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Publication #FE212

1999-2000 Comparative Citrus Budgets1

Ronald P. Muraro2

Annually, comparative citrus budgets are tabulated for the Central Florida, Southwest Florida, and Indian River citrus producing areas. The listed estimated comparative costs are for the example grove situation described in the Economic Information Report Series entitled: "Budgeting Costs and Returns" for the Central Florida, Southwest Florida, and Indian River production areas. Therefore costs shown may not represent your particular grove situation. The budget cost items for the Central Florida and Indian River areas represent custom-managed operations. The Southwest Florida costs are more representative of an owner-managed operation.

The 1999-2000 comparative budgets are presented in three scenarios: (1) Low Cost Processed Cultural Program, (2) Reduced Cost Processed/Fresh Cultural Program, and (3) Typical/Historical Fresh Cultural Program. Scenarios 1 and 2 represent typical costs of two cultural programs to reduce expenditures for fruit grown primarily for the processed market. Scenario 3 represents typical costs of grove practices for citrus grown for the fresh fruit market. Modified herbicide and/or spray and fertilizer programs account for the reduced costs. Note: Before modifying a grove management program to reduce costs, an evaluation of the market program (processed or fresh), yield, and specific cultural problems (nutrition, disease, etc.) for the specific grove site should be made.

Each budget lists the costs of individual grove care practices normally performed in a citrus grove. These costs are based on "net grove acre," excluding water retention and other non-productive areas. Costs are categorized into cumulative subtotals of irrigated processed programs and irrigated fresh fruit programs. Although the estimated annual per-acre grove costs listed in each budget are representative of a mature citrus grove (10+ years), the grove-care costs for a specific grove site may differ depending on tree age, tree density, and grove practices performed. Extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza could more than double the tree replacement and care costs. Also, travel and set-up costs may vary due to size of citrus grove and distance from grove equipment barn. Note: The mandatory decontamination requirements to help control the spread of citrus canker will add to the total operational costs (these costs will be provided in a future report).

Included with the comparative budget sheets are estimated "delivered-in" costs for Central Florida Valencia oranges, Southwest Florida Hamlin oranges, and Indian River grapefruit. The "delivered-in" costs for oranges represents processed fruit and for grapefruit represents fresh market fruit. The estimated "delivered-in" costs include total cultural/production costs, management, regulatory costs, and harvesting costs.

The budgeted cost information presented was the most current available. The budget cost items were revised to reflect current grove practices being used by growers (e.g., chemical mowing, different spray materials and rates of fertilization, microsprinkler irrigation, and more reset trees). Average per-acre yields have increased due to higher per-acre tree densities. Additional information on budgeting and cost analysis can be obtained by contacting the author or your county extension citrus specialist.

Tables

Table 1. 

A listing of estimated comparative central Florida (Ridge) citrus production costs per acre for 1999-2000z.

Cost Represent a Mature (10+ Years)

Central Florida (Ridge) Orange Groveu

Low Cost

Processed

Cultural Program

($)

Reduced Cost Processed/Fresh Cultural Program

($)

Typical/Historical Fresh Fruit

Cultural Program

($)

Subtotals

Totals

Subtotals

Totals

Subtotals

Totals

PRODUCTION/CULTURAL COSTSy

   

Weed Management Control

     

Discing (2/year)

 

17.64

 

17.64

17.64

Mechanical mow middles (4/year)

 

41.16

   

41.16

   

41.16

General grove work (2 hours/acre)

 

22.74

   

22.74

   

22.74

Herbicide (1/2 tree acre treated)

 

Application (2)

24.72

   

24.72

   

24.72

 

Material

67.56

   

84.08

   

84.08

 

Spot treatment (material/application)

17.67

   

17.67

   

17.67

 

Total herbicide cost

 

109.95

   

126.47

   

126.47

Spray

 

Post-bloom

Application (150GPA)

   

26.57

   

26.57

 

Material

   

64.71

   

64.71

 

Total post-bloom cost

 

   

91.28

   

91.28

Summer oil

Application (250 GPA)

29.27

   

29.27

   

29.27

 

Material

83.93x

   

48.97

   

48.97

 

Total summer oil cost

 

113.20

   

78.24

   

78.24

Supplemental fall miticide

Application (150 GPA)

   

   

26.57

 

Material

   

   

10.50

 

Total supplemental fall miticide cost

 

   

   

37.07

Fertilizer (bulk)

Application (3)

23.43

   

23.43

   

23.43

 

Material (16-0-16-4 MgO @ 180 lbs N

per acre and 204 lbs N per acre)

108.00

   

122.40

   

122.40

 

Total fertilizer cost

 

131.43

   

145.83

   

145.83

Dolomite (1 ton/every 4 years)

Material/application

 

8.85

   

8.85

   

8.85

Pruning

 

Topping ($37.75/A divided by 2.5 years)

15.10

   

15.10

   

15.10

Remove brush from trees after topping

($22.06/A divided by 2.5 years)w

8.82

   

8.82

   

8.82

 

Hedging ($33.50/A divided by 2 years)w

16.75

   

16.75

   

16.75

 

Chop/mow brush after hedging

($9.88/A divided by 2 years)w

4.94

   

4.94

   

4.94

 

Total pruning cost

 

45.61

   

45.61

   

45.61

Tree Replacement @ 1-3 years of age

(3 trees/acre)

 

 

Remove trees: pull, stack, and burn

(3 trees, using front-end loader)

14.94

   

14.94

   

14.94

 

Prepare Site and Plant Trees

(3 reset trees)

26.45

   

26.45

   

26.45

 

Supplemental fertilizer, tree wraps, sprout,

maintenance, etc.

(trees 1-3 years old)

29.67

   

29.67

   

29.67

 

Total tree replacement cost

 

71.06

   

71.06

   

71.06

Irrigation

 

 

Microsprinkler system

 

134.55

   

134.55

   

134.55

IRRIGATED PROCESSED FRUIT

PRODUCTION COSTS

 

696.19

   

783.43

     

Fall Miticide Spray

 

 

Application (150 GPA)

     

26.57

   

26.57

 

Material

     

34.36

   

34.36

 

Total fall miticide cost

       

60.93

   

60.93

IRRIGATED FRESH FRUIT

PRODUCTION COSTS

       

844.36

   

881.43

Source: Ronald P. Muraro, University of Florida, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL. June 2000.

u Although estimated annual per-acre grove costs listed are representative for mature citrus groves (10+ years),

grove-care costs for specific grove sites may differ depending on tree age, tree density, and grove practices

performed.

v Irrigation Expense includes the following:

Microsprinkler Drip

Variable Operating Expense (diesel) $ 34.50 $ 32.43

Fixed-Variable Expense (annual maintenance repairs to system) 43.49 37.99

Total Cash Expenses $ 77.99 $ 69.72

Fixed-Depreciation Expense 56.56 45.25

Total Cash and Fixed Expense $134.55 $115.17

w Per-acre costs shown in parenthesis are for 2000.

x Spray materials include copper (Cu), oil, and nutritionals and Agri-mek under the low-cost processed program.

y Where "equipment use" or "application" is listed (discing, hedging, spray application), "average custom charge"

(cost) represents charges for equipment repairs, maintenance, labor, and overhead management costs.

Exceptions are mowing, spraying, and herbicide application costs for Southwest Florida which "represent costs

for non-custom managed (owner-managed) operations." A "management charge" for equipment supervision and

fruit marketing is not included. Mangement charges/costs may be based on monthly charges ($3-$4/acre) or

percentage of gross management sales. Harvesting supervision cost ($0.10-$0.20/box) for overseeing and

coordinating harvesting may be charged. Other cost items not included in the budget are ad valorem taxes and

interest on grove investment. Overhead and adminstrative costs (water drainage/district taxes, crop insurance,

and other grower assessments) may be 12% of total grove-care costs. These costs vary from grove to grove

depending on age, location, and time of purchase or establishment. Except for Southwest Florida, a supervision

(handling) charge of 10% for cost/price of the materials is included in "materials expense."

z Estimated comparative costs are for the example grove situation described in the Economic Information

Report Series "Budgeting Costs and Returns for Indian River Citrus Production" and may not represent your

particular situation in Indian River. Central Florida production area refers to Polk and Highlands Counties, but

costs presented in this report are applicable to Hardee, Hillsborough, Lake, Orange, and Pasco Counties.

Table 2. 

A listing of estimated comparative southwest Florida citrus production costs per acre for 1999-2000z.

Cost Represent a Mature (10+ Years)

Central Florida (Ridge) Orange Groveu

Low Cost

Processed

Cultural Program

($)

Reduced Cost Processed/Fresh Cultural Program

($)

Typical/Historical Fresh Fruit

Cultural Program

($)

 

Subtotals

Totals

Subtotals

Totals

Subtotals

Totals

PRODUCTION/CULTURAL COSTSy

   

Weed Management Control

 

Mechanical mow middles (3/year)

24.00

24.00

24.00

Chemical mow middles (2/year)

 

15.86

   

15.86

   

15.86

General grove work (2 hours/acre)

 

24.42

   

24.42

   

24.42

Herbicides (1/2 tree acre treated)

Application (3)

25.65

   

25.65

   

25.65

 

Material

76.04

   

98.42

   

98.42

 

Total herbicide cost

 

101.69

   

124.07

   

124.07

Spray

 

 

Post-bloom

Application (PTO - 150GPA)

   

   

20.72

 

Material

   

   

27.39

 

Total post-bloom cost

 

   

   

48.11

Summer oil #1

Application (250 GPA)

21.77

   

21.77

   

21.77

 

Material

77.40x

   

48.00x

   

48.00

 

Total summer oil #1 cost

 

99.17

   

69.77

   

69.77

Summer oil #2

               

Application (PTO - 150 GPA)

   

20.72

   

20.72

 

Material (wettable sulfur)

   

27.90

   

19.71

 

Total summer oil #2 cost

 

   

48.62

   

40.43

Fertilizer (bulk)

Application (3)

21.66

   

21.66

   

21.66

 

Material (15-2-15-2.4 MgO @ 180 lbs N

per acre and 204 lbs N per acre)

99.60

   

109.20

   

109.20

 

Total fertilizer cost

 

121.26

   

130.86

   

130.86

Dolomite (1 ton/every 3 years)

Material/Application

 

10.75

   

10.75

   

10.75

Pruning

Topping ($31.67/A divided by 2.5 years)w

12.67

   

12.67

   

12.67

Remove brush from trees after topping

($23.71/A divided by 2.5 years)w

9.48

   

9.48

   

9.48

 

Hedging ($10.00/A divided by 2 years)w

14.63

   

14.63

   

14.63

 

Chop/mow brush after hedging

($10.00/A divided by 2 years)w

5.00

   

5.00

   

5.00

 

Total pruning cost

 

41.78

   

41.78

   

41.78

Tree Replacement @ 1-3 years Of age

(4 trees/acre)

 

 

Remove trees: pull, stack, and burn

(4 trees using front-end loader)

19.92

   

19.92

   

19.92

 

Prepare Site and Plant Trees

(4 reset trees)

43.44

   

43.44

   

43.44

 

Supplemental fertilizer, tree wraps, sprout,

maintenance, etc.

(trees 1-3 years old)

35.56

   

35.56

   

35.56

 

Total tree replacement cost

 

98.92

   

98.92

   

98.92

Irrigation

               

Microsprinkler Systemv

134.55

   

134.55

   

134.55

 

Clean Ditches (weed control)

12.10

   

12.10

   

12.10

 

Ditch and Canal Maintenance

13.49

   

13.49

   

13.49

 

Water Control (pump water in/out of

ditches and canals

9.66

   

9.66

   

9.66

 

Total Irrigation Cost

 

169.80

   

169.80

   

169.80

IRRIGATED PROCESSED FRUIT

PRODUCTION COSTS

 

707.65

   

758.85

   

798.77

Supplemental Post Bloom Spray

               

Application (250 GPA)

     

21.77

   

21.77

 

Material

     

43.15

   

43.15

 

Total supplemental post-bloom spray

       

64.92

   

64.92

Fall miticide spray

   

Aerial application (15 GPA)

     

7.24

   

7.24

 

Material

     

31.24

   

31.24

 

Total fall miticide cost

       

38.48

   

38.48

IRRIGATED FRESH FRUIT

PRODUCTION COSTS

       

862.25

   

902.07

Source: Ronald P. Muraro, University of Florida, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL. June 2000.

u Although estimated annual per-acre grove costs listed are representative of mature citrus groves (10+ years),

grove-care costs for specific grove sites may differ depending on tree age, tree density, and grove practices

performed.

v Irrigation Expense includes the following:

Microsprinkler Drip

Variable Operating Expense (diesel) $ 34.50 $ 32.43

Fixed-Variable Expense (annual maintenance repairs to system) 43.49 37.99

Total Cash Expenses $ 77.99 $ 69.72

Fixed-Depreciation Expense 56.56 45.25

Total Cash and Fixed Expense $134.55 $115.17

w Per-acre costs shown in parenthesis are for 2000.

x Spray materials include copper (Cu), oil, and nutritionals and Agri-mek under the low-cost processed program.

y Where "equipment use" or "application" is listed (discing, hedging, spray application), "average custom charge"

(cost) represents charges for equipment repairs, maintenance, labor, and overhead management charges/costs.

Exceptions are mowing, spraying, and herbicide application costs for Southwest Florida which "represents costs

for non-custom managed (owner-managed) operations." A "management charge" for equipment supervision and

fruit marketing is not included. Mangement charges/costs may be based on a monthly charges ($3-$4/acre) or

percentage of gross management sales. A harvesting supervision cost ($0.10-$0.20/box) for overseeing and

coordinating harvesting may be charged. Other cost items not included are ad valorem taxes and interest on

grove investments. Overhead and adminstrative costs (water drainage/district taxes, crop insurance, and other

grower assessments) may be 12% of total grove-care costs. These costs vary from grove to grove depending on

age, location, and time of purchase or establishment. Except for Southwest Florida, a supervision (handling)

charge of 10% of cost/price of the materials is included in "materials expense."

z Estimated comparative costs are for the example grove situation described in the Economic Information Report

Series "Budgeting Costs and Returns for Indian River Citrus Production" and may not represent a particular situation

in Indian River. Southwest Florida refers to counties in the Florida Agricultural Service "Southern Production Area."

However, costs shown are applicable to South Central Florida counties such as DeSoto and Sarasota.

Table 3. 

A listing of estimated comparative Indian River citrus production costs per acre for 1999-2000z.

Cost Represent a Mature (10+ Years)

Central Florida (Ridge) Orange Groveu

Low Cost

Processed

Cultural Program

($)

Reduced Cost Processed/Fresh Cultural Program

($)

Typical/Historical Fresh Fruit

Cultural Program

($)

 

Subtotals

Totals

Subtotals

Totals

Subtotals

Totals

PRODUCTION/CULTURAL COSTSy

   

Weed Management Control

 

Mechanical mow middles (3/year)

26.21

 

26.21

26.21

Chemical mow middles (2/year)

16.38

16.38

16.38

General grove work (2 hours/acre)

 

24.42

   

24.42

   

24.42

Herbicides (1/2 tree acre treated)

 

Application (3)

36.57

   

36.57

   

36.57

 

Material

79.95

   

108.33

   

108.33

 

Total herbicide cost

 

116.52

   

144.90

   

144.90

Spray

 

 

Post-bloom

Application (PTO - 250GPA)

   

26.90

   

26.90

 

Material

   

28.86

   

28.86

 

Total post-bloom cost

 

   

55.76

   

55.76

Summer oil #1

Application (250-500 GPA)

26.90

   

35.67

   

35.67

 

Material

51.60

   

51.60

   

76.22

 

Total summer oil #1 cost

 

78.50

   

87.27

   

111.89

Summer oil #2

               

Application (PTO - 250 GPA)

26.90

   

26.90

   

26.90

 

Material

30.36x

   

21.72

   

21.72

 

Total summer oil #2 cost

 

57.63

   

48.62

   

48.62

Fertilizer (bulk)

Application (3)

22.20

   

22.20

   

22.20

 

Material (12-2-12-2.4 MgO @ 125 lbs N

per acre and 100 lbs N per acre)

84.24

   

67.64

   

84.24

 

Total fertilizer cost

 

106.44

   

89.84

   

106.44

Dolomite (1 ton/every 3 years)

Material/Application

 

11.57

   

11.57

   

11.57

Pruning

Topping ($28.15/A divided by 2 years)w

14.08

   

14.08

   

14.08

Remove brush from trees after topping

($23.00/A divided by 2 years)w

11.50

   

11.50

   

11.50

 

Hedging ($23.40/A divided by 1.5 years)w

15.60

   

15.60

   

15.60

 

Chop/mow brush after hedging

($10.00/A divided by 1.5 years)w

6.67

   

6.67

   

6.67

 

Raise Tree Skirts

($15.25/A divided by 2 years)w

   

7.63

   

7.63

 

Total pruning cost

 

47.85

   

55.48

   

55.48

Tree Replacement @ 1-3 years of age

(3 trees/acre)

 

 

Remove trees: pull, stack, and burn

(3 trees, using front-end loader)

14.94

   

14.94

   

14.94

 

Prepare site and plant trees

(3 reset trees)

32.58

   

32.58

   

32.58

 

Supplemental fertilizer, tree wraps, sprout,

maintenance, etc.

(trees 1-3 years old)

26.67

   

26.67

   

26.67

 

Total Tree Replacement Cost

 

74.19

   

74.19

   

74.19

Irrigation

   

 

Microsprinkler Systemv

134.55

   

134.55

   

134.55

 

Clean ditches (weed control)

12.10

   

12.10

   

12.10

 

Ditch and canal maintenance

13.49

   

13.49

   

13.49

 

Water control (pump water in/out

of ditches and canals

9.66

   

9.66

   

9.66

 

Total irrigation cost

 

169.80

   

169.80

   

169.80

IRRIGATED PROCESSED FRUIT

PRODUCTION COSTS

 

729.51

   

804.44

     

Supplemental Post-Bloom Spray

               

Curtec application (25 GPA)

     

18.75

   

18.75

 

Material

     

45.46

   

45.46

 

Total supplemental post-bloom spray

       

64.21

   

64.21

Fall Miticide Spray

   

Aerial application (15 GPA)

     

7.24

   

7.24

 

Material

     

34.36

   

34.36

 

Total fall miticide cost

       

41.60

   

41.60

IRRIGATED FRESH FRUIT

PRODUCTION COSTS

       

910.25

   

951.47

Source: Ronald P. Muraro, University of Florida, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL. June 2000.

u Although estimated annual per-acre grove costs listed are representative for mature citrus groves (10+ years),

grove-care costs for specific grove sites may differ depending on tree age, tree density, and grove practices performed.

v Irrigation Expense includes the following:

Microsprinkler Drip

Variable Operating Expense (diesel) $ 34.50 $ 32.43

Fixed-Variable Expense (annual maintenance repairs to system) 43.49 37.99

Total Cash Expenses $ 77.99 $ 69.72

Fixed-Depreciation Expense 56.56 45.25

Total Cash and Fixed Expense $134.55 $115.17

w Per-acre costs shown in parenthesis are for 2000.

x Spray materials include copper (Cu), oil, and nutritionals and Agri-mek under the low-cost processed program.

y Where "equipment use" or "application" is listed (discing, hedging, spray application), "average custom charge"

(cost) represents charges for equipment repairs, maintenance, labor, and overhead management charges/costs.

Exceptions are mowing, spraying, and herbicide application costs for Southwest Florida which "represents a

cost for non-custom managed (owner-managed) operations." A "management charge" for equipment supervision

and fruit marketing is not included. Mangement charges/costs may be based on monthly charges ($3-$4/acre)

or percentage of gross management sales. A harvesting supervision cost ($0.10-$0.20/box) for overseeing and

coordinating harvesting may be charged. Other cost items not included in the budget are ad valorem taxes and

interest on grove investment. Overhead and adminstrative costs such as water drainage/district taxes, crop

insurance, and other grower assessments may be 12% of the total grove care costs. These costs vary from

grove to grove depending on age, location, and time of purchase or establishment. Except for Southwest Florida,

materials expense is a supervision (handling) charge of 10% of cost/price of the materials is included in "material

expense."

z Estimated comparative costs are for the example grove situation described in the Economic Information Report

Series "Budgeting Costs and Returns for Indian River Citrus Production" and may not represent your particular

situation in Indian River. Indian River production area refers to the citrus producing counties on Florida's east coast.

Table 4. 

Total delivered-in cost for central Florida (Ridge) valencia oranges, southwest Florida hamlin oranges and Indian River fresh packed grapefruit, 1990-2000z.

 

Central (Ridge) Florida

(Processed

Valencia Oranges)

Southwest Florida

(Processed

Halmin Oranges)

Indian River Florida

(Fresh Packed

Grapefruit)

 

$/Acre

$/Box

$P.S.

$/Acre

$/Box

$/P.S.

$/Acre

$/Box

$/Carton

Total Production/Cultural Costs

783.43

1.749

0.2572

758.85

1.506

0.2468

051.47

2.029

1.0144

Interest on Operating (Cultural) Costs

39.17

0.087

0.0129

37.94

0.075

0.0123

47.57

0.101

0.0507

Management Costs

48.00

0.107

0.0158

48.00

0.095

0.0156

48.00

0.102

0.0512

Taxes/Regulatory Costs

Property tax/

water management tax

58.92

0.132

0.0193

61.00

0.121

0.0198

44.80

0.096

0.0478

Water drainage tax

60.00

0.128

0.0640

Fly protocol costx

44.70

0.095

0.0477

Total taxes/

regulatory costs

58.92

0.132

0.0193

61.00

0.121

0.0198

149.50

0.319

0.1595

Total Direct Grower Costs

929.52

2.075

0.3052

905.79

1.797

0.2945

1,196.54

2.551

1.2758

Interest on Average Capital Investment Costs

375.85

0.839

0.1234

367.85

0.730

0.1196

389.85

0.831

0.4156

Total Grower Costs

1,305.37

2.914

0.4286

1,273.64

2.527

0.4141

1,586.39

3.382

1.6914

Harvesting Costsy

Pick/spot pick,

roadside and haul

851.20

1.900

0.2794

907.40

1.800

0.2951

867.65

1.850

0.9250

Fruit drenching (fresh)

70.35

0.150

0.0750

DOC assessment

80.64

0.180

0.0265

90.72

0.180

0.0295

152.43

0.325

0.1625

Total Harvesting and Assessment Costs

931.84

2.080

0.3059

997.92

1.980

0.3246

1,090.43

2.325

1.1625

Total Delivered-In Cost

2,237.21

4.994

0.7345

2,271.56

4.507

0.7387

2,676.82

5.708

2,8539

P.S. = Pound Solids

Two Cartons Per Box

448 boxes/acre

@ 6.8 P.S./box

Valencia Oranges

504 boxes/acre

@ 6.1 P.S./box

Hamlin Oranges

469 boxes/acre

(average for white

and red grapefruit)

100% Packout

Average Tree Density

108 Trees Per Acre

145 Trees Per Acre

91 Trees Per Acre

Source: Ronald P. Muraro, professor, University of Florida, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL.

June 2000.

x "Fly protocol cost" is a certification program for exporting citrus to Japan. Depending on the number of times the fruit

is harvested, bait/spray treatment costs may be as high as $70/acre.

y Harvesting costs do not include charges for unloading/rejecting fruit at a processing plant or handling/hauling costs

for packinghouse eliminations.

z Total production/cultural costs presented for Central (Ridge) Florida and Southwest Florida represent a "reduced-cost

processed orange cultural program" that many growers currently employ. Production/cultural costs for Indian River

represent "historical cost cultural programs" for fresh packed/export grapefuit. Costs represent a mature productive

citrus grove 10+ years of age.

Footnotes

1.

This is EDIS document FE 212, a publication of the Department of Food and Resource Economics, UF/IFAS Extension. Published November 2000. Reviewed August 2014. Please visit the EDIS website at: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Ronald P. Muraro, professor (deceased) and farm management economist, Department of Food and Resource Economics, UF/IFAS Extension, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.