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Publication #FPS63

Begonia x semperflorens-cultorum Fibrous Begonia, Wax Begonia1

Edward F. Gilman and Teresa Howe2


These tough little compact garden plants reach barely a foot high but provide almost continuous color in full sun or partial shade locations during the warm months of the year (Fig. 1). The single or double flowers are available in various shades of red, pink, or white, and the shiny, large, succulent leaves are either green, variegated, or bronze-colored. It is the leaf coloration which attracts many people to this plant. The bronze-leaved begonias are better suited to full sun locations and plants will flower from spring until killed back by frost. Plant 12 inches apart in a bed to form a solid mass of color. If desired, plants can be dug up and potted, cut back by one-third, and will continue to bloom indoors throughout the winter in a very sunny window.

Figure 1. 

Wax begonia.

[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

General Information

Scientific name: Begonia x semperflorens-cultorum
Pronunciation: bee-GO-nee-uh x sem-pur-FLOR-enz-kull-TOR-um
Common name(s): wax begonia, fibrous begonia
Family: Begoniaceae
Plant type: annual
USDA hardiness zones: all zones (Fig. 2)
Planting month for zone 7: May; Jun; Jul
Planting month for zone 8: May; Jun; Jul; Aug
Planting month for zone 9: Apr; May; Sep; Oct
Planting month for zone 10 and 11: Feb; Mar; Oct; Nov; Dec
Origin: not native to North America
Uses: mass planting; container or above-ground planter
Availability: generally available in many areas within its hardiness range

Figure 2. 

Shaded area represents potential planting range.

[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]


Height: .5 to 1.5 feet
Spread: .5 to 1 feet
Plant habit: round
Plant density: dense
Growth rate: slow
Texture: medium


Leaf arrangement: alternate
Leaf type: simple
Leaf margin: serrulate
Leaf shape: ovate
Leaf venation: palmate
Leaf type and persistence: not applicable
Leaf blade length: 2 to 4 inches
Leaf color: purple or red; variegated
Fall color: not applicable
Fall characteristic: not applicable


Flower color: white; pink; salmon
Flower characteristic: showy

Figure 3. 

Flower of wax begonia.

[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]


Fruit shape: no fruit
Fruit length: no fruit
Fruit cover: no fruit
Fruit color: not applicable
Fruit characteristic: inconspicuous and not showy

Trunk and Branches

Trunk/bark/branches: not applicable
Current year stem/twig color: reddish
Current year stem/twig thickness: thick


Light requirement: plant grows in part shade/part sun
Soil tolerances: clay; sand; acidic; loam
Drought tolerance:
Soil salt tolerances: unknown
Plant spacing: 6 to 12 inches


Roots: not applicable
Winter interest: not applicable
Outstanding plant: not particularly outstanding
Invasive potential: not known to be invasive
Pest resistance: long-term health usually not affected by pests

Use and Management

Begonias can be propagated by seed, leaf cuttings or soft wood cuttings. Some may form many shoots from the ground and can be divided. The seed is very fine and may be hard for inexperienced gardeners to handle. Plant seed in a light, well drained media kept uniformly moist. Sow the seed thinly and do not cover it. Germination is best one-foot under fluorescent lights left on 24-hours. The seed germinates in one to two weeks at temperatures between 70°F and 75°F. In USDA hardiness zones 9 and 10 plant in late fall to early winter for winter color.

Cultivars are available in various heights from 6 to 18 inches, various foliage colors, and various flower colors.

Pests and Management

Thrips cause irregular reddish brown lines on the upper sides of the leaves. Spots form on the underside of the leaves, especially along the main veins. The leaves may be deformed.

Black vine weevil grub eats the roots causing wilting and death.

Mites stunt the new growth and form a webbing in the foliage.

Begonias may be infected with powdery mildew, especially if growing in the shade.

Stem rot causes the stalks to rot and collapse. The rotted areas are usually black. Avoid crowding and remove any infected plants.



This document is FPS63, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date October 1999. Reviewed February 2014. Visit the EDIS website at


Edward F. Gilman, professor, Environmental Horticulture Department; and Teresa Howe, coordinator, research programs/services, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.