

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pt, up to 3.5 pt, if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

--

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

--

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

Does not kill adult insects. IGR and feeding repellant.

OMRI-listed2.

Whitefly

1B

Malathion 5 EC

(malathion)

5EC: 1.5-2.5 pt

8F: 1-1.5 pt

12

5EC: 0

8F: 3

Maximum of two applications per year. Tank mix with pyrethroid for best control.

 

3A

*Brigade 2 EC

(bifenthrin)

2.1-6.4 oz

12

21

Foliar only. No more than 2 foliar applications, at least 21 days apart. Do not apply more than 0.5 lb active ingredient per acre per season, including soil applications. Tanksmix with Malathion for best control.

 

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96-1.92 fl oz

24

7

Do not apply more than 7.68 fl oz of product per acre per

season. Tanksmix with Malathion for best control.

 

3A, 4A

*Endigo ZC

(lambda-cyhalothrin,

thiamethoxam)

3.5-4.5 fl oz

24

14

Do not exceed a total of 10 fl oz of product per acre per growing season. Do not use with other Group 4A insecticides.

 

4A

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

soil: 4.4-10.5 fl oz

foliar: 1.2 fl oz

12

soil: 125

foliar: 7

One application to soil per season. If using as a foliar

spray, no more than 3.7 fl oz per acre per season.

 

4A

Assail 30SG

(acetamiprid)

1.5-4.0 oz

12

7

Whiteflies not on label for sweet potatoes but are for other

crops on label. No more than 4 applications per season.

 

4D

Sivanto Prime

(flupyradifurone)

7-14 fl oz

4

7

Minimum interval between applications = 7 days. Maximum allowed per acre per year = 28 fl oz.

 

15

Rimon 0.83 EC

(novaluron)

6-12 fl oz

12

14

Do not apply more than 24 oz per acre per season. Limited

to two applications for whiteflies (12-oz rate).

 

23

Movento

(spirotetramat)

4.0-5.0 fl oz

24

7

Maximum of 10 fl oz/acre per season.

 

23

Oberon 2SC

(spiromesifen)

8-16 fl oz

12

7

Maximum amount per crop: 32 oz/acre. No more than 2 applications.

 

--

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pt, up to 3.5 pt, if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

 

--

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

 

--

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

Does not kill adult insects. IGR and feeding repellant.

OMRI-listed2.

 

--

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

0.5-2.0% v/v

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn.

Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed2.

 

--

BotaniGard ES

(Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

0.25-1 quart per acre. Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage, typically 5-100 gallons per acre.

4

0

May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides.

 

--

Grandevo

(Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1-3 lb

4

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

--

Oil, insecticidal

1-2 gal/100 gal

12

Up to day of harvest

 

1 Mode of Action (MOA) codes for plant pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode of Action Classification v. 8.2, March 2017. Number codes (1 through 29) are used to distinguish the main insecticide mode of action groups, with additional letters for certain sub-groups within each main group. All insecticides within the same group (with same number) indicate same active ingredient or similar mode of action. This information must be considered for the insecticide resistance management decisions. -- = unknown, or a mode of action that has not been classified yet.

2 Information provided in this table applies only to Florida. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any product. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in the publication does not imply endorsement by UF/IFAS Extension nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. OMRI listed: Listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute for use in organic production.

* Restricted use insecticide.

Table 10. 

Beet fungicides ordered by disease and then FRAC group according to their mode of action.

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Refer to Table 19.1 for biopesticide and other alternative products labeled for disease management.

Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens

Fungicide Group1

Chemical (active ingredients)

Max. Rate/Acre

Min. Days to

Remarks2

     

Applic.

Season

Harvest

Reentry

 

Alternaria Powdery mildew

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WDG

(cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

7

0.5

See label for specifics regarding preplant incorporated applications and surface applications at the time of planting.

19

OSO (polyoxin D zinc salts)

13 fl oz

84 fl oz

0

4 hr

See label for details.

7

Fontelis SC (penthiopyrad)

30 fl oz

61 fl oz

0

0.5

Apply no more than 2 sequential applications without alternating to dissimilar chemistry.

7 & 11

Merivon SC

5.5 fl oz

16.5 fl oz

7

0.5

Apply no more than 2 sequential applications

without alternating to dissimilar chemistry.

Cercospora

M1

(copper compounds)

Many brands available: Americop 40 DF, Badge SC, Badge X2, Basic Copper 53, C-O-C-S WDG, Champ DP, Champ WG, Champ Formula 2, Champ WP, COC DF, COC WP, Copper Count N, Cueva, Cuprofix Ultra, Kentan DF, Kocide DF, Kocide 2000, Kocide 3000, Kocide 4.5 LF, Kop-hydroxide, Mastercop, Nordox 75 WG, NuCop 50WP, NuCop 3L, NuCop HB, NuCop DF, Top Cop w/ Sulfur

SEE INDIVIDUAL

LABLES

1

Varies by product from 4 hr to 2 days

 

M2

(sulfur)

Many brands available: Kumulus DF, Micro Sulf, Microthiol Disperss, Sulfur 90W, Top Cop w/Sulfur, Wettable Sulfur

SEE INDIVIDUAL

LABLES

1

1

Do not apply during periods of warm weather. Do not apply within 2 weeks of an oil spray.

3

Bumper 41.8EC (propiconazole)

4.0 fl oz

16.0 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not apply more than 4 appl/season.

3

(tebuconazole)

Many brands available: Folicur 3.6F, Monsoon 3.6F, Onset 3.6L, Orius 3,6F, Tebusha 3.6L, Toledo 3.6F, Tebuzol 3.6F, Tebustar 3.6L

7.2 fl oz

28.8 fl oz

7

 

Do not apply more than 4 appl/season.

3

Tilt 3.6E (propiconazole)

4.0 fl oz

16.0 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not apply more than 4 appl/season.

7

Fontelis SC (penthiopyrad)

30 fl oz

61 fl oz

0

0.5

Apply no more than 2 sequential applications without alternating to dissimilar chemistry.

7 & 11

Merivon SC

5.5 fl oz

16.5 fl oz

7

0.5

Apply no more than 2 sequential applications without alternating to dissimilar chemistry.

11

Cabrio EG (pyraclostrobin)

16 oz

48 oz

0

0.5

Limit is 3 appl./crop & alternate chemistry.

11

Flint (trifloxystrobin)

3 oz

12 oz

7

0.5

Alternate every other application with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

11

Gem 500SC (trifloxystrobin)

2.9 fl oz

11.6 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate every other application with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

11

Quadris (azoxystrobin)

15.4 fl oz

3.75 qt

0

4 hr

Alternate every other application with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

11

Reason (fenamidone)

8.2 fl oz

24.6 fl oz

2

0.5

Alternate every other application with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

Damping-off

M3

Defiant 75WP (thiram)

5.3 oz/100 lbs of seed

   

1

Seed treatment only.

M3

Signet

5.0 oz/100 lb of seed

   

1

Seed treatment only.

Downy mildew

33

(mono- and di-potassium salts of phosphorous acids)

Many brands available: Confine Xtra, Fosphite, Fungiphite, K-phite, Oxiphos, Rampart

3 qt

 

0

4 hr

See label for details.

43

Presidio (fluopicolide)

4 fl oz

12 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not exceed more than 2 sequential applications.

Pythium seedling blight

4

(metalaxyl)

Various brands available:

Acquire, Alliegiance FL, Dynashield, Metalaxyl 318 FS

0.75 fl oz/100 lb seed

   

0.5

Seed treatment only.

4

Apron XL LS (mefenoxam)

0.64 fl oz/

100 lb

seed

   

2

Seed treatment only.

4

Metastar 2E AG (metalaxyl)

8 pt

   

1

Apply as a broadcast soil application and incorporate into top 2 inches. See label for directions.

4

Sebring 2.65 ST (metalaxyl)

0.7 fl oz/

100 lb

seed

   

1

Seed treatment only.

Pythium seedling diseases

4

Ridomil Gold EC (mefenoxam)

2 pt

   

2

Apply at seeding in a 7-12” band on soil over seed furrow.

4

Ridomil Gold GR (mefenoxam)

40 lb

   

2

See label for specifics regarding preplant incorporated applications and surface applications at the time of planting.

4

Ultra Flourish (mefenoxam)

4 pt

   

2

See label for specifics regarding preplant incorporated applications and surface applications at the time of planting.

Various seedling

diseases

12

Maxim 4FS (fludioxonil)

0.16 fl oz/100 lb of

seed

   

0.5

Seed treatment only.

12

Spirato 480 FS (fludioxanil)

         

4 & 11

Uniform SC (mefenoxam + azoxystrobin)

0.34 fl oz/1000’ of row

1 appl.

 

0

Soil incorporated.

Various Diseases

7 & 9

Luna Tranquility (fluopyram + pyrimethanil)

11.2 fl oz

54.7 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications without rotating to a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

7 & 11

Luna Sensation

(fluopyram + trifloxystrobin)

5.8 fl oz

23 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications without rotating to a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

1 FRAC code (fungicide group): Number (1 through 46) and letters (U and P) are used to distinguish the fungicide mode of action groups. All fungicides within the same group (with same number or letter) indicate same active ingredient or similar mode of action. This information must be considered for the fungicide resistance management decisions. U = unknown, or a mode of action that has not been classified yet and is typically associated with another number; P = host plant defense inducers. Source: FRAC Code List 2017; http://www.frac.info/ (FRAC = Fungicide Resistance Action Committee).

2 Information provided in this table applies only to Florida. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in the publication does not imply endorsement by UF/IFAS Extension nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned.

Table 11. 

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Refer to Table 19.1 for biopesticide and other alternative products labeled for disease management.

Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens

Fungicide Group1

Chemical (active ingredients)

Max. Rate/Acre

Min. Days to

Remarks2

     

Applic.

Season

Harvest

Reentry

 

Alternaria blight

M1

(copper compounds)

Many labels available: Badge SC, Badge X2, Basic Copper 53, COCS WDG, Champ DP, Champ WG, Champ Formula 2, Champ WP, COC DF, COC WP, Copper Count N, Cueva, Cuprofix Ultra, Cuproxat,Kentan DF, Kocide DF, Kocide 2000, Kocide 3000, Kocide 4.5 LF, Kop-hydroxide, Mastercop, Nordox 75 WG, NuCop 50WP, NuCop 3L, NuCop HB, NuCop DF, Previsto, Stretch, Tenn-Cop 5E, Top Cop w/Sulfur

SEE INDIVIDUAL

LABLES

1

Varies by product from 4 hr to 2 day

 

M5

(chlorothalonil)

Many labels available: Bravo Ultrex, Bravo Weather Stik, Bravo ZN, Chloronil 720, Chlorothalonil 720SC, Echo 720, Echo 90DF, Echo ZN, Equus 720SST, Equus DF, Initiate 720, Initiate ZN, Praiz

SEE INDIVIDUAL

LABLES

7

0.5

 

M5/33

Catamaran (Chlorothalonil/phosphite)

4 pt

50 pt

0

0.5

 

2

(iprodione)

Many labels available: Iprodione 4L AG, Enclosure 4F, Meteor, Nevado 4F, Rovral 4F

2 pt

8 pt

0

1

 

3

(propiconazole)

Many labels available: Amtide Propiconazole, Bumper 41.8EC, Fitness, Propicure, Propimax, Propi-Star EC, Shar-Shield PPZ, Tide Propiconazole, Tilt 3.6E, Topaz, Willowood Azoxy

4 fl oz

16 fl oz

14

0.5

Do not exceed 4 total appls.

4 & M5

Ridomil Gold Bravo WP (mefenoxam + chlorothalonil)

2 lb

 

7

2

 

4 & M5

Ridomil Gold Bravo SC

(mefenoxam + chlorothalonil)

2.5 pt

 

7

2

 

7

Endura (boscalid)

4.5 oz

22.5 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with non-FRAC code 7 fungicide. See label for directions.

7

Fontelis (pentiopyrad)

30 fl oz

61 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with non-FRAC code 7 fungicide. See label for directions.

7 & 11

Merivon SC (pyraclostrobin & fluxapyroxad)

5.5 fl oz

16.5 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WDG (cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

7

0.5

 

11

Cabrio EG (pyraclostrobin)

12 oz

48 oz

0

0.5

Do not exceed 1 sequential and 4 total appl. of Amistar or other Qol fungicides. See label for soil appl.

11 & M5

Quadris Opti (azoxystrobin + chlorothalonil)

2.4 pt

14.4 pt

0

0.5

Do not exceed 2 sequential and 6 total appl. of Quadris Opti. or rotate with non Qol fungicides.

11 & 3

Quilt (azoxystrobin + propiconazole)

14 fl oz

55 fl oz

14

0.5

Alternate every other application with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

11 & 3

Quilt XCEL (azoxystrobin + propiconazole)

14 fl oz

56 fl oz

14

0.5

Alternate every other application with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

Botrytis rot Sclerotinia white mold Black crown rot

1

Mertect 340F (thiabendazole)

41 fl oz/100 gal water

   

0.5

 

2

(iprodione)

Many labels available: Iprodione 4L AG, Enclosure 4F, Nevado 4F, Rovral 4F

2 pt

8 pt

0

1

 

Cavity spot

4

Metastar 2E AG (metalaxyl)

8 pt

   

2

Apply as a broadcast soil application and incorporate into top 2 inches. See label for directions.

4

Ridomil Gold EC, Ultra Flourish (mefenoxam)

2 pt

 

7

2

Apply at seeding in a 7-12” band on soil over (mefenoxam) seed furrow.

4

Ridomil Gold SL (mefenoxam)

2 pt

   

2

See label for specifics regarding preplant incorporated applications and surface applications at the time of planting.

4 & M1

Ridomil Gold Copper (mefenoxam + copper hydroxide)

2 lb

8 lb

7

2

 

4 & M5

Ridomil Gold Bravo WP (mefenoxam + chlorothalonil)

2 lb

 

7

2

 

4 & M5

Ridomil Gold Bravo SC (mefenoxam + chlorothalonil)

2.5 pt

 

7

2

 

11

Reason (fenamidone)

8.2 fl pz

24.6 fl oz

14

0.5

Alternate every other application with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

21

Ranman (cyazofamid)

6 fl oz

30 fl oz

14

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar (cyazofamid) chemistry.

M5

(chlorothalonil)

Many labels available: Bravo Ultrex, Bravo Weather Stik, Bravo ZN, Chloronil 720, Chlorothalonil 720SC, Echo 720, Echo 90DF, Echo ZN, Equus 720SST, Equus DF, Initiate 720, Initiate ZN

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABELS

7

0.5

 

Cercospora leaf spot

M1

(copper compounds)

Many labels available: Badge SC, Badge X2, Basic Copper 53, COCS WDG, Champ DP, Champ WG, Champ Formula 2, Champ WP, COC DF, COC WP, Copper Count N, Cueva, Cuprofix Ultra, Cuproxat, Kentan DF, Kocide DF, Kocide 2000, Kocide 3000, Kocide 4.5 LF, Kop-hydroxide, Mastercop, Nordox 75 WG, NuCop 50WP, NuCop 3L, NuCop HB, NuCop DF, Nu-Cop XLR, Stretch, Tenn-Cop 5E, Top Cop w/ Sulfur

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABELS

1

Varies by product from 4 hr to 2 day

 

3

(propiconazole)

Many labels available: Amtide Propiconazole, Bumper 41.8EC,

Fitness, Propimax, Propi-Star EC, Shar-Shield PPZ, Tide Propiconazole, Tilt 3.6E, Topaz

4 fl oz

16 fl oz

14

0.5

Do not exceed 4 total appls.

4 & M5

Ridomil Gold Bravo WP

(mefenoxam + chlorothalonil)

2 lb

 

7

2

 

4 & M5

Ridomil Gold Bravo SC

(mefenoxam/chlorothalonil)

2.5 pt

 

7

2

 

7

Fontelis (penthiopyrad)

30 fl oz

61 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with non-FRAC code 7 fungicide. See label for directions.

7 & 11

Merivon SC (pyraclostrobin & fluxapyroxad)

5.5 fl oz

16.5 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

7 & 11

Luna Sensation (fluopyram + trifloxystobin)

7.6 fl oz

230 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential

applications without rotating to a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

11

Cabrio EG (pyraclostrobin)

12 oz

48 oz

0

0.5

Do not exceed 1 sequential and 4 total appl. of Amistar or other Qol fungicides. See label for soil appl.

Damping off

M3

Defiant 75WP (thiram)

5.3 oz/100 lbs of seed

   

1

Seed treatment only.

Powdery mildew

M2

(sulfur compounds)

Many brands available: Dusting Do not apply within 2 weeks of an oil spray. Sulfur – Crusade, IAP, Kumulus DF, Micro Sulf, Microfine Sulfur, Microthiol Disperss, Sulfur 90W, Super-Six, Top Cop w/ Sulfur, Yellow Jacket Wettable Sulfur

SEE INDIVIDUAL

LABLES

1

1

Do not apply during periods of warm weather. Do not apply within 2 weeks of an oil spray.

 

3

(propiconazole)

Many labels available: Amtide Propiconazole, Bumper 41.8EC, Fitness, Propimax, Propi-Star EC, Shar-Shield PPZ, Tilt 3.6E

4 fl oz

16 fl oz

14

0.5

Do not exceed 4 total appls.

 

7

Fontelis (penthiopyrad)

30 fl oz

61 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with non-FRAC code 7 fungicide. See label for directions.

 

7 & 11

Merivon SC (pyraclostrobin & fluxapyroxad)

5.5 fl oz

16.5 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action

 

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WDG (cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

7

0.5

 
 

11 & M5

Quadris Opti (azoxystrobin + chlorothalonil)

2.4 pt

14.4 pt

0

0.5

Do not exceed 2 sequential and 6 total appl. of Quadris Opti. or rotate with non Qol fungicides.

 

11 & 3

Avaris, Quilt, Willowood Azoxy (azoxystrobin + propiconazole)

14 fl oz

55 fl oz

14

0.5

Alternate every other application with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

 

11 & 3

Quilt XCEL (azoxystrobin + propiconazole)

14 fl oz

56 fl oz

14

0.5

Alternate every other application with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

 

33 & M2

Sanction (potassium phosphate and sulfur)

6 pt

   

2

 

Pythium

Pythium damping-off

Pythium seedling blight

21

Ranman (cyazofamid)

6 fl oz

30 fl oz

14

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar chemistry.

4

Acquire, Sebring 2.65ST, Metalaxyl 4.0 ST (metalaxyl)

0.7 fl oz/100 lbs of seed

   

1

Seed treatment only.

4

Apron XL LS (mefenoxam)

0.64 fl oz/100 lb seed

   

2

Seed treatment only.

4

Metastar 2E AG (metalaxyl)

8 pt

   

2

Apply as a broadcast soil application and incorporate into top 2 inches. See label for directions.

4

Ridomil Gold EC (mefenoxam)

2 pt

   

2

Apply at seeding in a 7-12” band on soil over (mefenoxam) seed furrow.

4

Ridomil Gold SL, Ultra Flourish (mefenoxam)

2 pt

   

2

See label for specifics regarding preplant incorporated applications and surface applications at the time of planting.

Varioius (see label)

7 & 9

Luna Tranquility

(fluopyram + pyrimethanil)

11.2 fl oz

54.7 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications without rotating to a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

7 & 11

Pristine (boscalid + pyraclostrobin)

10.5 oz

63 oz

0

0.5

Limit is 6 appl/crop and alternate chemistry.

7 & 11

Merivon SC (pyraclostrobin & fluxapyroxad)

5.5 fl oz

16.5 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

7 & 11

Luna Sensation

(fluopyram + trifloxystobin)

7.6 fl oz

23 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential

applications without rotating to a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

11

Amistar 80DF (azoxystrobin)

5 oz or 0.25 oz/

1000 row ft

20 oz

0

4 hr

Do not exceed 1 sequential and 4 total appl. of Amistar or other Qol fungicides. See label for soil appl.

11

Flint (trifloxystrobin)

3 oz

12 oz

7

0.5

Alternate every other application with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

11

Gem 500SC (trifloxystrobin)

2.9 fl oz

11.6 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate every other application with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

11

Heritage (azoxystrobin)

10.5 oz

4 lb

0

4 hr

Do not apply more than 3 sequential

applications without altenating to a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

11

(azoxystrobin)

Many labels available: Azoxystar,

Azoxyzone, Equation SC, Quadris, Satori, Trevo, Willowood Azoxy

15.4 fl oz

or 0.8 fl oz/

1000 row ft

3.75 qt

0

4 hr

Do not exceed 1 sequential and 4 total appl. of Qol fungicides. See label for soil appl.

11 & M5

Quadris Opti (azoxystrobin + chlorothalonil)

2.4 pt

14.4 pt

0

0.5

Do not exceed 2 sequential and 6 total appl. of Quadris Opti. or rotate with non Qol fungicides.

11 & 3

Quadris Top (azoxystobin + difenconazole)

14 fl oz

56 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not exceed 1 sequential and 4 total appl. Quadris Top

11 & 3

Quilt (azoxystrobin + propiconazole)

14 fl oz

55 fl oz

14

0.5

Alternate every other application with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

11 & 3

Quilt XCEL (azoxystrobin + propiconazole)

14 fl oz

 

14 day

0.5

Alternate every other application with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

19

OSO 5%SC (polyoxin D zinc salt)

13 fl oz

56 fl oz

0

4 hr

See label for details.

33

(mono- and di-potassium salts of phosphorous acid)

Many brands available: Alude, Confine Extra, Fosiphite, Fungiphite, K-Phite, Oxiphos, Phiticide, Phostrol, Prophyt, Rampart

3 qt

84 fl oz

0

4 hr

See label for details.

29

Omega (fluazinam)

1 pt

4 pt

7 day

0.5

For southern blight, apply 45 days prior to harvest.

Various seedling diseases

12

Maxim 4FS, Spirato 480 FS (fludioxonil)

0.16 fl oz/100 lb of

seed

   

0.5

Seed treatment only.

1 FRAC code (fungicide group): Number (1 through 46) and letters (U and P) are used to distinguish the fungicide mode of action groups. All fungicides within the same group (with same number or letter) indicate same active ingredient or similar mode of action. This information must be considered for the fungicide resistance management decisions. U = unknown, or a mode of action that has not been classified yet and is typically associated with another number; P = host plant defense inducers. Source: FRAC Code List 2017; http://www.frac.info/ (FRAC = Fungicide Resistance Action Committee).

2 Information provided in this table applies only to Florida. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in the publication does not imply endorsement by UF/IFAS Extension nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned.

Table 12. 

Radish fungicides ordered by disease and then FRAC group according to their mode of action.

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Refer to Table 19.1 for biopesticide and other alternative products labeled for disease management.

Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens

Fungicide Group1

Chemical (active ingredients)

Max. Rate/Acre

Min. Days to

Remarks2

Applic.

Season

Harvest

Reentry

Alternaria leaf spot

7

Fontelis (pentiopyrad)

30 fl oz

61 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with non-FRAC code 7 fungicide. See label for directions.

7&11

Merivon SC (pyraclostrobin & fluxapyroxad)

5.5 fl oz

16.5 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WDG (cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

7

0.5

 

11

Cabrio EG (pyraclostrobin)

12 oz

48 oz

0

0.5

Do not exceed 1 sequential and 4 total appl. of Qol fungicides.

11

(Azoxystrobin)

Various brands available: Quadris, Satori, Willowood Azoxy

15.4 fl oz

62 fl oz

0

0.5

Do not exceed 1 sequential and 4 total appl. of Qol fungicides.

Cercospora leaf spot

3

Tilt (propiconazole)

4 fl oz

16 fl oz

14

0.5

 

3&11

Quilt (propiconazole + azoxystrobin)

14 fl oz

56 fl oz

14

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

7

Fontelis (pentiopyrad)

30 fl oz

61 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with non-FRAC code 7 fungicide. See label for directions.

7&11

Merivon SC (pyraclostrobin & fluxapyroxad)

5.5 fl oz

16.5 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

7&11

Luna Sensation (fluopyram + trifloxystobin)

5.8 fl oz

23 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

9&12

Switch 62.5WDG (cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

7

0.5

 

11

Cabrio EG (pyraclostrobin)

12 oz

48 oz

0

0.5

Do not exceed 1 sequential and 4 total appl. of Qol fungicides.

11

(Azoxystrobin)

Various brands available: Quadris, Satori, Willowood Azoxy

15.4 fl oz

62 fl oz

0

0.5

Do not exceed 1 sequential and 4 total appl. of Qol fungicides.

11

Flint (trifloxystrobin)

3 oz

12 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

Damping off

M3

Defiant 75WP (thiram)

5.3 oz/ 100 lbs of seed

   

1

Seed treatment only.

Downy mildew

4&M1

Ridomil Gold Copper (mefenoxam + copper hydroxide)

2 lb

8 lb

7

2

 

33

(mono- and di-potassium salts of phosphorous acid) Many brands available: Confine Extra, Fosiphite, Fungi-phite, K-Phite, Oxiphos, Phiticide, Oxiphos, Rampart

3 qt

 

0

4 hr

See label for details.

43

Presidio (fluopicolide)

4 fl oz

16 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar chemistry.

Powdery mildew

M2

(sulfur compounds)

Many brands available: Micro Sulf, Microthiol Disperss, Sulfur 90W, Top Cop w/ Sulfur

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABELS

1

1

Do not apply during periods of warm weather. Do not apply within 2 weeks of an oil spray.

7

Fontelis (penthiopyrad)

30 fl oz

61 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with non-FRAC code 7 fungicide. See label for directions.

7 & 11

Merivon SC (pyraclostrobin & fluxapyroxad)

5.5 fl oz

16.5 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WDG (cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

7

0.5

 

11

Cabrio EG (pyraclostrobin)

12 oz

48 oz

0

0.5

Do not exceed 1 sequential and 4 total appl. of Qol fungicides. See label for soil appl.

11

(Azoxystrobin)

Various brands available: Quadris, Satori, Willowood Azoxy

15.4 fl oz

62 fl oz

0

0.5

Do not exceed 1 sequential and 4 total appl. of Qol fungicides. See label for soil appl.

Pythium

21

Presidio (fluopicolide)

4 fl oz

16 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar chemistry.

Pythium damping-off

4

Acquire, Sebring 2.65ST (metalaxyl)

0.7 fl oz/100 lbs of seed

   

1

Seed treatment only.

Pythium seedling blight

4

Apron XL LS (mefenoxam)

0.64 fl oz/100 lbs of seed

   

2

Seed treatment only.

4

Metastar 2E AG (metalaxyl)

8 pt

   

2

Apply as a broadcast soil application and incorporate into top 2 inches. See label for directions.

4

Ridomil Gold EC (mefenoxam)

2 pt

   

2

Apply at seeding in a 7-12” band on soil over seed furrow.

4

Ridomil Gold SL (mefenoxam)

2 pt

   

2

See label for specifics regarding preplant incorporated applications and surface applications at the time of planting.

White rust

11

Cabrio EG (pyraclostrobin)

12 oz

48 oz

0

0.5

Do not exceed 1 sequential and 4 total appl. of Qol fungicides. See label for soil appl.

11

(Azoxystrobin)

Various brands available: Quadris, Satori, Willowood Azoxy

15.4 fl oz

62 fl oz

0

0.5

Do not exceed 1 sequential and 4 total appl. of Qol fungicides. See label for soil appl.

Various (see label)

7 & 11

Merivon SC (pyraclostrobin & fluxapyroxad)

5.5 fl oz

16.5 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

11

(Azoxystrobin)

Various brands available: Quadris, Satori, Willowood Azoxy

15.4 fl oz or 0.8 fl oz/1000 row ft

62 fl oz

0

0.5

Do not exceed 1 sequential and 4 total appl. of Qol fungicides. See label for soil appl.

7 & 9

Luna Tranquility (fluopyram + pyrimethanil)

11.2 fl oz

54.7 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications without rotating to a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

33

(mono- and di-potassium salts of phosphorous acid)

Many brands available: Confine Extra, Fosiphite, Fungi-phite, K-Phite, Oxiphos, Phiticide, Oxiphos, Rampart

3 qt

 

0

4 hr

See label for details.

Various seedling diseases

12

Maxim 4FS

Spirato 480 FS (fludioxonil)

0.16 fl oz/100 lbs of seed

   

.05

Seed treatment only.

1 FRAC code (fungicide group): Number (1 through 46) and letters (U and P) are used to distinguish the fungicide mode of action groups. All fungicides within the same group (with same number or letter) indicate same active ingredient or similar mode of action. This information must be considered for the fungicide resistance management decisions. U = unknown, or a mode of action that has not been classified yet and is typically associated with another number; P = host plant defense inducers. Source: FRAC Code List 2017; http://www.frac.info/ (FRAC = Fungicide Resistance Action Committee).

2 Information provided in this table applies only to Florida. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in the publication does not imply endorsement by UF/IFAS Extension nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned.

Table 13. 

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Refer to Table 19.1 for biopesticide and other alternative products labeled for disease management.

Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens

Fungicide Group1

Chemical (active ingredients)

Max. Rate/Acre

Min. Days to

Remarks2

Applic.

Seasons

Harvest

Reentry

Septoria leaf spot

M2

Micro Sulf (sulfur)

5 lb/treated acre

 

0

1

Do not use within 2 weeks of an oil spray treatment.

11 & 3

Quadris TOP (azoxystrobin + difenoconazole)

14 fl oz

55.3 fl oz

14

0.5

Make no more than 2 consecutive applications; Adding adjuvant may enhance the efficacy.

Powdery mildew

11

(azoxystrobin)

Various brands available: Aframe, Azoxystar, Azoxyzone, Equation, Satori Fungicide, Trevo, Willowood Azoxy 2SC

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABELS

Varies by label

4 hr

Make no more than 2 sequential applications or with other Group 11 fungicides before alternation with nonGroup 11 fungicides.

 

11

Cabrio EG Headline (pyraclostrin)

12 oz

12 fl oz

48 oz

72 fl oz

0

3

0.5

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications or with other Group 11 fungicides.

 

7

Luna Privilege (fluopyram)

6.84 fl oz

13.7 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications or with other Group 7 fungicides.

 

7

Vertisan (penthiopyrad)

24 fl oz

72 fl oz

7

0.5

May be used with adjuvants; other crops cannot be planted until 120 days after the last application of Vertisan.

 

M2

Micro Sulf

Microthiol Disperss

Crusade DF (sulfur)

5 lb

10 lb

5 lb

   

1

1

1

Do not apply within 14 days of an oil spray.

 

11 & 3

Quadris TOP (azoxystrobin + difenoconazole)

14 fl oz

55.3 fl oz

14

0.5

Make no more than 2 sequential applications or with other Group 11 fungicides. Adding adjuvant may enhance the efficacy.

 

3

Quash (metconazole)

4 oz

16 oz

1

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications.

 

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WG (cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

7

0.5

Alternate with another labeled fungicide for 2 applications after 2 applications of Switch WG.

Black rot Scurf

1

Mertect 340-F (thiabendazole)

Thiabendazole 4L ST (thiabendazole)

107 fl oz/100 gal water

   

0.5

One application only - dip seed roots for 1-2 min.

14

Botran 5F (DCNA dicloran)

Seed dip-0.6 qt/7.5 gal water; Plant bed spray -5.73 oz/1000 liner ft bed (42 in)

3.2 qt

 

0.5

Do not plant tomatoes as a follow-up crop.

Pythium damping-off

1

Mertect 340-F

Thiabendazole 4L ST (thiabendazole)

107 fl oz/100 gal water

   

0.5

Dip seed roots for 1-2 min and plant immediately.

4

Acquire

Dyna-Shield Metalaxyl 318 FS

Metalaxyl 265 ST

Sebring 318 FS

Allegiance FL (metalaxyl)

0.75 fl oz/100 lb seed

1.5 fl oz/100 lbs seed

   

1

Seed treatment.

4

Apron XL (mefenoxam)

0.64 fl oz/100 lb seed

   

2

See label.

11 & 4

Uniform Fungicide (azoxystrobin; mefenoxam)

0.34 fl oz/1000 fl row

   

0

Make only 1 application per crop season as an in-furrow spray.

Pythium

4

Ridomil Gold SL (mefenoxam)

2 pt

   

2

Preplant- apply in water or liquid fertilizer & incorporate into top 2 inches of soil.

Phytophthora

4

MetaStar 2E Fungicide

Metalaxyl 2E AG (metalaxyl)

See label

8 pt

 

1

2

See label.

4

Ultra Flourish (mefenoxam)

4 pt

   

2

Preplant Incorporated or surface application (broadcast or band).

Sclerotinia white mold

7

Endura (boscalid)

10 oz

20 oz

10

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications or with other Group 7 fungicides.

7

Velum Prime (fluopyram)

6.84 fl oz

13.7 fl oz

7

0.5

Post-planting drench or hill drench.

Early blight

11

Aftershock

Evito 480 SC (fluoxastrobin)

3.8 fl oz

22.8 fl oz

7

0.5

See label

7

Endura (boscalid)

10 oz

20 oz

10

0.5

 

7

Luna Privilege (fluopyram)

6.84 fl oz

13.7 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential application or with Group 7 fungicides.

7

Velum Prime (fluopyram)

       

Post-planting drench or hill drench.

7 & 9

Luna Tranquility (fluopyram; pyrimethanil)

11.2 fl oz

54.7 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential application or with Group 7 or 9 fungicides.

11 & 3

Quadris TOP (azoxystrobin; difenoconazole)

14 fl oz

55.3 fl oz

14

0.5

Addition of non-ionic surfactant or crop oil concentrate or blend is recommended.

3

Quash (metconazole)

4.0 oz

16 oz

1

0.5

 

11

Reason 500 SC (fenamidone)

8.2 fl oz

16.4 fl oz

14

0.5

 

9

Scala SC (pyrimethanil)

7 fl oz

35 fl oz

7

0.5

See label.

7

Vertisan (penthiopyrad)

24 fl oz

72 fl oz

7

0.5

 

Botrytis

7

Luna Privilege (fluopyram)

6.84 fl oz

13.7 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential application or with Group 7 fungicides.

7 & 9

Luna Tranquility (fluopyram; pyrimethanil)

11.2 fl oz

54.7 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential

application or with Group 7 or 9 fungicides.

3

Quash (metconazole)

4.0 oz

16 oz

1

0.5

 

9

Scala SC (pyrimethanil)

7 fl oz

35 fl oz

7

0.5

See label.

7

Vertisan (penthiopyrad)

24 fl oz

72 fl oz

7

0.5

 

Alternaria leaf blight

11

(azoxystrobin)

Various brands available: Aframe, Azoxystar, Azoxyzone, Equation, Satori Fungicide, Trevo, Willowood Azoxy 2SC

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABELS

Varies by label

4 hr

Make no more than 2 sequential applications or with other Group 11

fungicides before alternation with nonGroup 11 fungicides.

11

Cabrio EG

Headline (pyraclostrin)

12 oz

12 fl oz

48 oz

72 fl oz

0

3

0.5

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential

applications or with other Group 11

fungicides.

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WG

(cyprodinil; fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

7

0.5

Alternate with another labeled non-Group 9 or 12 fungicide for 2 applications after 2 applications of Switch WG.

Rust/White rust

(Albugo spp.)

11

(azoxystrobin)

Various brands available: Aframe, Azoxystar, Azoxyzone, Equation, Satori Fungicide, Trevo, Willowood Azoxy 2SC

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABELS

Varies by label

4 hr

Make no more than 2 sequential applications or with other Group 11 fungicides before alternation with nonGroup 11 fungicides.

11

Cabrio EG

Headline

Headline SC

(pyraclostrobin)

16 oz

12 fl oz

12 fl oz

48 oz

72 fl oz

72 fl oz

0

3

3

0.5

0.5

0.5

Alternate with other labeled fungicides after each application.

11 & 3

Quadris TOP

(azoxystrobin; difenoconazole)

14 fl oz

55.3 fl oz

14

0.5

Make no more than 2 consecutive applications; adding adjuvant may enhance the efficacy.

11

Reason 500SC

(fenamidone)

8.2 fl oz

16.4 fl oz

14

0

 

Rhizopus rot

14

Botran 5F

(DCNA dicloran)

0.6 qt in 100 gal water for post-harvest or for root dip 5-10 seconds

   

0.5

See label.

12

Scholar SC

(fludioxonil)

32 fl oz/100 gal water for postharvest dip; 16 fl

oz / 200,000 lb sweet potatoes for spray application

     

Do not make more than one post-harvest application.

Pink rot

11

Azoxystar

(azoxystrobin)

0.6 fl oz/ton

tubers

   

4 hr

Do not make more than 1 post-harvest

application to the tubers.

   

Equation SC

(azoxystrobin)

0.6 fl oz/ton

tubers

   

4 hr

Post-harvest use in-line aqueous

application method; do not use on seed pieces.

 

21

Ranman 400SC FungicideRanman Fungicide

(cyazofamid)

At planting - 0.42 fl oz/1000 linear ft; Lay-by/Hilling - 2.75 fl oz/A

27.5 fl oz

27.5 fl oz

7

7

0.5

0.5

 

Various soil-borne

diseases

11

Quadris

(azoxystrobin)

0.8 fl oz/ 1000

row ft

123 fl oz

0

4 hr

See label.

Seed decay, damping-off, seedling blight caused by soil pathogens

12

Maxim 4FS

(fludioxonil)

0.16 fl oz/100 lb

seed

 

0

0.5

Not effective against Pythium; tank mix with others for Pythium control

1 FRAC code (fungicide group): Number (1 through 45) and letters (U and P) are used to distinguish the fungicide mode of action groups. All fungicides within the same group (with same number or letter) indicate same active ingredient or similar mode of action. This information must be considered for the fungicide resistance management decisions. U = unknown, or a mode of action that has not been classified yet and is typically associated with another number; P = host plant defense inducers. Source: FRAC Code List 2017; http://www.frac.info/ (FRAC = Fungicide Resistance Action Committee).

2 Information provided in this table applies only to Florida. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in the publication does not imply endorsement by UF/IFAS Extension nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned.

Table 14. 

Non-fumigant nematicides for sweetpotatoes in Florida.

Product

When to Apply

Application Pattern

Incorporation Depth

Rate

Mocap 15G

2 to 3 wks preplant

Row, 12 to 15” band

2 to 4” with rotary hoe, tiller, etc. or by bedding over the band

20 to 26 lbs/A or 1.6 to 2.1 per 1000 ft of row (min. row spacing 42”)

Mocap EC

2 to 3 wks preplant

Row, 12 to 15” band

2 to 4” deep

5.1 to 6.9 fl oz/1000 ft row

Vydate L**

Within one week before planting

Broadcast, band, or in-furrow transplant drench

4 to 6” deep

2 gal/A broadcast or 1 to 2 gals\A in-furrow (Consult table for specific instructions and other uses.)

**Vydate L has registration for nematode control on sweet potatoes only as a broadcast or in-furrow treatment. Foliar applications are registered for insect control only. For broadcast or in-furrow treatments, Vydate L should be applied in a minimum of 20 gals of water. As a broadcast treatment thoroughly incorporate to a soil depth of 4-6”. The product is currently unavailable and new production and marketplace sales of Vydate L is not expected until September 2017.

Table 15. 

Fumigant nematicides for sweetpotatoes in Florida.

Nematicide

Broadcast Application1

In the Row Applications

Gallons or lbs per acre

Fl oz /1000 ft / chisel spaced 12” apart

Telone II 2,3

9 to 12 gal

26 to 35

For any row spacing, application rates given may be concentrated in the row, but shall never exceed the labeled maximum for broadcast applications. Consult the product label for additional detail.

Telone C-17 2,3

10.8 to 17.1 gal

31.8 to 50.2

For any row spacing, application rates given may be concentrated in the row, but shall never exceed the labeled maximum for broadcast applications. Consult the product label for additional detail.

Telone C-35 2,3

13 to 20.5 gal

38 to 60

For any row spacing, application rates given may be concentrated in the row, but shall never exceed labeled maximum for broadcast applications. Consult the product label for additional detail.

Pic-Clor 60

19 to 31.5 gal

57 - 90

For any row spacing, application rates should never exceed the labeled maximum for broadcast applications. Consult the product label for additional detail.

Vapam HL

75 gal

--

For drip or in-row chisel fumigation, consult product label for proportionately reduced overall rates, drip concentration and flow modifying directions and procedures.

KPam HL

60 gal

--

For drip or in-row chisel fumigation, consult product label for proportionately reduced overall rates, drip concentration and flow modifying directions.

Allyl Isothiocyanate

(AITC) Dominus

70 gal

--

For drip or in-row fumigation and crop termination, consult product label for overall rates, drip concentration and flow modifying directions.

1 Gallons /acre and Fl oz / 1000 feet provided only for mineral soils. Higher rates may be possible for heavier textured (loam, silt, clay) or highly organic soils.

2 All of the fumigants mentioned are for retail sale and use only by state certified applicators or persons under their direct supervision. New supplemental labeling for the Telone products must be in the hands of the user at the time of application. See new label details for additional use restrictions based on soil characteristics, buffer zones, requirements for Fumigant Management Plans (FMP) and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), mandatory good agricultural practices (GAP’s), product and applicator

training certification, and other use and rate modifying recommendations.

3 Higher application rates are possible in the presence of cyst-forming nematodes.

Rates are believed to be correct for products named, and similar products of other brand names, when applied to mineral soils. Higher rates are required for muck (organic) soils. However, the grower has the final responsibility to see that each product is used legally; read the label of the product to be sure that you are using it properly.

Footnotes

1.

This document is HS965, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date June 2015. Revised July 2017. This is Chapter 15 of the Vegetable Production Handbook of Florida, 2017–2018 edition. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Peter J. Dittmar, assistant professor, Horticultural Sciences Department; Eugene McAvoy, Extension agent IV; Monica Ozores-Hampton, associate professor, UF/IFAS Southwest Florida Research and Education Center; Richard N. Raid, professor, UF/IFAS Everglades REC; Hugh A. Smith, assistant professor, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast REC; Bonnie Wells, Extension agent I, UF/IFAS Extension St. Johns County; Julien Beuzelin, assistant professor, UF/IFAS EREC; Joseph W. Noling, professor, UF/IFAS Citrus REC; Lincoln Zotarelli, assistant professor, Horticultural Sciences Department; Shouan Zhang, associate professor, UF/IFAS Tropical REC; Christian F. Miller, Extension agent I, UF/IFAS Extension Palm Beach County; and Qingren Wang, Extension agent I, UF/IFAS Extension Miami-Dade County; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.