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Publication #SP 37

Smallflower Morningglory, Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb.1

David W. Hall, Vernon V. Vandiver, and Jason A. Ferrell2

Classification

Common Name: Smallflower Morningglory

Scientific Name: Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb.

Family: Convolvulaceae, Morning-glory Family

Seedling

The stems are green, and the cotyledons are heart shaped, about 1 cm long, and light green with the major veins appearing as depressions in the upper surface ().

Figure 1. 

Seedling, Smallflower Morningglory, Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Mature Plant

Small-flower Morning-glory is a herbaceous annual with hairy, twining stems that can grow up to 2 m in length (Figure 2). The leaves are ovate to elliptic-ovate with pointed ends. The leaf is from 2.3-12.2 cm long and from 0.8-9.7 cm wide. The petioles are from 2-8 cm long. The flowers are produced on long stalks in leafy heads. The flowers are bell shaped and measure 12-16 mm long and 1.5-3 cm broad. There are 5 stamens and 2 flattened stigmas. The capsules are 4-seeded and 4-6 mm broad. The seeds are brownish black and are approximately 2 mm long.

Figure 2. 

Mature plant, Smallflower Morningglory, Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

History

This genus is closely related to Ipomoea. The generic name Jacquemontia commemorates a French botanical explorer, Victor Jacquemont. The species name tamnifolia is from Tamus, a genus of plants and the Latin folia, leaf. It means that the leaves resemble those of Tamus.

Habitat

This weed is a native of tropical America and is found in cultivated fields and other disturbed ground in the southeastern United States and from the West Indies to Brazil.

Biology

Seed germination ranged from 0-22% over a 4-day period at 16°C. An increase in temperature to 32°C increased germination from 61.8-69.2% over a 4-day period. Germination at 0 bars increased from 85.8-93.8% over a 2-day period; however, a continual decrease in germination occurred from 0-10 bars. At 10 bars after the sixth day, germination was only 1.5%. A single plant weighed 282 grams at the time of mature seed harvest. The number of seeds produced on this plant was 11,028 while the average weight per seed was 5.3 g. Scarification for 25-60 seconds produced a germination greater than 80% after seven days. Seed depth affected germination. Seeds had a 30% germination rate at the surface, 25% when planted 0.5 cm deep, and 65% when planted at a depth of 1 cm. No emergence was recorded when planted 4 cm or greater.

Control

Cotton

Preemergence herbicides such as Cotoran and Staple will effectively control smallflower morningglory. Direx is less effective and the yellow herbicides (Prowl and Treflan) will provide no control. Postemergence control with Staple and glyphosate, applied seperately or tank-mixed, are highly effective. Envoke herbicide, though excellent on most morningglory species, is totally ineffective on smallflower. Whether pre or post, Staple is often the most effective herbicide for control of smallflower morningglory.

Peanuts

Pursuit and Valor are highly effective and will provide approximately 90% control when applied preemergence. Strongarm is will also provide good control, but is often not as effective as Pursuit. Dual, Prowl and Zorial will not control smallflower morningglory.

There are several options available for postemergence control. Basagran, Ultra Blazer, Cobra, Cadre, and Pursuit will often provide greater than 90% control. However, 2,4-DB and Gramoxone are ineffective on smallflower morningglory. For adequate control, 2,4-DB or Gramoxone must be tank-mixed with an effective postemergence herbicide.

Footnotes

1.

This document is SP 37, one of a series of the Agronomy Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date May 1991. Revised February 2006. Reviewed January 2012. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

David W. Hall, former extension botanist, Herbarium, Florida Museum of Natural History; Vernon V. Vandiver, associate professor emeritus, Agronomy Department; Jason A. Ferrell, assistant professor, Agronomy Department; Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication does not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.