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Publication #ENH1234

Erect and Prostrate Spurge Biology and Management in Turf1

J. Bryan Unruh, Darcy E. P. Telenko, Barry J. Brecke, and Ramon Leon2

Erect and prostrate spurges (Chamaesyce spp.) are erect or upright annuals with branched stems. Leaves are opposite and not equal. Stems produce “milky sap.” A large number of spurge species occur in Florida. Reproduction occurs via seed.

Prostrate spurge (C. humistrata) has freely branched prostrate stems that root at the nodes. Stems are smooth or hairy. Leaves are not symmetrical and usually have a reddish spot.

Erect or Hyssop spurge (C. hyssopifolia) is an erect or ascending annual with smooth stems and leaves that branch at upper nodes. Leaves are oblong to linear with toothed margins.

Figure 1. 

Prostrate spurge


Credit:

D.E.P. Telenko


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 2. 

Erect spurge


Credit:

D.E.P. Telenko


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 3. 

Erect spurge


Credit:

D.E.P. Telenko


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Herbicide options for controlling erect and prostrate spurge in Florida turfgrass

(Always refer to the label for specific uses, application rates, and turfgrass tolerance.)

Refer to the publication Pest Control Guide for Turfgrass Managers at http://turf.ufl.edu/pdf/2012_UF_Pest_Control_Guide.pdf for brand names associated with chemical names listed.

Bermudagrass

  • Preemergence: dithiopyr, dimethenamid-P, isoxaben, simazine

  • Postemergence: carfentrazone, 2,4-D+dicamba, dicamba, metribuzin, metsulfuron, sulfentrazone, sulfentrazone+prodiamine, sulfentrazone+quinclorac, sulfentrazone+2,4-D+MCPP+dicamba, thiencarbazone+iodosulfuron+dicamba, trifloxysulfuron

St. Augustinegrass

  • Preemergence: atrazine, dithiopyr, dimethenamid-P, isoxaben, simazine

  • Postemergence: atrazine, carfentrazone, 2,4-D+dicamba (follow label recommendations to minimize turf injury), metsulfuron, simazine, sulfentrazone, thiencarbazone+iodosulfuron+dicamba

Centipedegrass

  • Preemergence: atrazine, dithiopyr, dimethenamid-P, isoxaben, simazine

  • Postemergence: atrazine, carfentrazone, 2,4-D+dicamba, dicamba, metsulfuron, simazine, sulfentrazone, sulfentrazone+prodiamine, sulfentrazone+quinclorac, sulfentrazone+2,4-D+MCCP+dicamba, thiencarbazone+iodosulfuron+dicamba

Bahiagrass

  • Preemergence: dithiopyr, dimethenamid-P, isoxaben

  • Postemergence: carfentrazone, 2,4-D+dicamba, dicamba, sulfentrazone, sulfentrazone+prodiamine, sulfentrazone+2,4-D+MCCP+dicamba

Seashore paspalum

  • Preemergence: dithiopyr, dimethenamid-P

  • Postemergence: carfentrazone, sulfentrazone, sulfentrazone+prodiamine, sulfentrazone+quinclorac

Zoysiagrass

  • Preemergence: atrazine, dithiopyr, dimethenamid-P, isoxaben, simazine

  • Postemergence: atrazine, carfentrazone, 2,4-D+dicamba, dicamba, metsulfuron, simazine, sulfentrazone, sulfentrazone+prodiamine, sulfentrazone+quinclorac, sulfentrazone+2,4-D+MCCP+dicamba, thiencarbazone+iodosulfuron+dicamba, trifloxysulfuron

Perennial ryegrass

  • Preemergence: dimethenamid-P

  • Postemergence: carfentrazone, 2,4-D+dicamba, dicamba, sulfentrazone, sulfentrazone+prodiamine, sulfentrazone+quinclorac, triclopyr +clopyralid

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENH1234, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date December 2013. Adapted from: Tim R. Murphy, Daniel L. Colvin, Ray Dickens, John W. Everest, David Hall, and L.B. McCarty. Weeds of Southern Turfgrasses. University of Florida, 1992. Visit the EDIS web site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

J. Bryan Unruh, professor, Environmental Horticulture Department; Darcy E. P. Telenko, postdoctoral research associate; Barry J. Brecke, professor emeritus, and Ramon Leon, assistant professor, Agronomy Department; West Florida Research and Education Center, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, 32611.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.