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Publication #FE906

Economic Contributions of Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Related Industries in Florida for 20101

Alan W. Hodges, Mohammad Rahmani, and Thomas J. Stevens2

Executive Summary

Agriculture, natural resources, and related industries remain a significant force in the economy of Florida, and it is important to recognize their economic contributions for informed public policy. The economic contributions of these industries were evaluated for 2010 to update previous reports and provide further information on economic trends in the wake of the historic global recession of 2007–2009. This analysis was conducted using the IMPLAN regional economic modeling system and associated state and county databases (MIG, Inc. 2012) to estimate economic multipliers that capture the additional economic activity generated by re-spending of income in the local economy arising from new final demand. The set of industry sectors included in this analysis was selected to represent a broad array of linked activities for commodity production, manufacturing, distribution, and supporting services.

Economic contribution results for 2010 included:

  • Industry output or sales revenues of $121.24 billion, and total output contribution of $196.96 billion, including indirect/induced multiplier effects arising from foreign and domestic exports of $47.80 billion

  • Direct employment through the creation of 1.35 million full-time and part-time jobs, representing 13.8 percent of all jobs in the state, and total employment impacts (including multiplier effects) of 2.01 million full-time and part-time jobs

  • Direct value added of $60.66 billion, representing 8.5 percent of Florida's Gross State Product, and total value-added impacts (including multiplier effects) of $108.74 billion, representing 10.3 percent of Gross State Product

  • Total labor income impacts of $67.31 billion for employee wages and benefits and business proprietor income, and total property income impacts of $29.56 billion for rents, interest, royalties, and dividends

  • Total indirect business tax impacts of $11.87 billion paid to local, state, and federal governments

Across the various groups of agriculture and natural resource related sectors, total employment impacts and value-added impacts were largest for the Food and Kindred Products Distribution industry group (1.21 million jobs; $58.59 billion), followed by Agricultural Inputs and Services (295,956 jobs; $14.17 billion); Crop, Livestock, Forestry, and Fisheries Production (228,537 jobs; $12.25 billion); Food and Kindred Product Manufacturing (138,024 jobs; $13.53 billion); Forest Product Manufacturing (72,783 jobs; $5.99 billion); Mining (53,245 jobs; $3.49 billion); and Nature-Based Recreation (11,913 jobs; $724 million). Excluding the Food and Kindred Products Distribution industry group, which includes food service establishments (restaurants and bars) and retail food stores, total economic impacts represented 6.3 percent of Gross State Product and 4.8 percent of total state employment.

Economic contributions were also evaluated for several commodity groups that have close linkages between production and processing/manufacturing sectors. The total value-added impacts and employment contributions were highest for the Environmental Horticulture group ($10.06 billion; 218,898 jobs), followed by Fruit and Vegetable Farming and Processing ($7.65 billion; 100,951 jobs); Forestry and Forest Products ($7.11 billion; 89,993 jobs); Other Food Products Manufacturing ($9.15 billion; 81,370 jobs); Mining ($3.49 billion; 53,245 jobs); Sugarcane Farming and Refined Sugar Manufacturing ($1.33 billion; 32,770 jobs); Livestock and Dairy Farming and Animal Products Manufacturing ($1.12 billion; 22,699 jobs); Fishing and Seafood Products ($330 million; 11,089 jobs); and Grain and Oilseed Farming and Processing ($335 million; 3,841 jobs).

Geographically, the size and composition of agriculture, natural resources, and related industries vary dramatically across the state of Florida due to differences in climate, natural resource endowments, population, and settlement patterns. The largest economic contributions occurred in the major metro areas such as Miami–Ft. Lauderdale, Orlando, Tampa–St. Petersburg, Sarasota–Bradenton, and Jacksonville, where there are large demands for food and kindred products and a large workforce available for the industry. The seven largest individual counties in terms of total value-added impacts and employment impacts were Miami–Dade ($13.57 billion; 230,789 jobs), Hillsborough ($9.92 billion; 155,130 jobs), Orange ($8.67 billion; 159,556 jobs), Duval ($8.55 billion; 114,409), Broward ($8.06 billion; 156,451 jobs), Palm Beach ($7.85 billion; 146,714 jobs), and Polk ($6.42 billion; 96,926 jobs). However, the economic contributions of agriculture and related industries are also relatively important in many rural areas, where these industries may represent a higher share of total economic activity. Additional detailed information on economic contributions in individual Florida counties is available at http://www.fred.ifas.ufl.edu/economic-impact-analysis/Florida-county-profiles-2010.pdf.

Direct employment in Florida's agriculture, natural resources, and related industries grew from 1.252 million jobs in 2001 to 1.382 million jobs in 2008, and then declined to 1.305 million jobs in 2009 as a result of the lingering effects of the global recession. In 2010, however, direct employment in Florida agriculture reached 1.384 million, which was higher than 2009 by more than 6 percent. This represented a much higher annual job growth compared to the previous nine-year (2001–2009) average of 0.5 percent and even higher than the 1.5 percent average for the 2001–2007 period preceding the recession. Total employment impacts increased to the highest level ever in 2010, reflecting a dramatic increase in exports of Florida products to domestic and world markets. Total value-added impacts grew from $80.27 billion in 2001 to $108.74 billion in 2010, at a 2.8 percent average annual rate in inflation-adjusted terms. In 2010, these value-added impacts represented 10.3 percent of Florida's Gross State Product. Among the agriculture, natural resources, and related industry groups, average annual growth in value-added impacts during 2001–2010 was highest for Mining (8.5%), followed by Agricultural Inputs and Services (6.2%) and Food and Kindred Products Distribution (4.6%).

Introduction

Agriculture, natural resources, and related industries represent a major industry group in terms of generating employment and income, and producing goods and services that contribute to economic growth and development in Florida and the United States. These industries utilize natural resources provided by Florida's 24 million acres (36,000 square miles) of forests, croplands, and ranches to produce basic food, fiber, and mineral commodities. Unrefined commodities are converted into finished products by the food and kindred product manufacturing industries. Finished goods then move through the wholesale and retail distribution chain to final consumers or to other industry sectors as intermediate goods for further value added processing. These industries are also linked to a broad array of allied suppliers that provide production inputs and supporting services. In addition, natural landscapes and other open or undeveloped lands provide an array of opportunities for nature-based recreation and eco-tourism. Thus, the chain of agricultural and related industry activities encompasses the "from farm to table" spectrum.

Assessment of the economic contributions of an industry group to a regional economy like Florida is important to making informed public policy decisions regarding future economic and community development, job creation, environmental regulation, labor and human resources, and taxation, among other issues. This report provides estimates of the economic contributions to the state of Florida in 2010 by a set of broadly defined industries comprising agriculture, natural resources, and related activities. It updates and continues a series of annual studies similarly conducted for the years 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Hodges, Rahmani, and Stevens 2011; Hodges and Rahmani 2010, 2009; Hodges, Rahmani, and Mulkey 2008).

Methods

Data for this analysis were obtained from the IMPLAN-3 database for the state of Florida and its counties for 2001–2010 (MIG, Inc. 2012), which were derived from the National Income and Product Accounts for the United States (United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis), the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (United States Bureau of Labor Statistics), and other sources. Over 90 individual industry sectors in the IMPLAN system were identified as related to agriculture and natural resource commodity production, including input supply and supporting services, food and kindred product manufacturing, forest product manufacturing, food and kindred product distribution, and nature-based recreation. A complete list of industry groups and individual sectors included in the analysis is shown in Table 1. Note that some industry sectors in this analysis were reclassified from their original major industry group designation under the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) to be included as part of the broadly defined agriculture-related industries. The rationale for including processing/manufacturing industries in this analysis is that they share a common dependence upon the natural resource base and would not exist in the state if not for basic production activities. Food and kindred product distribution sectors, such as wholesalers, food stores, and restaurants, although not strictly dependent upon natural resources, are the endpoint of the market chain for the delivery of these products to final consumers.

Economic contributions were also evaluated for several recognizable commodity groups that have linkages between production and processing/manufacturing sectors. These included environmental horticulture (nursery and greenhouse production, landscape services, and retail lawn-and-garden centers); fruit and vegetable farming and processing; forestry, logging, and forest product manufacturing; sugarcane and refined sugar manufacturing; livestock and animal products manufacturing; and fishing and seafood products.

The total regional economic impacts for each sector were estimated using models developed with the IMPLAN-3 software for social accounting and impact analysis (MIG, Inc. 2012). This system enables construction of input–output (I–O) models and social accounting matrices that represent the structure of a regional economy in terms of transactions among industry sectors, households, and governments. The IMPLAN model includes accounts for industrial commodity production; employment; labor and property income; household and institutional consumption; domestic and international trade (imports, exports); government taxes; transfer payments, such as welfare and retirement; and capital investment. Economic multipliers are calculated for each industry to estimate the secondary effects of new final demand that generates further economic activity as it is re-spent in the local economy (Miller and Blair 2009). Indirect effects multipliers represent the economic activity generated in the supply chain through the purchase of intermediate inputs from vendor firms, while induced effects multipliers represent the impacts of spending by industry employee households and governments. The indirect and induced multipliers were applied only to foreign and domestic exports, or sales to customers visiting from outside the state of Florida, which represent new money flowing into the regional economy. The total economic impacts are calculated as the sum of direct effects, plus indirect and induced effects. Therefore, while the estimates of this analysis are referred to as "economic impacts," these values may be better understood as "economic contributions" because they represent the ongoing economic activity of existing industries, rather than a net change in activity resulting from external influences (Watson et al. 2007).

Measures of economic impacts reported here include output or revenue; value added; employment (including full-time, part-time, and seasonal positions); labor income; property income; and indirect business taxes paid to local, state, and federal governments. Value added is a broad measure of net economic activity that is comparable to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and represents the sum of labor and other property income, indirect business taxes, and capital consumption (depreciation). Value added also is equivalent to the difference between industry revenues and intermediate inputs purchased from other sectors. A glossary of economic impact analysis terminology is provided in the Appendix.

Regional economic models were developed for the state of Florida and for all 67 counties in the state using the IMPLAN-3 software and the IMPLAN Florida state/county data package for 2010 (MIG, Inc. 2012). Models were constructed with econometrically estimated Regional Purchase Coefficients representing the share of commodities purchased from local sources, and social/institutional accounts for households, local/state/federal governments, and capital investment were included internally (treated as endogenous) within the models.

Summary information was developed for the state of Florida, all 67 counties, and nine multi-county regions as shown in Figure 6. These functional economic areas represent core metropolitan areas and adjacent nonmetropolitan counties linked by employee commuting patterns as defined by the United States Bureau of Economic Analysis (Johnson and Kort 2004). It should be noted that some Georgia counties included by IMPLAN in the north Florida region data were not evaluated in this analysis. Due to differences in trade flows and accounting adjustments at the state and county levels, slight discrepancies in regional results were reconciled by forcing county and regional estimates to match with state totals.

For some activities that were not specifically identified in IMPLAN, values were estimated as shares of their parent sector based on data from the 2007 Economic Census and previous special studies. Landscape services and Pest control services, therefore, were 68.7 percent and 14.5 percent, respectively, of Services to buildings (sector 388); Wholesale food distribution was 24.0 percent of Wholesale trade (sector 319); Retail lawn-and-garden centers were 12.3 percent of Building materials and garden stores (sector 323); and Golf courses and Recreational fishing were 14.8 percent and 0.10 percent, respectively, of Amusement and recreation services (sector 410).

Reported employment figures represent all full-time, part-time, and temporary or seasonal jobs, rather than full-time equivalents employees. All monetary values were expressed in 2010 US dollars using the mid-year (July) indices for the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Implicit Price Deflator, which accounts for the effects of price changes in the measurement of GDP (United States Department of Commerce). Note that IMPLAN data were not available for 2005. Also, note that results for 2001–2008 were revised in light of new information, so findings presented here do not necessarily match those previously reported (Hodges, Rahmani, and Stevens 2011; Hodges and Rahmani 2010, 2009; Hodges, Rahmani, and Mulkey 2008).

Results

Economic Contributions by Industry Groups and Sectors

Economic contributions by major industry groups and specific industry sectors in Florida for 2010 are shown in Table 1 and summarized in Figures 1–3. The industries are categorized in seven major groups: Crop, Livestock, Forestry, and Fisheries Production; Agricultural Inputs and Services; Food and Kindred Products Manufacturing; Forest Products Manufacturing; Mining; Nature-based Recreation; and Food and Kindred Products Distribution. Results are reported below for each major group; each sector; all groups combined; and for all groups, excluding Food and Kindred Products Distribution.

Figure 1. 

Structure of economic activity of agriculture, natural resources, and related industries in Florida in 2010 (values in billion dollars). Source: IMPLAN-3 (MIG, Inc. 2012).


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Figure 2. 

Output and value added contributions of agriculture, natural resources, and related industries in Florida in 2010. Source: IMPLAN-3 (MIG, Inc. 2012). Estimates include regional multiplier effects.


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Figure 3. 

Employment contributions of agriculture, natural resources, and related industries in Florida in 2010. Source: IMPLAN-3 (MIG, Inc. 2012). Estimates include regional multiplier effects.


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Direct industry output or sales in 2010 were $121.24 billion. Foreign and domestic exports of goods and services to customers outside of Florida totaled $47.80 billion. As a result of the indirect and induced multiplier effects arising from exports, an additional $76 billion in output was generated in the economy, mostly in other economic sectors. Total output impacts, including direct, indirect, and induced effects, were estimated at $196.96 billion. Direct employment in these industries was 1,348,235 full-time and part-time jobs, and total employment impacts (including multiplier effects) were estimated at 2,008,369 jobs. Direct value-added impacts of these industries were $60.66 billion, and total value-added impacts were $108.74 billion. Total labor (earned) income impacts of employee wages and benefits and of business proprietor income were $67.31 billion. Total property income impacts, such as rents, interest, royalties, and dividends, amounted to $29.56 billion. Total indirect business tax impacts (paid to local, state, and federal governments) were $11.87 billion (Table 1).

The Crop, Livestock, Forestry, and Fisheries Production group includes sectors for the production of basic unrefined food and fiber commodities. In 2010, total output of these sectors was $10.45 billion, exports were $6.61 billion, and output impacts were $21.33 billion (Table 1; Figure 2). Direct value added was $5.29 billion and value-added impacts were $12.25 billion. Direct employment was 124,283 jobs and total employment impacts were 228,537 jobs (Figure 3). Labor income impacts were $7.75 billion, other property income impacts were $3.78 billion, and indirect business tax impacts were $719 million. Among individual industry sectors in this group, the highest value-added impacts were for Greenhouse, nursery, and floriculture production ($2.53 billion); Fruit farming ($2.40 billion); Vegetable and melon farming ($2.33 billion); and Support activities for agriculture and forestry (1.93 billion). The highest employment impacts were for Support activities for agriculture and forestry (57,475 jobs); Sugarcane farming (35,156 jobs); Greenhouse, nursery, and floriculture production (34,679 jobs); Vegetable and melon farming (31,268 jobs); and Fruit farming (21,252 jobs). Large value-added impacts and employment impacts were also realized for the sectors of Forestry and timber tracts ($948 million; 13,510 jobs); Commercial fishing ($245 million; 9,600 jobs); and Commercial logging ($290 million; 7,431 jobs). Value-added impacts of more than $100 million were observed for Cattle ranching and farming, Poultry and egg production, Dairy cattle and milk production, and All other crop farming.

The Agricultural Inputs and Services group includes a variety of sectors providing inputs or supporting services for agricultural operations or landscape management. Output impacts in 2010 by this industry group totaled $30.03 billion, including exports of $9.01 billion (Table 1; Figure 2). Direct value added was $6.06 billion and value-added impacts were $14.17 billion. Direct employment was 186,588 jobs and employment impacts were 295,956 jobs (Figure 3). Labor income impacts were $9.64 billion, other property income impacts were $3.70 billion, and indirect business tax impacts were $832 million. Among the leading sectors in this group, Landscape services had value-added impacts of $7.04 billion and employment impacts of 175,080 jobs, followed by Fertilizer manufacturing ($4.36 billion; 52,041 jobs); Pest control services ($1.49 billion; 36,953 jobs); Veterinary services ($1.13 billion; 30,277 jobs); and Lawn and garden equipment manufacturing ($107 million; 1,085 jobs). Other minor sectors in this group included Farm machinery and equipment manufacturing, and Pesticide and other agricultural chemical manufacturing.

Food and Kindred Products Manufacturing industries convert unrefined agricultural commodities to food products for final consumption or for use as ingredients in other products. In 2010, this group of industries in Florida had a direct output of $21.25 billion; exports of $9.79 billion; output impacts of $33.40 billion; direct employment of 37,728 jobs; total employment impacts of 138,024 jobs; direct value added of $6.05 billion; value-added impacts of $13.53 billion; labor income impacts of $6.80 billion; other property income impacts of $5.08 billion; and indirect business tax impacts of $1.66 billion (Table 1; Figures 2 and 3). This large industry group included 33 individual sectors, of which the highest value-added impacts and employment impacts were Soft drink and ice manufacturing ($2.86 billion; 34,661 jobs); Tobacco product manufacturing ($2.84 billion; 8,534 jobs); Fruit and vegetable canning, pickling, and drying ($1.79 billion; 20,248 jobs); Breweries ($1.13 billion; 10,506 jobs); Frozen food manufacturing ($1.11 billion; 14,074 jobs); Sugarcane mills and refining ($712 million; 11,518 jobs); and Distilleries ($585 million; 5,335 jobs). Other sectors with significant value-added impacts included Other animal food manufacturing ($368 million); Bread and bakery product manufacturing ($347 million); All other food manufacturing ($260 million); Flour milling and malt manufacturing ($253 million); Fluid milk and butter manufacturing ($161 million); Snack food manufacturing ($143 million); and Coffee and tea manufacturing ($124 million).

Forest Products Manufacturing is a group of industries for the processing of raw timber or wood into finished wood and paper products. In 2010, this industry group had direct output valued at $6.27 billion; exports of $4.78 billion; output impacts of $12.80 billion; direct employment of 17,885 jobs; employment impacts of 72,783 jobs; direct value added of $1.91 billion; value-added impacts of $5.97 billion; labor income impacts of $3.65 billion; other property income impacts of $1.96 billion; and indirect business tax impacts of $377 million (Table 1; Figures 2 and 3). Leading sectors within this group in terms of value added and employment impacts were Paper mills ($1.37 billion; 16,014 jobs); Paperboard container manufacturing ($1.01 billion; 12,826 jobs); Sanitary paper products manufacturing ($938 million; 8,170 jobs); Paperboard mills ($817 million; 9,450 jobs); Pulp mills ($685 million; 8,263 jobs); and Stationary product manufacturing ($279 million; 3,572 jobs). Other sectors with significant value-added impacts included Coated and laminated paper packaging paper and plastics film manufacturing ($166 million); Engineered wood member and truss manufacturing ($141 million); Sawmills and wood preservation ($126 million); and Wood window and door manufacturing ($125 million).

Mining is a natural-resource based activity for the extraction of basic mineral commodities such as oil, natural gas, stone, sand, gravel, clay, phosphate, and a variety of metals. In 2010, the Mining industries in Florida collectively had direct output of $3.43 billion; exports of $2.09 billion; output impacts of $6.89 billion; direct employment of 24,581 jobs; employment impacts of 53,245 jobs; direct value added of $1.27 billion; value-added impacts of $3.49 billion; labor income impacts of $1.98 billion; other property income impacts of $1.25 billion; and indirect business tax impacts of $265 million (Table 1; Figures 2 and 3). This industry group's largest individual sector was Extraction of oil and natural gas, which generated value-added impacts of $1.68 billion and employment impacts of 34,812 jobs. Other individual sectors with significant value-added impacts and employment impacts included Mining and quarrying of other nonmetallic minerals ($614 million; 5,816 jobs); Mining and quarrying stone ($560 million; 5,592 jobs); Mining and quarrying of sand, gravel, and clay ($262 million; 3,299 jobs); and Drilling of oil and gas wells ($171 million; 1,782 jobs). Other minor sectors in this industry group were Support activities for oil and gas operations; Mining gold, silver, and other metal ore; and Support activities for other mining.

Nature-Based Recreation includes recreational activities generally tied to natural resources or managed landscapes such as golf, recreational fishing, and hunting and trapping. In 2010, this industry group in Florida had total output of $609 million; exports or sales to Florida visitors of $260 million; output impacts of $1.10 billion; direct employment of 7,455 jobs; employment impacts of 11,913 jobs; direct value added of $401 million; value-added impacts of $724 million; labor income impacts of $364 million; other property income impacts of $287 million; and indirect business tax impacts of $73 million (Table 1; Figures 2 and 3). Among individual sectors, Golf courses had value-added impacts of $588 million and employment impacts of 10,564 jobs, followed by Commercial hunting and trapping ($132 million; 1,277 jobs). Due to the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, value-added impacts and employment impacts for the Recreational fishing sector were significantly lower in 2010 ($4 million; 71 jobs).

Food and Kindred Products Distribution includes activities for wholesale and retail trade in agricultural and related products. This large group of industry sectors is only indirectly related to agriculture and natural resources because it serves to deliver products to final consumers, but it is included here for a perspective on the scope of the complex market chain for food and kindred products. In 2010, this industry group in Florida had a total output of $62.60 billion; exports of $15.25 billion; output impacts of $91.40 billion; direct employment of 949,716 jobs; employment impacts of 1,207,912 jobs; direct value added of $39.67 billion; value-added impacts of $58.59 billion; labor income impacts of $37.14 billion; other property income impacts of $13.51 billion; and indirect business tax impacts of $7.95 billion (Table 1; Figures 2 and 3). Collectively, this group represented about 54 percent of total value-added impacts and 60 percent of employment impacts for all industries included in this report. Among individual sectors within this group, Food service establishments and drinking places (restaurants and bars) had by far the greatest value-added impacts ($33.19 billion) and employment impacts (821,906 jobs), followed by Wholesale trade in food and kindred products ($15.56 billion; 157,769 jobs); Food and beverage stores ($9.36 billion; 219,098 jobs); and Retail lawn-and-garden centers ($487 million; 9,139 jobs).

Excluding sectors for Food and Kindred Products Distribution, the remaining total economic values for agriculture, natural resources, and related industries were $58.64 billion in direct output (which included exports of $32.55 billion); output impacts of $105.56 billion; direct employment of 398,520 jobs; employment impacts of 800,457 jobs; direct value added of $20.99 billion; value-added impacts of $50.19 billion; labor income impacts of $30.18 billion; property income impacts of $16.05 billion; and indirect business tax impacts of $3.92 billion (subtotal in Table 1).

Economic Contributions by Agriculture and Natural Resource Commodity Groups

In addition to the industry groups noted above, economic contributions were also evaluated for groups of food, fiber, and mineral commodities having identifiable market-chain linkages between producers, manufacturers, and service sectors. In this section, some sectors are regrouped to reflect these linkages, with results summarized in Figures 4 and 5. Environmental Horticulture, which includes the sectors Nursery and greenhouse production, Landscape services, and Retail lawn- and garden-centers, had combined value-added impacts of $10.05 billion and employment impacts of 218,898 jobs. Fruit and Vegetable Farming and Processing, including sectors for Fruit farming; Vegetable and melon farming; Frozen food manufacturing; and Fruit and vegetable canning, pickling, and drying, had combined value-added impacts of $7.64 billion and employment impacts of 100,951 jobs. Forestry and Forest Products, including the sectors Forestry and timber tracts, and Logging, as well as sixteen forest product manufacturing sectors, had combined value-added impacts of $7.11 billion and employment impacts of 89,993 jobs. Production sectors for Livestock and Dairy Farming, and Animal Products Manufacturing, which includes Beef cattle ranching and farming; Dairy cattle and milk production; Poultry and egg production; Animal production, except cattle and poultry; Animal slaughtering; Poultry processing; Cheese manufacturing; and Ice cream manufacturing, had combined value-added impacts of $1.12 billion and employment impacts of 22,699 jobs. Sectors within the Sugarcane Farming and Refined Sugar Manufacturing group had combined value-added impacts of $1.33 billion and employment impacts of 32,770 jobs, and those of Fishing and Seafood Products had combined value-added impacts of $330 million and employment impacts of 11,089 jobs. The group Grain and Oilseed Farming and Processing had combined value-added impacts and employment impacts of $335 million and 3,841 jobs, respectively.

Figure 4. 

Output and value added contributions of food and fiber commodity groups in Florida in 2010. Source: IMPLAN-3 (MIG, Inc. 2012). Estimates include regional multiplier effects.


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Figure 5. 

Employment contributions of food and fiber commodity groups in Florida in 2010. Source: IMPLAN-3 (MIG, Inc. 2012). Estimates include regional multiplier effects.


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Economic Contributions in Florida Regions and Counties

Regional impacts of agriculture, natural resources, and related manufacturing, distribution, and service industries in 2010 were evaluated for all 67 Florida counties and 9 multi-county economic regions as indicated in Figure 6, with results summarized in Table 2 and Figures 7 and 8. The region with the highest value-added impacts and employment impacts was that of Miami–Ft. Lauderdale ($34.78 billion; 634,739 jobs), followed by the Orlando region ($26.47 billion; 503,658 jobs), Tampa–St. Petersburg ($15.16 billion; 274,229 jobs), Jacksonville ($11.86 billion; 173,694 jobs), Sarasota–Bradenton ($10.13 billion; 205,785 jobs), Gainesville ($2.89 billion; 62,171 jobs), Pensacola ($3.02 billion; 66,304 jobs), Tallahassee ($2.69 billion; 53,405 jobs), and Panama City ($1.73 billion; 34,383 jobs).

Figure 6. 

Functional economic regions of Florida. Source: Adapted from US Commerce Department, Bureau of Economic Analysis (Johnson and Kort 2004).


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Figure 7. 

Employment contributions in Florida regions by agriculture, natural resources, and related industries in 2010. Source: IMPLAN-3 (MIG, Inc. 2012). Estimates include regional multiplier effects.


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Figure 8. 

Value added contributions to Gross Regional Product in Florida regions by agriculture, natural resources, and related industries in 2010. Source: IMPLAN-3 (MIG, Inc. 2012). Estimates include regional multiplier effects.


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Among individual Florida counties, the seven largest counties in terms of value-added impacts and employment impacts in 2010 were Miami–Dade ($13.57 billion; 230,789 jobs), followed by Hillsborough ($9.92 billion; 155,130 jobs), Orange ($8.67 billion; 159,556 jobs), Duval ($8.55 billion; 114,409 jobs), Broward ($8.06 billion; 156,451 jobs), Palm Beach ($7.85 billion; 146,714 jobs), and Polk ($6.42 billion; 96,926 jobs). Eighteen other counties with value-added impacts exceeding $1 billion were Pinellas ($3.61 billion), Lee ($2.80 billion), Manatee ($2.46 billion), Collier ($2.29 billion), Seminole ($2.03 billion), Volusia ($1.93 billion), Alachua ($1.67 billion), Sarasota ($1.65 billion), Brevard ($1.48 billion), Escambia ($1.43 billion), Lake ($1.35 billion), Bay ($1.30 billion), Osceola ($1.28 billion), Leon ($1.21 billion), Marion ($1.18 billion), St. Lucie ($1.17 billion), Pasco ($1.10 billion), and Putnam ($1.00 billion).

Additional detailed information on economic contributions by each Florida county is available at http://www.fred.ifas.ufl.edu/economic-impact-analysis/Florida-county-profiles-2010.pdf.

Share of Gross State Product and Employment

The relative importance of agriculture, natural resources, and related manufacturing, distribution, and service industries in Florida can be gauged by their share of overall economic activity in the state. The Gross State Product of Florida in 2010 was $714 billion (equivalent to the sum of direct value added for all industries), and total employment in the state was 9,773,730 million jobs. The direct value added contributed by agriculture, natural resources, and related industries ($60.66 billion) represented 8.5 percent of Florida's Gross State Product in 2010 (Figure 9), while the total value-added impact, including regional multiplier effects, ($108.74 billion) represented 10.3 percent of Gross State Product that year. Direct employment by agricultural, natural resources, and related industries (1.35 million full-time and part-time jobs) represented 13.8 percent of all jobs in the state in 2010 (Figure 10), while total employment impacts (2.01 million jobs) comprised 13.9 percent of all jobs that year. Excluding Food and Kindred Products Distribution, agriculture, natural resources, and related industries represented 2.9 percent of Gross State Product and 4.1 percent of total state employment.

Figure 9. 

Direct value added by major industry groups as a share of Gross State Product of Florida in 2010. Source: IMPLAN-3 (MIG, Inc. 2012). Impact estimates include regional multiplier effects.


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Figure 10. 

Direct employment by major industry groups in Florida in 2010. Source: IMPLAN-3 (MIG, Inc. 2012). Impact estimates include regional multiplier effects.


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The share of Florida's Gross Regional Product and Employment contributed by agriculture and natural resources sectors (or sector-groups) for each county in 2010 are shown in Figures 11 and 12, respectively.

Figure 11. 

Map of total value added contributions by agriculture, natural resources, and related industries as a share of Gross Regional Product in Florida counties in 2010.


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Figure 12. 

Map of total employment contributions by agriculture, natural resources, and related industries as a share of total employment in Florida counties in 2010.


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Trends

In addition to the status of economic contributions made by agriculture and natural resource related industries to Florida in 2010, it is important to understand how these values have changed over time. Trends in the economic contributions of agriculture, natural resources, and related industries between 2001 and 2010 are shown in Figures 13–15, with all monetary values adjusted for inflation and expressed in constant 2010 US dollars. Note that these trends may also reflect changes in commodity prices, the structure of Florida's economy, and the cycle of the national and global economy.

Figure 13. 

Trends in employment contributions by agriculture, natural resources, and related industries in Florida in 2001–2010. Source: IMPLAN-3 (MIG, Inc. 2012). Data not available for 2005. Estimates include regional multiplier effects.


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Figure 14. 

Trends in value added contributions by agriculture, natural resources, and related industries in Florida in 2001–2010 (values in billion dollars). Source: IMPLAN-3 (MIG, Inc. 2012). Data not available for 2005. Estimates include regional multiplier effects.


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Figure 15. 

Trends in employment contributions by food and fiber commodity groups in Florida in 20012010. Source: IMPLAN-3 (MIG, Inc. 2012). Data not available for 2006. Estimates include regional effects.


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Direct employment in Florida's agriculture, natural resources, and related industries grew from 1.281 million jobs in 2001 to 1.382 million jobs in 2008. Employment by these sectors then declined to 1.305 million jobs in 2009 as a result of the lingering effects of the global recession, which reduced export demand for most agricultural commodities, but then recovered to 1.348 million in 2010. Despite the effects of the recession, annual job growth in agriculture, natural resources, and related industries averaged 0.7 percent over the entire ten-year period from 2001 through 2010. Total employment impacts increased to the highest level ever in 2010, reflecting a dramatic increase in exports of Florida products to domestic and world markets, and representing a 1.2 percent average annual growth during 2001–2010.

Total value added contributions grew from $80.27 billion in 2001 to $108.74 billion in 2010, equivalent to a 2.8 percent average annual rate in inflation-adjusted terms (Figure 14). Among industry groups, average annual growth in value-added impacts during 2001–2010 was highest for Mining (8.5%), followed by Agricultural Inputs and Services (6.2%) and Food and Kindred Products Distribution (4.6%), while groups with low or negative growth during this time period included Forest Products Manufacturing (0.0%); Crop, Livestock, Fisheries, and Forestry Production (–0.4%); Food and Kindred Product Manufacturing (–1.3%); and Nature-based recreation (–14.9%).

Trends in employment contributions among Florida's food and fiber commodity groups are shown in Figure 15. Between 2001 and 2010, the Mining commodity group showed the highest increase in employment impacts at 133 percent, followed by Environmental Horticulture (48 percent); Other Food Product Manufacturing (16 percent); Fruit and Vegetable Farming and Processing (14 percent); and Forestry, Wood, and Paper Products Manufacturing (4 percent). Several commodity groups experienced significant impacts growth in employment, value added, and output in 2010, compared to 2009. Growth in employment impacts and value-added impacts, from 2009 to 2010, were highest for Sugarcane Farming, Refined Sugar, and Confections (92% and 160% respectively); Fishing and Seafood Products (45% and 17%); Other Crop Farming (39% and 52%); Mining (30% and 13%); and Grain and Oilseed Farming, and Processing (27% and 43%). Commodity groups with declines in employment impacts and value-added impacts during the 2009–2010 period included Other Food Product Manufacturing (–18% and –10%, respectively), and Agricultural Inputs and Services (–11% and –15%). While the effects of the recession from 2007 to 2009 varied widely, economic impact results for 2010 show that most of the agricultural and natural resources sectors have since recovered (Figures 13–15).

Individual industry sectors with average yearly growth rates in value-added impacts greater than 20 percent between 2001 and 2010 include Sugar cane mills and refining (49%), Paperboard mills (49%), Breakfast cereal manufacturing (38%), Soybean and other oilseed processing (37%), Wet corn milling (31%), Tortilla manufacturing (27%), Tree nut farming (25%), All other food manufacturing (22%), and Extraction of oil and natural gas (21%).

Across all industry groups in Florida, Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Related Industries was among the major sectors that experienced above average growth in direct value added contributions between 2001 and 2010. Among 17 major industry groups, those with the highest average yearly direct value added growth rates were Education (5.8%); Government and Non-NAICS (4%); Real Estate and Renting (3.6%); Professional and Technical Services (3.5%); Health Care and Social Services (3.4%); Travel, Entertainment, and Recreation (3.2%); Finance and Insurance (2.4%); and Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Related Industries (2.3%).

Conclusions

Agriculture and natural resource industries in Florida are linked to a broad array of economic sectors for commodity production, food and kindred product manufacturing, distribution, and related service activities. These industries collectively had a significant economic impact on Florida's economy in 2010, with direct employment accounting for about 13.8 percent of total state employment and direct value added representing 8.5 percent of Gross State Product. Food and Kindred Products Distribution was by far the largest segment of the industry group, representing 46 percent of value-added impacts and 60 percent of employment impacts. These agriculture and natural resource related industries are present throughout the state, with major activity in urbanized metropolitan areas, as well as rural counties, generally being relatively more important as a share of total economic activity in rural counties, although less so in absolute magnitude. The agriculture, natural resources, and related industries have grown substantially since 2001, before being interrupted in 2009 by the global recession, and then recovering strongly in 2010, with total regional economic impacts increasing dramatically due to increased exports. Growth in economic activity of agriculture, natural resources, and related industries during the ten-year period of 2001 to 2010 was higher than many other major industry groups in terms of value added, thus entailing their integral contributions towards the sustainability of the Florida economy.

References

Hodges, A.W., M. Rahmani, and T. Stevens, 2011. Economic contributions of Florida's agricultural, natural resource, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in 2009. Electronic Data Information Source (EDIS) FE897. Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FE897

Hodges, A.W. and M. Rahmani, 2010. Economic contributions of Florida's agricultural, natural resource, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in 2008. Electronic Data Information Source (EDIS) FE829. Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FE829

Hodges, A.W. and M. Rahmani, 2009. Economic contributions of Florida's agricultural, natural resource, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in 2007. Electronic Data Information Source (EDIS) FE800. Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FE800

Hodges, A.W., M. Rahmani, and W.D. Mulkey, 2008. Economic contributions of agricultural, food manufacturing, and natural resource industries in Florida in 2006. Electronic Data Information Source (EDIS) FE702. Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FE702

Johnson, K. and J. Kort. 2004. Redefinition of the BEA Economic Areas. Survey of Current Business. United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Washington, D.C. (November). http://www.bea.gov/scb/pdf/2004/11November/1104Econ-Areas.pdf

Minnesota IMPLAN Group, Inc. (MIG). 2012. IMPLAN Professional software for impact analysis and social accounting (version 3.0) and Florida state and county data for 2001–2009. Stillwater, MN. http://www.implan.com

Miller, R.E. and P.D. Blair. 2009. Input-Output Analysis: Foundations and Extensions, Second Edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, (USDOC/BEA). Gross Domestic Product Implicit Price Deflator, 1970-2010 (quarterly), Washington, D.C. http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred/data/gdp/gdpdef

Watson, P., J. Wilson, D. Thilmany, and S. Winter. 2007. Determining economic contributions and impacts: What is the difference and why do we care? Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy 37(2):140-146. http://www.jrap-journal.org/pastvolumes/2000/v37/F37-2-6.pdf

Appendix: Glossary of Economic Impact Terms

Apparent consumption represents the consumption of any particular commodity in a region, and is calculated as the local output, plus imports minus exports.

Contribution (economic) represents the gross change in economic activity associated with an industry, event, or policy in an existing regional economy.

Employee compensation is comprised of wages, salaries, commissions, and benefits, such as health and life insurance, retirement, and other forms of cash or non-cash compensation.

Employment is a measure of the number of jobs involved, including full-time, part-time, and seasonal positions. It is not a measure of full-time equivalents (FTE).

Exports are sales of goods to customers outside the region in which they are produced, which represents a net inflow of money to the region. This also applies to sales of services to customers visiting from other regions.

Final Demand represents sales to final consumers, including households and governments, and exports from the region.

Gross Regional Product is a measure of total economic activity in a region, or total income generated by all goods and services. It represents the sum of total value added by all industries in that region, and is equivalent to Gross Domestic Product for the nation.

IMPLAN is a computer-based input–output modeling system (originally developed by the US Forest Service, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency) that enables users to create regional economic models and multipliers for any region consisting of one or more counties or states in the United States. The current version of the IMPLAN software, version 3, accounts for commodity production and consumption for 440 industry sectors, 10 household income levels, taxes to local/state and federal governments, capital investment, imports and exports, transfer payments, and business inventories. Regional datasets for individual counties or states are purchased separately.

Impact or total impact is the change in total regional economic activity (e.g., output or employment), resulting from a change in final demand, direct industry output, or direct employment, estimated based on regional economic multipliers.

Imports are purchases of goods and services originating outside the region of analysis.

Income is the money earned within the region from production and sales. Total income includes labor income, such as wages, salaries, employee benefits, and business proprietor income, plus other property income.

Indirect business taxes are taxes paid to governments by individuals or businesses for property, excise, and sales taxes, but do not include income taxes.

Input-Output (I–O) model and Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) is a representation of the transactions between industry sectors within a region that captures what each sector purchases from every other sector in order to produce its output of goods or services. Using such a model, flows of economic activity associated with any change in spending may be traced backwards through the supply chain.

Intermediate sales are sales to other industrial sectors. The value of intermediate sales is netted-out of Total Value Added.

Local refers to good and services that are sourced from within the region, which may be defined as a county, multi-county cluster, or state. Non-local refers to economic activity originating outside the region.

Margins represent the portion of the purchaser price accruing to the retailer, wholesaler, and producer/manufacturer, in the supply chain. Typically, only the retail margins of many goods purchased by consumers accrue to the local region, as the wholesaler, shipper, and manufacturer often lie outside the local area.

Multipliers capture the total effects, both direct and secondary, in a given region, generally as a ratio of the total change in economic activity in the region relative to the direct change.Multipliers are derived from an I–O model of the regional economy. Multipliers may be expressed as ratios of sales, income, or employment, or as ratios of total income or employment changes relative to direct sales. Multipliers express the degree of interdependency between sectors in a region's economy and therefore vary considerably across regions and sectors. A sector-specific multiplier gives the total changes to the economy associated with a unit change in output or employment in a given sector (i.e., the direct economic effect) being evaluated. Indirect effects multipliers represent the changes in sales, income, or employment within the region in backward-linked industries supplying goods and services to businesses (e.g., increased sales in input supply firms resulting from more nursery industry sales). Induced effects multipliers represent the increased sales within the region from household spending of the income earned in the direct and supporting industries for housing, utilities, food, etc. An imputed multiplier is calculated as the ratio of the total impact divided by direct effect for any given measure (e.g., output, employment).

Other property income represents income received from investments, such as corporate dividends, royalties, property rentals, or interest on loans.

Output is the dollar value of a good or service produced or sold, and is equivalent to sales revenues plus changes in business inventories.

Output-consumption ratio is the total industry output divided by the apparent consumption, for any given commodity or industry, and is a measure of the degree to which local demands are met by local production.

Producer prices are the prices paid for goods at the factory or point of production. For manufactured goods, the purchaser price equals the producer price plus a retail margin, a wholesale margin, and a transportation margin. For services, the producer and purchaser prices are equivalent.

Proprietor income is income received by non-incorporated private business owners or self-employed individuals.

Purchaser prices are the prices paid by the final consumer of a good or service.

Region defines the geographic area for which impacts are estimated, usually an aggregation of several counties defined on the basis of worker commuting patterns.

Sector is an individual industry or group of industries that produce similar products or services, or have similar production processes. Sectors are classified according to the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS).

Value Added is a broad measure of income, representing the sum of employee compensation, proprietor income, other property income, indirect business taxes, and capital consumption (depreciation). Value added is a commonly used measure of the contribution of an industry to the regional economy because it avoids double counting of intermediate sales.

Tables

Table 1. 

Economic contributions of agriculture, natural resources, and related industry groups and sectors in Florida in 2010

Industry Group / Sector

Employment

Output

Regional Exports

Total Value Added

Labor Income Impacts

Other Property Income Impacts

Indirect Business Tax Impacts

 

Direct

Total Impacts

Direct

Total Impacts

 

Direct

Total Impacts

     
 

full-time & part-time jobs

million dollars

Crop, Livestock, Forestry & Fisheries Production

124,283

228,537

10,448

21,335

6,610

5,290

12,251

7,751

3,780

719

 

Support activities for agriculture and forestry

44,732

57,475

1,344

2,804

801

1,002

1,953

1,598

236

100

 

Greenhouse, nursery, and floriculture

15,626

34,679

1,872

3,955

1,188

1,189

2,529

1,661

753

115

 

Sugarcane and sugar beet farming

15,240

21,252

543

1,165

370

225

620

311

259

50

 

Fruit farming

13,230

35,156

1,982

4,164

1,289

1,002

2,404

1,439

820

145

 

Vegetable and melon farming

10,723

31,268

1,943

4,084

1,283

951

2,329

1,366

839

124

 

Commercial fishing

7,364

9,600

273

523

200

86

245

172

57

16

 

Cattle ranching and farming

4,251

7,431

501

869

301

83

290

146

117

27

 

Dairy cattle and milk production

3,349

4,954

449

630

156

164

279

89

176

14

 

Commercial logging

2,965

3,700

289

368

57

122

172

157

5

10

 

Animal production, except cattle, poultry, and eggs

2,680

2,718

101

106

3

50

52

13

36

3

 

Forestry, forest products, and timber tract production

1,770

13,510

542

1,576

595

272

948

545

321

82

 

All other crop farming

1,208

3,347

236

461

146

71

216

123

73

20

 

Poultry and egg production

605

1,265

304

383

101

55

102

52

45

5

 

Cotton farming

254

972

50

127

54

10

58

36

19

4

 

Tree nut farming

103

204

8

18

6

4

11

6

4

1

 

Oilseed farming

90

817

7

86

54

3

54

31

19

4

 

Tobacco farming

67

157

4

13

8

1

7

4

2

1

 

Grain farming

26

31

1

2

0

0

1

0

0

0

Agricultural Inputs & Services

186,588

295,956

16,626

30,033

9,012

6,063

14,166

9,638

3,697

832

 

Landscape services

128,329

176,080

7,069

12,295

3,122

3,666

7,040

4,861

1,805

373

 

Pest control services

27,085

36,953

1,492

2,595

659

774

1,486

1,026

381

79

 

Veterinary services

25,911

30,277

1,359

1,855

272

807

1,127

999

67

60

 

Fertilizer manufacturing

4,841

52,041

6,439

12,865

4,841

758

4,364

2,671

1,380

312

 

Farm machinery and equipment

215

407

94

117

22

21

35

19

15

1

 

Lawn and garden equipment manufacturing

111

112

41

41

0

8

8

4

4

0

 

Pesticide and other agricultural chemical manufacturing

95

1,085

134

265

95

30

107

56

44

6

Mining

24,581

53,245

3,430

6,890

2,093

1,272

3,493

1,976

1,251

265

 

Extraction of oil and natural gas

19,921

34,812

2,173

4,054

1,113

474

1,682

961

572

150

 

Mining and quarrying other nonmetallic minerals

1,654

5,816

457

932

287

308

614

362

210

42

 

Mining and quarrying stone

996

5,592

349

877

329

223

560

285

244

32

 

Mining and quarrying sand, gravel, clay, and ceramic and refractory minerals

891

3,299

144

421

174

83

262

179

65

18

 

Drilling oil and gas wells

488

1,782

99

248

92

76

171

81

81

8

 

Support activities for oil and gas operations

378

929

61

126

41

18

59

43

12

4

 

Support activities for other mining

109

520

31

78

33

11

41

25

14

2

 

Mining gold, silver, and other metal ore

91

211

95

109

9

65

74

23

45

6

 

Mining coal

55

283

21

46

15

14

31

17

9

4

Food & Kindred Products Manufacturing

37,728

138,024

21,251

33,397

9,794

6,054

13,527

6,794

5,077

1,656

 

Bread and bakery product manufacturing

6,571

6,882

1,076

1,112

24

325

347

255

83

10

 

Soft drink and ice manufacturing

6,379

34,661

4,576

8,389

3,797

622

2,864

1,822

863

179

 

Fruit and vegetable canning, pickling, and drying

                   
 

Frozen food manufacturing

3,036

14,074

1,066

2,385

1,010

281

1,115

703

342

70

 

All other food manufacturing

2,416

3,714

754

909

108

163

260

152

99

9

 

Fluid milk and butter manufacturing

1,651

1,748

987

999

8

155

161

98

60

3

 

Tobacco product manufacturing

1,569

8,534

3,340

4,160

452

2,287

2,838

487

1,653

699

 

Poultry processing

1,544

1,732

356

381

22

59

73

58

13

2

 

Animal (except poultry) slaughtering, rendering, and processing

1,465

2,039

648

713

55

69

104

81

19

4

 

Seafood product preparation and packaging

1,376

1,488

473

485

10

77

84

69

14

2

 

Seasoning and dressing manufacturing

1,276

1,494

701

729

23

104

120

81

36

4

 

Cookie, cracker, and pasta manufacturing

992

1,066

437

446

8

103

109

50

57

2

 

Sugarcane mills and refining

894

11,518

818

1,886

598

117

712

442

219

51

 

Breweries

773

10,506

929

2,027

732

410

1,133

563

323

247

 

Ice cream and frozen dessert manufacturing

751

775

301

304

2

55

57

33

24

1

 

Coffee and tea manufacturing

666

1,149

456

513

37

88

124

65

54

4

 

Snack food manufacturing

661

755

471

482

9

136

143

41

100

2

 

Other animal food manufacturing

602

4,338

708

1,172

602

79

368

210

132

25

 

Confectionery manufacturing from purchased chocolate

414

926

125

190

57

23

62

34

25

3

 

Distilleries

342

5,335

305

812

235

226

585

271

106

208

 

Nonchocolate confectionery manufacturing

296

630

98

141

36

17

43

25

16

2

 

Flour milling and malt manufacturing

215

2,720

287

597

215

52

253

145

89

18

 

Wineries

206

767

77

145

45

15

58

36

15

8

 

Flavoring syrup and concentrate manufacturing

132

153

204

207

2

59

61

8

53

0

 

Chocolate and confectionery manufacturing from cacao beans

129

378

76

107

29

7

26

16

8

2

 

Tortilla manufacturing

55

55

11

11

0

3

3

2

1

0

 

Fats and oils refining and blending

36

209

59

80

36

7

20

11

8

1

 

Cheese manufacturing

18

21

14

14

9

1

1

1

0

0

 

Dog and cat food manufacturing

18

24

22

23

1

6

6

2

5

0

 

Soybean and other oilseed processing

12

64

52

58

12

3

8

4

3

0

 

Dry, condensed, and evaporated dairy product manufacturing

6

16

7

8

1

1

1

1

1

0

 

Wet corn milling

1

2

1

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

Forest Product Manufacturing

17,885

72,783

6,272

12,802

4,784

1,908

5,986

3,652

1,957

377

 

Paperboard container manufacturing

2,874

12,826

1,061

2,235

1,090

252

1,006

664

271

71

 

Wood windows and doors and millwork manufacturing

2,437

2,552

371

384

8

117

1125

107

14

3

 

Sawmills and wood preservation

1,925

2,502

410

475

41

87

126

103

17

5

 

Engineered wood member and truss manufacturing

1,692

2,440

231

320

54

87

141

101

34

6

 

Sanitary paper product manufacturing

1,610

8,170

1,181

1,965

698

445

938

436

459

43

 

Wood container and pallet manufacturing

1,080

1,132

129

135

4

52

56

42

12

2

 

Veneer and plywood manufacturing

1,032

1,294

172

202

17

61

80

65

6

9

 

Paperboard mills

880

9,450

641

1,660

604

187

817

489

271

57

 

Stationery product manufacturing

832

3,572

268

590

257

72

279

180

82

18

 

Pulp mills

653

8,263

481

1,383

543

136

685

428

208

49

 

All other miscellaneous wood product manufacturing

591

745

95

113

10

40

51

32

18

1

 

Coated and laminated paper, packaging paper, and plastics film manufacturing

419

1,948

174

361

165

50

166

101

55

10

 

All other converted paper product manufacturing

363

1,476

101

232

98

26

110

70

33

7

 

All other paper bag and coated and treated paper manufacturing

190

256

69

77

7

19

24

18

6

1

 

Reconstituted wood product manufacturing

121

143

27

29

2

10

11

5

6

0

Nature-based Recreation

7,455

11,913

609

1,102

260

501

724

364

287

73

 

Golf courses

6,364

10,564

439

904

243

284

588

340

194

54

 

Commercial hunting and trapping

1,048

1,277

167

192

15

116

132

22

92

19

 

Recreational fishing and hunting guides

43

71

3

6

2

2

4

2

1

0

Food & Kindred Products Distribution

949,716

1,207,912

52,604

91,399

15,249

39,672

58,594

37,137

13,511

7,946

 

Food services and drinking places

666,947

821,906

38,896

56,447

9,758

21,743

33,192

21,290

8,315

3,587

 

Retail stores – food and beverage

194,694

219,098

10,339

13,003

1,277

7,581

9,357

6,360

1,185

1,812

 

Wholesale trade, food & kindred products

79,496

157,769

12,718

21,236

4,184

9,902

15,559

9,154

3,966

2,439

 

Retail lawn-and-garden centers

8,579

9,139

651

712

29

446

487

335

45

108

Grand Total

1,348,235

2,008,369

121,240

196,959

47,802

66,659

108,742

67,313

29,560

11,869

Subtotal, excluding Food & Kindred Product Distribution

398,520

800,457

58,636

105,560

32,553

20,987

50,148

30,176

16,049

3,923

Source: IMPLAN-3, 2010 data for Florida (MIG, Inc. 2012). Total impact estimates include regional multiplier effects.

Table 2. 

Employment contributions by agriculture, natural resources, and related industries in Florida regions and counties in 2010

Region / County

Crop, Livestock, Forestry & Fisheries Production

Agricultural Inputs & Services

Mining

Food & Kindred Products Manufacturing

Forest Products Manufacturing

Nature-based Recreation

Food & Kindred Products Distribution

Grand Total

 

full-time and part-time jobs

Gainesville

16,792

5,826

2,865

5,257

2,107

93

29,230

62,171

 

Alachua

6,397

4,212

2,370

2,221

777

27

21,142

37,147

 

Bradford

661

214

184

92

174

13

1,107

2,444

 

Columbia

1,960

321

78

588

363

17

3,443

6,772

 

Dixie

795

20

50

25

568

3

393

1,854

 

Gilchrist

1,021

165

34

330

28

9

303

1,889

 

Lafayette

632

91

40

22

8

8

101

902

 

Levy

1,956

251

9

21

21

5

1,311

3,574

 

Suwannee

3,031

379

40

1,946

13

5

1,220

6,633

 

Union

341

175

59

12

154

6

211

957

Jacksonville

6,852

16,829

3,756

22,367

27,332

792

95,765

173,694

 

Baker

356

243

0

2

34

0

826

1,462

 

Clay

563

1,897

111

47

56

45

9,444

12,164

 

Duval

1,173

10,854

2,623

22,191

10,374

180

67,015

114,409

 

Nassau

1,034

998

63

33

6,780

48

3,339

112,295

 

Putnam

1,115

783

57

10

9,189

37

2,290

13,482

 

St. Johns

2,612

2,054

901

84

899

483

12,851

19,883

Miami–Fort Lauderdale

74,388

83,191

14,338

36,379

8,982

4,134

413,326

634,739

 

Broward

2,220

24,738

2,317

7,105

841

671

118,559

156,451

 

Glades

1,343

117

34

14

1

5

161

1,674

 

Hendry

11,538

380

22

1,277

16

5

1,645

14,883

 

Indian River

8,258

3,421

243

272

14

348

6,463

19,020

 

Martin

4,673

3,450

479

1,472

77

563

9,123

19,836

 

Miami–Dade

13,554

22,764

2,500

10,726

6,891

367

173,987

230,789

 

Monroe

2,736

1,437

1,281

124

17

98

12,136

17,830

 

Okeechobee

2,643

589

80

687

1

12

1,704

5,715

 

Palm Beach

22,588

22,995

6,791

12,931

928

1,907

78,574

146,714

 

St. Lucie

4,836

3,301

590

1,773

197

157

10,974

21,827

Orlando

57,498

84,967

11,289

38,873

8,894

2,464

299,673

503,658

 

Brevard

1,258

3,795

794

598

135

335

28,408

35,323

 

Citrus

732

1,066

342

79

262

155

4,964

7,600

 

Flagler

812

1,319

30

236

36

58

3,165

5,656

 

Hardee

6,060

601

297

396

55

18

621

8,017

 

Highlands

9,995

1,197

58

45

69

190

3,636

15,190

 

Lake

4,386

5,516

745

3,281

140

100

13,226

27,393

 

Marion

6,737

4,212

646

1,464

276

308

13,873

27,515

 

Orange

4,563

18,745

1,590

7,665

1,438

345

125,210

159,556

 

Osceola

3,703

3,089

2,774

315

208

164

18,425

28,678

 

Polk

14,683

28,342

2,310

22,345

4,660

261

23,425

96,926

 

Seminole

540

9,583

299

538

1,284

108

27,674

40,026

 

Sumter

840

1,749

99

561

144

201

5,395

8,990

 

Volusia

3,219

5,752

406

1,353

187

222

31,651

42,789

Panama City

4,731

2,751

620

989

5,633

210

19,449

34,383

 

Bay

705

1,956

356

642

4,547

152

15,733

24,092

 

Calhoun

519

36

78

1

101

24

458

1,217

 

Gulf

151

276

26

0

23

3

571

1,048

 

Holmes

1,101

243

2

118

39

2

446

1,950

 

Jackson

1,711

145

110

49

847

11

1,615

4,488

 

Washington

545

95

47

180

77

17

626

1,587

Pensacola

4,886

7,157

3,310

539

4,190

300

45,924

66,304

 

Escambia

1,181

2,017

1,266

133

4,056

131

19,051

27,835

 

Okaloosa

658

2,329

1,004

30

0

124

15,816

19,961

 

Santa Rosa

716

1,517

978

265

43

29

5,328

8,878

 

Walton

2,331

1,294

62

110

90

14

5,729

9,630

Sarasota–Bradenton

35,160

38,614

12,740

9,185

1,861

2,793

105,431

205,785

 

Charlotte

1,626

2,209

619

25

87

190

7,891

12,548

 

Collier

7,286

8,883

4,809

205

320

1,023

20,154

42,681

 

De Soto

5,592

341

10

771

0

21

619

7,354

 

Lee

3,538

11,764

3,920

557

154

804

37,935

58,672

 

Manatee

16,404

5,867

943

7,504

894

328

17,160

49,099

 

Sarasota

714

9,549

2,439

123

406

427

21,772

35,431

Tallahassee

7,033

8,643

1,254

1,242

7,674

327

27,231

53,405

 

Franklin

67

145

14

57

263

9

896

1,441

 

Gadsden

2,061

548

350

9

581

14

1,119

4,681

 

Hamilton

383

2,091

0

1

1

6

262

2,744

 

Jefferson

1,072

145

34

22

1

7

340

1,621

 

Leon

1,498

4,735

580

393

128

255

22,499

30,088

 

Liberty

165

91

118

39

458

5

134

1,010

 

Madison

1,110

18

6

479

116

19

551

2,300

 

Taylor

442

223

103

161

6,113

4

662

7,708

 

Wakulla

235

647

51

90

12

8

768

1,811

Tampa–St. Petersburg

21,196

47,977

3,071

23,192

6,111

800

171,882

274,229

 

Hernando

5,065

1,890

356

395

17

99

8,026

15,849

 

Hillsborough

13,190

28,762

1,963

19,558

4,669

335

86,654

155,130

 

Pasco

2,073

5,635

449

1,185

29

166

16,815

26,352

 

Pinellas

868

11,690

303

2,055

1,395

200

60,387

76,808

Grand Total

228,537

295,956

53,245

138,024

72,783

11,913

1,207,912

2,008,369

Source: IMPLAN-3 2010 data for Florida (MIG, Inc. 2012). Impact estimates include regional multiplier effects.

Footnotes

1.

This document is FE906, one of a series of the Food and Resource Economics Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date July 2012. Reviewed August 2015. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document can also be found online at http://www.fred.ifas.ufl.edu/economic-impact-analysis.

2.

Alan W. Hodges, Extension scientist; Mohammad Rahmani, economic analyst; and Thomas J. Stevens, post-doctoral research associate, Food and Resource Economics Department; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.