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Publication #CIR1475

Herbicides Registered for Pine Management in Florida – 20141

Anna Osiecka, Patrick Minogue2

Estimates from the 2011 Forest Inventory and Analysis (Brown and Nowak 2013) indicate that Florida’s forests cover about half of the state’s land area, about 17.61 million acres. Of the forested area, about 45% percent is comprised of southern pines, with slash, loblolly, longleaf, sand, and shortleaf pines being most common. Between 2007 and 2011, the area in slash pine declined and non-stocked area increased by a similar amount, which could reflect fewer acres being replanted following harvests of this most important commercial species.

Vegetation management is an integral part of successful pine plantation establishment and management. Following the development and registration of many new forestry herbicides during the 1980s, herbicide use for forest vegetation management increased dramatically. This trend continues because of the introduction of lower-cost generic herbicides, and because the costs of mechanical treatment alternatives are increasing, driven up, for the most part, by increased fuel costs. Herbicides are used to enhance crop tree survival and growth rates, allowing producers to improve return on investment with minimal site disturbance. Their application facilitates many forestry operations, such as pine straw harvest, logging, and plantation reestablishment. They can also be used to reduce the risk of destructive wildfires and improve wildlife habitat, aesthetics, and recreation opportunities. Herbicides are an effective tool in controlling invasive plants and restoring native ecosystems. They can be applied at different stages during pine plantation rotation for:

  • Site preparation before planting

  • Herbaceous weed control during establishment

  • Release of established pines from competing vegetation

Efficient, safe and environmentally sound herbicide use requires an up-to-date knowledge of weed control technology. Landowners must stay aware of developments because new herbicides are constantly being developed and registered for use in Florida, and, just as crucially, some of the older herbicides are discontinued, or their registration in the state of Florida terminated.

This publication provides general information about the herbicides currently registered for use in Florida pine plantations, not specific herbicide prescriptions. All herbicide active ingredients important in pine management in Florida with examples of commercial products are listed in (Table 1), and their use characterized in (Table 2). Other active ingredients that are registered in Florida but are not commonly used for pine plantations, like 2,4-D, atrazine, dicamba, paraquat, and simazine, are also included. Since an increasing number of private and public owners manage their forestlands for non-commodity purposes, herbicides that are intended mostly for turf and/or landscape maintenance, but also labeled for conifer plantations (e.g. pendimethalin), have been included as well.

Most of the herbicide active ingredients are available in different formulations from different manufacturers and/or distributors under a variety of trade names. It is beyond the scope of this publication to mention all of the silvicultural herbicide products available on the market. It has to be emphasized that there might be considerable differences even among herbicides with the same concentration of the same active ingredient(s) resulting, for example, from differences in adjuvants or solvents. Therefore, before making any herbicide substitutions, one has to be sure that the selected product is appropriate for the intended application, and one must read and follow all label recommendations. Inclusion of a product trade name or a company name in this publication does not constitute an endorsement of a product or a company, as other products manufactured by different companies might be equally suited for the intended herbicide use.

The examples of herbicides registered for pine management in Florida are listed alphabetically, according to the active ingredient (common name) (Table 1). Within each active ingredient herbicides are ordered by increasing ai concentration. For active ingredients that can be formulated as amine salts or as esters, amine products have been listed first, followed by esters. Products with the same Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registration number are grouped together. Herbicides containing more than one active ingredient are placed according to the active ingredient that most determines their use.

Table 2 provides information on basic weed control characteristics and silvicultural applications for listed herbicides. Herbicides can be used for a variety of applications in managing pine forests to control or alter undesirable vegetation. Site preparation (S) is one use where the current vegetation can be controlled by herbicides prior to planting pine seedlings. After planting, herbaceous weed control (H) with herbicides can aid the survival and growth of the young pine seedlings during the establishment phase. Subsequently, herbicides can be applied to release (R) established pine trees from competing woody vegetation, including early and mid-rotation release, as well as timber stand improvement later in the rotation. Some truly selective herbicides may be broadcast over pines at recommended rates and timing without significant adverse effects to pines. Directed spray [(d)] and understory broadcast [(u)] are two release techniques that can be used to obtain selectivity by herbicide placement, minimizing contact with crop trees. Individual stems (I) of undesirable vegetation can be treated with herbicides throughout the pine rotation, from site preparation to harvest. Soil-active herbicides can be used for basal soil treatment [(bs)] in the immediate vicinity of the individual stems. Some herbicides are labeled for applications in wetlands (W) or aquatic (A) areas in the forests.

Besides herbicide activity and application timing in relation to weed growth stage, Table 2 includes a column with herbicide group, which represents the mechanism of action (MOA) of an active ingredient according to the Weed Science Society of America (WSSA). A logo with the herbicide group number is prominently displayed near the top of most newly revised labels. When products contain more than one active ingredient, numbers representing all components are listed. This information is provided to facilitate development of herbicide programs that reduce the likelihood of selecting herbicide-resistant weeds, mainly by alternating or combining herbicides with different modes of action.

Basic terms used in this and other herbicide publications can be defined as follows:

Active ingredient (ai) is the chemical substance in the herbicide that does the work: the ai changes plant metabolism and is designed to control the undesirable vegetation. The active ingredient has the greatest influence on the properties and behavior of the herbicide and is the primary reason a given herbicide will be selected for a particular application. The exact chemical name of the active ingredient is useful to chemists to ensure precise communication. The common name is a simplified, less technical name of an active ingredient, most often used in herbicide recommendations and technical literature. Common names are used in Tables 1 and 2 of this publication. For example, imazapyr is a common name for 2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, the chemical name.

Formulation is the commercial preparation of the herbicide product, including one or more active ingredients, usually a solvent (for liquid products), and, possibly, adjuvant(s), such as wetting agents (surfactants). Each formulation is registered and marketed under a separate product name. Frequently the same formulation or formulations containing the same concentration of the same form of an active ingredient may be marketed under several trade names by different companies or even the same manufacturer or distributor, which may be quite confusing. Such is the case with Dow’s Element 4, Garlon® 4, and Forestry Garlon® 4; all three contain the same ester of triclopyr (61.6 % of the butoxyethyl ester) and are registered under the same EPA registration number. While new forestry herbicide active ingredients are not frequently introduced, new formulations, which are often more effective and safer, are rapidly being developed. Several new herbicide formulations have higher content of active ingredients and are often available in large, returnable, refillable containers, which reduce the need for container disposal. A growing number of products contain two or more active ingredients, eliminating the need for mixing. New adjuvants (additives) tend to improve efficacy and the ease of use, often reducing the treatment cost at the same time.

Herbicide product names may include numbers and/or letters to further identify the product. The number immediately after the trade name refers to the concentration of active ingredient. For example, Imazapyr 4 SL contains “4” lb/gal active ingredient as a “SL” soluble liquid. The amount of active ingredient in a herbicide may also be expressed as a percentage of volume or mass of the commercial product. For example, MSM 60 contains 60%, by weight, of the active ingredient metsulfuron methyl. Labels may additionally provide an acid equivalent (ae), which is especially useful when comparing herbicides containing different chemical forms of the same active ingredient, such as an amine versus an ester. For example, Garlon® 3A contains “3” lb ae/gal triclopyr in the amine form (“A”). The front of the label states that it contains 44.4% triethylamine salt of triclopyr (ai), which equals 31.8% -3 lb/gal triclopyr acid equivalent (ae). Garlon® 4 contains “4” lb ae/gal triclopyr in the ester form. The front of the label states that it contains 61.6% butoxyethyl ester of triclopyr (ai), which equals 44.3% -4 lb/gal triclopyr acid equivalent (ae). It is the free acid portion of the triclopyr amine or ester formulation which is herbicidal, which is why the “acid equivalent” (ae) is important.

Letters following the trade name indicate the product formulation type. Not all companies use the same abbreviations, so it may be necessary to refer to the full label text. Also, acronyms found in labeling often differ from the standard two-letter international (CIPAC) formulation codes. Some of the more common acronyms are:

DF dry flowable

DG dispersible granule

E or EC emulsifiable concentrate

F or FL flowable or flowable liquid

G granular

L liquid

LV low volume concentrate

P or PS pellet

RTU ready to use

S, SL, WS water soluble concentrate

SP soluble powder

ULV ultra low volume concentrate

ULW ultra light weight

W or WP wettable powder

WDG water dispersible granule (similar to dry flowable)

WSP water soluble powder

XP extruded pellet

Labeling associated with each herbicide includes one or more product labels, a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), and possibly additional publications. These documents are the primary method of communication between a herbicide manufacturer or distributor and a herbicide user. They contain detailed information about use of the herbicide product, safety precautions, environmental hazards, directions for handling and storage, first aid for exposure and other important information. Information and instructions contained in the labeling must be strictly followed when purchasing, transporting, storing, mixing, applying, or disposing of herbicides. It is a violation of federal law to use any herbicide in a manner inconsistent with its labeling.

Product labels provide directions for use and information about application methods and safety precautions. Besides the product label on the container, various printed or on-line Specimen Labels, Supplemental Labels, and Special Local Need (SLN) Labels may be associated with herbicide registrations for different states or use sites. Supplemental labels are approved by the US EPA to address a specific herbicide use not included on the full label (e.g. Milestone® VM Plus). SLN labels are issued by states to allow use of a herbicide outside its labeled uses to address a particular vegetation management problem (e.g.Milestone® and Milestone® VM) and have an expiration date within five years of registration in most states. Supplemental labels, especially state SLN labels, usually pertain to specific geographic areas. However, a specimen label may also not be applicable across the United States, sometimes excluding certain states or smaller geographic areas (e.g. Aatrex 4L). It is necessary to read the label attached to the herbicide container before use, because this is the legally binding document.

MSDS focuses on chemical and physical properties of the herbicide and personal and environmental safety. Because the MSDSs include emergency medical information and information physicians need to deal with accidental exposure to herbicide products, the MSDS for each herbicide used should be available on site wherever herbicides are used (and wherever they are stored or transported). Full text labels and MSDSs for most herbicides are accessible through manufacturers' or distributors' websites and dedicated databases such as those of Crop Data Management Systems, Inc. (CDMS) or Greenbook Data Solutions. Both databases also provide extracted important product information in abbreviated format. CDMS allows simple search by herbicide brand (product, trade) name at http://www.cdms.net/LabelsMsds/LMDefault.aspx without registration. After completing a free registration at http://premier.cdms.net/webapls/formsloginRef.asp?/webapls users can perform advanced searches by product (trade) name, common name (ai), crop/site, weed species, manufacturer, and state. Any search at Greenbook requires registration, which can be made free of charge at their home page http://www.greenbook.net/. The database is searchable by product (trade) name, active ingredient (common name), crop/site, weed species, company (manufacturer), and state. In addition, Greenbook provides a rate finder, side-by-side comparisons of up to three products, and product E-Alerts. Greenbook Mobil at http://m.greenbook.net/ provides multi-parameter search by product (trade) name, crop/site, and state for mobile devices. One has to keep in mind that, while these and other databases are very useful tools, they cannot be expected to be always completely up-to-date, because of the very rapidly changing herbicide market. Selection of herbicides registered for use in pine management differs from state to state. Only products registered by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) can be legally purchased in the state of Florida. The general public can search the National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (NPIRS) at http://state.ceris.purdue.edu/ for active Florida registrations. For most states NPRIS can be searched by one of the following criteria: EPA registration number, product (trade) name, registering company name, and active ingredient (common name).

• It has to be emphasized that the effectiveness and safety of use of a particular herbicide in a given situation greatly depends on several factors including formulation; pine species, age and stage of growth; weeds to be controlled; and timing, technique; and conditions during application. Therefore, one has to refer to the manufacturer's product label for details and consult other literature and qualified professionals regarding the appropriate approach and best products to use. Several publications related to herbicides can be found on the website (Electronic Data Information Source - UF/IFAS Extension). Another good source of herbicide-related information (including relevant links) is the Pesticide Information Office (PIO) at the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, accessible through http://pested.ifas.ufl.edu. The PIO has the responsibility for assembling, maintaining and disseminating current pesticide information in the state of Florida. County Extension Agents can be contacted at County Extension Offices located throughout the state of Florida (http://solutionsforyourlife.ufl.edu/map/index.html).

References

Brown, M. J. and J. Nowak. 2013. Florida, 2011. Forest inventory and analysis factsheet. e-Science Update SRS-071. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. Ashville, NC. 5p. http://www.srs.fs.fed.us/pubs/su/su_srs071.pdf (accessed October 21, 2013)

CDMS Labels & MSDS. 2013. http://www.cdms.net/LabelsMsds/LMDefault.aspx. (accessed October 3, 2013)

Hartzler, B. 2010. New Information on Herbicide Labels. Iowa State University Extension http://www.extension.iastate.edu/CropNews/2010/1220hartzler.htm (accessed October 3, 2013)

National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (NPIRS). 2013. Purdue University. http://state.ceris.purdue.edu/. (accessed October 3, 2013)

Nordby, D.E. and A.G. Hager. Herbicide Formulations and Calculations: Active Ingredient or Acid Equivalent? Weed Fact Sheet. University of Illinois Integrated Pest Management. http://weeds.cropsci.illinois.edu/extension/factsheets/aivsae.pdf. (accessed October 3, 2013)

Weed Science Society of America (WSSA). 2013. Herbicide resistance. http://wssa.net/weed/resistance/ (accessed October 3, 2013)

Tables

Table 1. 

Herbicides registered for use in pine plantations in Florida - 2014.

Active ingredient (ai)

(Common name)

Product name

ai

concentration

ai or acid equivalent (ae)

lb/gal ae/ai

Formulation 1

Registrant

EPA

Registration No.

 

2,4-D, dimethylamine salt

DMA® 4 IVM

46.30%

3.80 ae

SL

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-3

2,4-D, dimethylamine salt

Alligare 2,4-D Amine

46.80%

3.80 ae

SL

Alligare, LLC

81927-38

2,4-D, dimethylamine salt

Weedar® 64

46.80%

3.80 ae

SL

Nufarm, Inc.

71368-1

2,4-D, dimethylamine salt

Weedestroy® AM-40

46.80%

3.80 ae

SL

Nufarm Americas, Inc.

228-145

2,4-D, 2-ethylhexyl ester

Weedone® LV4 Solventless

62.60%

3.80 ae

EC

Nufarm, Inc.

71368-14

2,4-D, 2-ethylhexyl ester

Weedone® LV4 EC

67.20%

3.84 ae

EC

Nufarm, Inc.

228-139-71368

2,4-D, 2-ethylhexyl ester

Barrage® HF

78.10%

4.70 ae

EC

Helena Chemical Company

5905-529

 

Aminopyralid

Milestone® 2

40.60%

2.00 ae

SL

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-519

Aminopyralid

Milestone® VM 2

40.60%

2.00 ae

SL

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-537

Aminopyralid +

Capstone

2.22%

0.10 ae

SL

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-572

Triclopyr, triethylamine salt

 

16.22%

1.00 ae

     

Aminopyralid +

Milestone® VM Plus 3

2.22%

0.10 ae

SL

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-572

Triclopyr, triethylamine salt

 

16.22%

1.00 ae

     
 

Atrazine

Agrisolutions Atrazine 4L 4

42.12%

4.00 ai

L

Winfield Solutions, LLC

1381-158

Atrazine

AAtrex® 4L 4

42.60%

4.00 ai

L

Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC

100-497

Atrazine

Atrazine 4L 4

42.60%

4.00 ai

L

Loveland Products, Inc.

34704-69

Atrazine

Agrisolutions Atrazine 90DF 4

88.00%

 

DF

Winfield Solutions, LLC

9779-253

Atrazine

AAtrex® Nine-O® 4

88.20%

 

WDG

Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC

100-585

Atrazine

Atrazine 90WDG 4

88.20%

 

WDG

Loveland Products, Inc.

34704-622

 

Clethodim

Envoy Plus

12.60%

0.97

EC

Valent U.S.A. Corporation

59639-132

 

Clopyralid

Clean Slate

40.90%

3.00 ae

EC

Nufarm Americas, Inc.

228-491

Clopyralid

Alligare Clopyralid 3

40.90%

3.00 ae

EC

Alligare, LLC

81927-14

Clopyralid

Transline®

40.90%

3.00 ae

EC

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-259

 

Dicamba, diglycolamine salt

Riverdale Vanquish®

56.80%

4.00 ae

SL

Nufarm Americas, Inc.

228-397

Dicamba, diglycolamine salt

Vanquish®

56.80%

4.00 ae

SL

Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC

100-884

 

Fluazifop-P-butyl

Fusilade® DX

24.50%

2.00

EC

Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC

100-1070

 

Flumioxazin

SureGuard®

51.00%

 

WDG

Valent U.S.A. Corporation

59639-120

 

Fluroxypyr

Vista®

26.20%

1.50 ae

EC

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-308

Fluroxypyr

Alligare Fluroxypyr

45.50%

2.80 ae

EC

Alligare, LLC

663300-385-81927

Fluroxypyr

Vista® XRT

45.52%

2.80 ae

EC

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-586

 

Fosamine

Krenite® S

41.50%

4.00 ai

SL

DuPont*

352-395

 

Glyphosate

Touchdown® Pro

28.30%

3.00 ai

SL

Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC

100-1121

Glyphosate

Alligare Glyphosate 4 plus

41.00%

4.00 ai

SL

Alligare, LLC

81927-9

Glyphosate

Razor® Pro

41.00%

4.00 ai

SL

Nufarm Americas, Inc.

228-366

Glyphosate

Accord® XRT II

50.20%

5.07 ai

SL

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-556

Glyphosate

Accord® Concentrate

53.80%

5.40 ai

SL

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-324

Glyphosate

Rodeo®

53.80%

5.40 ai

SL

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-324

Glyphosate

Alligare Glyphosate 5.4

53.80%

5.40 ai

SL

Alligare, LLC

81927-8

Glyphosate

Aqua Neat®

53.80%

5.40 ai

SL

Nufarm Americas, Inc.

228-365

 

Hexazinone

Velpar® L

25.00%

2.00 ai

SL

DuPont*

352-392

Hexazinone

Pronone® Power Pellet

75.00%

 

P

Pro-Serve, Inc.

33560-41

Hexazinone

Velpar® DF

75.00%

 

DF

DuPont*

352-581

Hexazinone

Velpar® ULW 5

75.00%

 

ULW

DuPont*

352-450

Hexazinone +

Oustar®

63.20%

 

WDG

DuPont*

352-603

Sulfometuron methyl

 

11.80%

       
 

Imazapic

Plateau® 3

23.60%

2.00

SL

BASF Corporation

241-365

 

Imazapyr

Chopper® Gen2

26.70%

2.00 ae

SL

BASF Corporation

241-430

Imazapyr

Chopper®

27.60%

2.00 ae

SL

BASF Corporation

241-296

Imazapyr

Polaris® SP

27.60%

2.00 ae

SL

Nufarm Americas, Inc.

228-536

Imazapyr

Alligare Rotary 2SL

27.80%

2.00 ae

SL

Alligare, LLC

81927-6

Imazapyr

Alligare Imazapyr 4SL

52.60%

4.00 ae

SL

Alligare, LLC

81927-24

Imazapyr

Arsenal® AC

53.10%

4.00 ae

SL

BASF Corporation

241-299

Imazapyr

Polaris® AC

53.10%

4.00 ae

SL

Nufarm Americas, Inc.

228-480

Imazapyr

Polaris® AC Complete

53.10%

4.00 ae

SL

Nufarm Americas, Inc.

228-570

Imazapyr +

OneStep®

8.36%

0.637 ae

SL

BASF Corporation

241-414

Glyphosate

 

22.13%

1.531 ae

     

Imazapyr +

Prep-It®

8.36%

0.637 ae

SL

Loveland Products, Inc.

34704-989

Glyphosate

 

22.13%

1.531 ae

     

Imazapyr +

Lineage® Clearstand™

63.20%

 

WDG

DuPont*

352-766

Metsulfuron methyl

 

9.50%

       
 

Metsulfuron methyl

Escort® XP

60.00%

 

XP

DuPont*

352-439

Metsulfuron methyl

MSM 60

60.00%

 

WDG

Alligare, LLC

81927-7

 

Oryzalin

Surflan® A.S.

40.40%

4.00 ai

EC

United Phosphorus, Inc.

70506-43

 

Paraquat

Gramoxone Inteon®

30.10%

2.76 ai

EC

Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC

100-1217

Paraquat

Parazone® 3SL

43.80%

4.14 ai

SL

MANA**

66222-130

 

Pendimethalin

Pendulum® 2G

2.00%

 

G

BASF Corporation

241-375

Pendimethalin

Pendulum® 3.3 EC

37.40%

3.30 ai

EC

BASF Corporation

241-341

Pendimethalin

Pendulum® AquaCap

38.70%

3.80 ai

SL

BASF Corporation

241-416

 

Simazine

Sim-Trol® 90DF

90.00%

 

DF

Sipcam Agro USA, Inc.

35915-12-60063

 

Sulfumeturon methyl

Alligare SFM 75

75.00%

 

WDG

Alligare, LLC

81927-26

Sulfometuron methyl

Oust® XP

75.00%

 

XP

DuPont*

352-601

Sulfometuron methyl

Spyder

75.00%

 

WDG

Nufarm Americas, Inc.

228-408

Sulfometuron methyl +

Oust® Extra

56.25%

 

DG

DuPont*

352-622

Metsulfuron methyl

 

15.00%

       

Sulfometuron methyl +

SFM Extra

56.25%

 

WDG

Alligare, LLC

81927-5

Metsulfuron methyl

 

15.00%

       

Sulfometuron methyl +

Spyder® Extra

56.25%

 

WDG

Nufarm Americas, Inc.

228-690

Metsulfuron methyl

 

15.00%

       
 

Triclopyr, triethylamine salt

Alligare Triclopyr 3

44.40%

3.00 ae

SL

Alligare, LLC

81927-13

Triclopyr, triethylamine salt

Element® 3A

44.40%

3.00 ae

SL

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-37

Triclopyr, triethylamine salt

Garlon® 3A

44.40%

3.00 ae

SL

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-37

Triclopyr, triethylamine salt

Tahoe® 3A

44.40%

3.00 ae

SL

Nufarm Americas, Inc.

228-520

Triclopyr, butoxyethyl ester

Pathfinder® II

13.60%

0.75 ae

RTU

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-176

Triclopyr, butoxyethyl ester

Garlon® 4 Ultra

60.45%

4.00 ae

EC

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-527

Triclopyr, butoxyethyl ester

Alligare Triclopyr 4

61.60%

4.00 ae

EC

Alligare, LLC

81927-11

Triclopyr, butoxyethyl ester

Element TM 4

61.60%

4.00 ae

EC

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-40

Triclopyr, butoxyethyl ester

Forestry Garlon® 4

61.60%

4.00 ae

EC

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-40

Triclopyr, butoxyethyl ester

Garlon® 4

61.60%

4.00 ae

EC

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-40

Triclopyr, butoxyethyl ester

Relegate® Selective Herbicide

61.60%

4.00 ae

EC

Nufarm Americas, Inc.

228-521

Triclopyr, butoxyethyl ester

Forestry Garlon® XRT

83.90%

6.30 ae

EC

Dow AgroSciences LLC

62719-553

*DuPont = E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company Crop Protection

**MANA = Makhteshim Agan of North America, Inc.

1 See text;

2 Special Local Need (SLN) label for distribution and use only in FL;

3 Supplemental labeling for forestry use;;

4 Restricted use pesticide in FL (ground and surface water concerns)

5 Registered in FL for 2014, but not in production

Table 2. 

Forestry herbicide applications

Active ingredient (ai)

(Common name)

Product name

Labeled for

application 1

Labeled for

controlling

Application timing

Pre/post-emergence

Herbicide

activity

Herbicide

Group(MOA) 2

 

2,4-D, dimethylamine salt

DMA® 4 IVM

S, H (d), R (d, u), I, A

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds; woody plants

Post

Foliar

4

2,4-D, dimethylamine salt

Alligare 2,4-D Amine

S, H (dorm), R (dorm), I, A

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds; woody plants

Post

Foliar

4

2,4-D, dimethylamine salt

Weedar® 64

I

Woody plants

Post

Foliar

4

2,4-D, dimethylamine salt

Weedestroy® AM-40

S, H, R (dorm), I, A

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds; woody plants

Post

Foliar

4

2,4-D, 2-ethylhexyl ester

Weedone® LV4 Solventless

S, H (d), R

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds; woody plants

Post

Foliar

4

2,4-D, 2-ethylhexyl ester

Weedone® LV4 EC

S, H (d), R, I

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds; woody plants

Post

Foliar

4

2,4-D, 2-ethylhexyl ester

Barrage® HF

S, H (d), R (d, u), I

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds; woody plants

Post

Foliar

4

 

Aminopyralid

Milestone® 3

S, R (d, u), I

Woody plants; annual & perenial broadleaf weeds

Pre- & post

Foliar & some soil

4

Aminopyralid

Milestone® VM 3

S, R (d, u), I

Woody plants; annual & perenial broadleaf weeds

Pre- & post

Foliar & some soil

4

Aminopyralid +

CapstoneTM

S, R (d), I

Woody plants; annual & perenial broadleaf weeds

Pre- & post

Foliar & some soil

4 + 4

Triclopyr, triethylamine salt

           

Aminopyralid +

Milestone® VM Plus 4

S, R (d, u), I

Woody plants; annual & perenial broadleaf weeds

Pre- & post

Foliar & some soil

4 + 4

Triclopyr, triethylamine salt

           
 

Atrazine

Agrisolutions Atrazine 4L 5

S, H

Annual broadleaf weeds & grasses

Pre- & early post

Soil

5

Atrazine

AAtrex® 4L 5

S, H

Annual broadleaf weeds & grasses

Pre- & early post

Soil

5

Atrazine

Atrazine 4L 5

S, H

Annual broadleaf weeds & grasses

Pre- & early post

Soil

5

Atrazine

Agrisolutions Atrazine 90DF 5

S, H

Annual broadleaf weeds & grasses

Pre- & early post

Soil

5

Atrazine

AAtrex® Nine-O® 5

S, H

Annual broadleaf weeds & grasses

Pre- & early post

Soil

5

Atrazine

Atrazine 90WDG 5

S, H

Annual broadleaf weeds & grasses

Pre- & early post

Soil

5

 

Clethodim

Envoy PlusTM 6

H

Annual & perennial grasses

Post

Foliar

1

 

Clopyralid

Clean Slate

S, H, R (d)

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds; woody plants

Post

Foliar

4

Clopyralid

Clopyralid 3

S, H, R (d)

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds; woody plants & vines

Post

Foliar

4

Clopyralid

Transline®

S, H, R (d)

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds; woody plants

Post

Foliar

4

 

Dicamba, diglycolamine salt

Riverdale Vanquish®

S, I

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds; woody plants & vines

Pre- & post

Foliar & soil

4

Dicamba, diglycolamine salt

Vanquish®

S, I

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds; woody plants & vines

Pre- & post

Foliar & soil

4

 

Fluazifop-P-butyl

Fusilade® DX

H

Annual & perennial grasses

Post

Foliar

1

 

Flumioxazin

SureGuard®

H

Broadleaf weeds & annual grasses

Pre- & early post

Soil & foliar

14

 

Fluroxypyr

Vista®

S, R (d), I

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds; woody plants

Post

Foliar

4

Fluroxypyr

Alligare Fluroxypyr

S, R (d, dorm), I

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds

Post

Foliar

4

Fluroxypyr

Vista® XRT

S, R (d), I

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds; woody plants

Post

Foliar

4

 

Fosamine

Krenite® S

S

Woody plants (including conifers) & vines

Post

Foliar

27

 

Glyphosate

Touchdown® Pro

S, R (d, dorm), I, A, W

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants

Post

Foliar

9

Glyphosate

Alligare Glyphosate 4 plus

S, I

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants

Post

Foliar

9

Glyphosate

Razor® Pro

S, H, R (d, u), I

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants

Post

Foliar

9

Glyphosate

Accord® XRT II

S, R (d, u), I

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants

Post

Foliar

9

Glyphosate

Accord® Concentrate

S, H, R (d, u), I, A

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants

Post

Foliar

9

Glyphosate

Rodeo®

S, H, R (d, u), I, A

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants

Post

Foliar

9

Glyphosate

Alligare Glyphosate 5.4

S, R (d), I, A

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants

Post

Foliar

9

Glyphosate

Aqua Neat®

S, R (dorm), I, A

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants

Post

Foliar

9

 

Hexazinone

Velpar® L

S, H, R, I, I (bs)

Woody plants; annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses

Pre- & post

Soil & some foliar

5

Hexazinone

Pronone® Power Pellet

S, R

Woody plants

Pre- & post

Soil

5

Hexazinone

Velpar® DF

S, H, R, I (bs)

Woody plants; annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses

Pre- & post

Soil & some foliar

5

Hexazinone

Velpar® ULW 7

S, R, H

Woody plants; annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses

Pre- & post

Soil

5

Hexazinone +

Oustar®

S, H

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses

Pre- & post

Soil & foliar

5 + 2

Sulfometuron methyl

           
 

Imazapic

Plateau® 6

S

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; vines

Pre- & post

Foliar & soil

2

 

Imazapyr

Chopper® Gen2

S, R (d, u)

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants, vines

Mainly post

Foliar & soil

2

Imazapyr

Chopper®

S, I, R (d, u)

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants, vines

Mainly post

Foliar & soil

2

Imazapyr

Polaris® SP

S, R (d, u), I

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants, vines

Mainly post

Foliar & soil

2

Imazapyr

Rotary 2SL

S, I, R (d, u)

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants, vines

Mainly post

Foliar & soil

2

Imazapyr

Alligare Imazapyr 4SL

S, H, R, I, A

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants, vines

Mainly post

Foliar & soil

2

Imazapyr

Arsenal® AC

S, H, R, I

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants, vines

Mainly post

Foliar & soil

2

Imazapyr

Polaris® AC

S, H, R, I

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants, vines

Mainly post

Foliar & soil

2

Imazapyr

Polaris® AC Complete

S, H, R, I, A

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants, vines

Mainly post

Foliar & soil

2

Imazapyr +

OneStep®

S

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants, vines

Post

Foliar & soil

2 + 9

Glyphosate

           

Imazapyr +

Prep-It®

S

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants, vines

Post

Foliar & soil

2 + 9

Glyphosate

           

Imazapyr +

Lineage® Clearstand™

S, H, R, I

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants, vines

Mainly post

Foliar & soil

2 + 2

Metsulfuron methyl

           
 

Metsulfuron methyl

Escort® XP

S, H, R

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants

Mainly post

Foliar & soil

2

Metsulfuron methyl

MSM 60

S, H, R

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants

Mainly post

Foliar & soil

2

 

Oryzalin

Surflan® A.S.

H

Annual grasses & certain broadleaf weeds

Pre

Soil

3

 

Paraquat

Gramoxone Inteon®

S

Annual broadleaf weeds & grasses

Post

Foliar

22

Paraquat

Parazone® 3SL

S

Annual broadleaf weeds & grasses

Post

Foliar

22

 

Pendimethalin

Pendulum® 2G

S, H

Annual grasses & certain broadleaf weeds

Pre

Soil

3

Pendimethalin

Pendulum® 3.3 EC

S, H

Annual grasses & certain broadleaf weeds

Pre

Soil

3

Pendimethalin

Pendulum® AquaCap

S, H

Annual grasses & certain broadleaf weeds

Pre

Soil

3

 

Simazine

Sim-Trol® 90DF

S, H

Annual broadleaf weeds & grasses

Pre

Soil

5

 

Sulfometuron methyl

Alligare SFM 75

S, H

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses

Pre- & early post

Soil & foliar

2

Sulfometuron methyl

Oust® XP

S, H

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses

Pre- & early post

Soil & foliar

2

Sulfometuron methyl

Spyder

S, H

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses

Pre- & early post

Soil & foliar

2

Sulfometuron methyl +

Oust® Extra

S, H, R

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants, vines

Pre- & post

Soil & foliar

2 + 2

Metsulfuron methyl

           

Sulfometuron methyl +

SFM Extra

S, H, R

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants, vines

Pre- & post

Soil & foliar

2 + 2

Metsulfuron methyl

           

Sulfometuron methyl +

Spyder® Extra

S, H, R

Annual & perennial broadleaf weeds & grasses; woody plants, vines

Pre- & post

Soil & foliar

2 + 2

Metsulfuron methyl

           
 

Triclopyr, triethylamine salt

Alligare Triclopyr 3

S, R (d), I, W, A

Woody plants; annual & perenial broadleaf weeds

Post

Foliar

4

Triclopyr, triethylamine salt

Element® 3A

S, R (d), I, W, A

Woody plants; annual & perenial broadleaf weeds

Post

Foliar

4

Triclopyr, triethylamine salt

Garlon® 3A

S, R (d), I, W, A

Woody plants; annual & perenial broadleaf weeds

Post

Foliar

4

Triclopyr, triethylamine salt

Tahoe® 3A

S, R (d), I, W, A

Woody plants & vines; annual & perenial broadleaf weeds

Post

Foliar

4

Triclopyr, butoxyethyl ester

Pathfinder® II

R (d), I

Woody plants

Post

Foliar

4

Triclopyr, butoxyethyl ester

Garlon® 4 Ultra

S, R (d, u), I

Woody plants; annual & perenial broadleaf weeds

Post

Foliar

4

Triclopyr, butoxyethyl ester

Alligare Triclopyr 4

S, R (d, u), I

Woody plants; annual & perenial broadleaf weeds

Post

Foliar

4

Triclopyr, butoxyethyl ester

Element 4

S, R (d, u), I

Woody plants; annual & perenial broadleaf weeds

Post

Foliar

4

Triclopyr, butoxyethyl ester

Forestry Garlon® 4

S, R (d, u), I

Woody plants; annual & perenial broadleaf weeds

Post

Foliar

4

Triclopyr, butoxyethyl ester

Garlon® 4

S, R (d, u), I

Woody plants; annual & perenial broadleaf weeds

Post

Foliar

4

Triclopyr, butoxyethyl ester

Relegate® Selective Herbicide

R (d), I

Woody plants

Post

Foliar

4

Triclopyr, butoxyethyl ester

Forestry Garlon® XRT

S, R (d, u), I

Woody plants; annual & perenial broadleaf weeds

Post

Foliar

4

1 S=site preparation; H=herbaceous weed control; R=conifer release, (d) directed spray, (u) understory broadcast, (dorm) during dormancy; I=individual stems, (bs) basal soil; W=wetlands; A=aquatic areas

2 According to WSSA

3 Special Local Need (SLN) Label for distribution and use only in FL

4 Supplemental labeling for forestry use

5 Restricted-use pesticide in FL (ground and surface water concerns)

6 In conifer plantations, but not in forests

7 Registered in FL for 2014, but not in production

Footnotes

1.

This document is CIR1475, one of a series of the School of Forest Resources and Conservation, UF/IFAS Extension. First published in April 2005. Revised November 2013. Please visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Anna Osiecka, senior biological scientist; and Patrick Minogue, associate professor and Extension specialist, silviculture, North Florida Research and Education Center, UF/IFAS Extension, 155 Research Road, Quincy, FL 32351.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other suitable products. The products included in tables 1 and 2 were listed as registered in Florida for 2014 in NPRIS® (National Information Retrieval System) as of October 3, 2013. NPRIS contains current herbicide registration data provided by FDACS Division of Agricultural Environmental Services. FDACS is the sole authority on the herbicides registered in Florida.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.