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Publication #ENY-464

Insect Management for Crucifers (Cole Crops) (Broccoli, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Collards, Kale, Mustard, Radishes, Turnips)1

S. E. Webb2

Cruciferous vegetables are a large and increasingly important crop group. A number of insects feed exclusively on crucifers and affect all of the crops listed in the title above. Because most of the newer pesticides are being labeled for the entire crop group or for a subset, either head and stem Brassicas (like cabbage and broccoli) or leafy Brassicas (like kale), there are no longer specific tables for individual Brassica crops at the end of this chapter. Instead, exceptions are given in the Notes column. Other crucifers not listed in the title but which also have the same pest complex include head and stem Brassicas such as Brussels sprouts, Chinese broccoli, and Chinese mustard, and leafy Brassicas such as bok choy, mizuna, and rape greens. Check pesticide labels carefully to see if these crops are included. Radishes and turnips are included in the root vegetables group, even though they are also crucifers and have similar pest problems. Separate tables of pesticides for radishes and turnips are included.

The diamondback moth is the most serious pest of crucifers in Florida. Cabbage looper is also considered a major pest, although it has been less of a problem over the past decade. Insect pests that have been considered major in the past and are only occasionally a problem now include aphids (turnip, green peach, cabbage), harlequin bug, beet armyworm, cabbage webworm, and cutworms (black and granulate). Yellowmargined leaf beetle is a particular problem on mustard and Chinese cabbage, especially for organic growers. Cross-striped cabbageworm is more of a problem on broccoli and cauliflower than it is on other crucifers. Aphids, cutworms, and wireworms are the major insect pests affecting radishes.

Diamondback Moth

Plutella xylostella (L.)

Description

The adult moth (Figure 1) is small and slender with very long antennae. It is grayish-brown with a broad cream or light brown band along its back. The band can have constrictions, which give it a diamond-like pattern. When viewed from the side, the wing tips appear to turn up slightly. Eggs are oval and flattened, yellow to pale green, and approximately 0.02 inches long and 0.01 inches wide. There are four larval instars. Even the oldest is quite small and very active. Larvae will wriggle violently if disturbed and will drop from the leaf suspended by a strand of silk. The body tapers at both ends and the fifth pair of prolegs protrudes from the posterior (Figure 2). After the first instar, which is colorless, the larvae are green. Larvae pupate in a loose cocoon on lower or outer leaves or in the florets of cauliflower and broccoli.

Figure 1. 

Top and side of diamondback moth.


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Figure 2. 

Diamondback moth larva.


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Biology

The female moth attaches her eggs to the lower leaf surface, either singly or in groups of two or three. Within a few days, the eggs hatch, and the larvae begin to feed on the underside of the leaf. The larval stage can last from ten days to a month, depending on temperature. Diamondback moth larvae slow their feeding at temperatures below 50°F, and population growth is most rapid at temperatures greater than 80°F. The pupal stage is passed within a transparent, loose cocoon, which is usually attached to the underside of leaves. In warm weather, the pupal stage may be completed in 3 to 4 days.

In southern Florida, diamondback moth is most abundant from December to February or March and can attack at any time during the crop cycle. By the end of May, moth counts in pheromone traps fall to near zero. Moth counts may rise in mid-fall through early winter, but activity is limited during that time. Populations build on winter weeds, such as wild mustard, before moving into winter and early spring plantings of cabbage and other crucifers. From mid-winter through the spring, when it is a serious pest, diamondback moth may cause losses of up to 70 percent in the absence of control. Populations may decrease after heavy rains.

Damage

Plants at all stages of growth may be attacked. Larvae chew small holes in leaves, with larger larvae making larger holes. Often, young larvae feed on one surface of the leaf, leaving a thin layer or “window” of leaf epidermis. Diamondback moth larvae will also attack developing cabbage heads. The resulting damage deforms the heads and leaves entry points for decay pathogens.

Cabbage Looper

Trichoplusia ni (Hubner)

Description

Figure 3. 

Cabbage looper adult male.


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Figure 4. 

Cabbage looper larva.


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Cabbage loopers feed on a variety of crops. The adults (Figure 3) are night-flying moths with brown, mottled fore wings marked in the center with a small, silver figure eight-like spot. Their eggs are small, ridged, round, and greenish-white. The eggs hatch into larvae that are green with white stripes running the length of their bodies. The caterpillar (Figure 4) has three pairs of slender legs near its head and then three pairs of thick prolegs near the end of its body. It moves in a characteristic looping motion, alternately stretching forward and arching its back as it brings the back prolegs close to its front legs. The caterpillar is about 1.25 inches long when fully grown.

Biology

Eggs are deposited singly or in small clusters on either leaf surface, although more are found on the lower leaf surface. Each female moth can produce 300 to 600 eggs during the approximately 10 to 12 days it is alive. Two to four weeks after hatching, the mature larva spins a thin cocoon on the lower leaf surface, or in plant debris or soil. The pupal stage lasts approximately two weeks. Total time required for development from egg to adult can be as little as 18 days at 21°C (69.8°F) and 25 days at 32°C (89.6°F).

Populations tend to be highest during the late spring and summer months, and in some years in the late fall. Cabbage looper does not enter diapause and cannot survive prolonged cold weather. The insect remains active and reproduces throughout the winter months only in the southern part of Florida (south of Orlando). In central Florida, cabbage looper populations peak during early fall and again during late spring.

Damage

The cabbage looper is also one of the most important annual pests of Florida crucifers. It is less of a problem in southern Florida, where it is considered a minor pest. In general, cabbage looper is more of a problem during the fall than during the winter or spring months.

Cabbage looper larvae damage plants by chewing holes in leaves. Smaller larvae remain on the lower leaf surface, while larger larvae produce larger holes throughout the leaf. In addition to feeding on the wrapper leaves of cabbage, larvae may bore into the developing head. Some defoliation can be tolerated before head formation, but feeding damage and excrement left behind on heads make cabbage unmarketable. Cabbage with damage confined to wrapper leaves is marketable but with reduced value.

Aphids

turnip aphid [Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach)], green peach aphid [Myzus persicae (Sulzer)], cabbage aphid [Brevicoryne brassicae (L.)]

Description

Turnip aphid (Figure 5) and green peach aphid (Figure 6) are the most important aphids on crucifers. Cabbage aphid is not common in Florida. In general, aphid problems on crucifers in Florida tend to be sporadic, but aphids follow diamondback moth and cabbage looper in importance. Adults are soft-bodied, pear- or spindle-shaped insects with a posterior pair of tubes (cornicles or siphunculi), which project upward and backward from the dorsal surface of the abdomen and which are used for excreting a defensive fluid. Aphids have piercing-sucking mouthparts. Nymphs are smaller but otherwise similar in appearance to wingless adults.

Figure 5. 

Turnip aphid.


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Figure 6. 

Green peach aphid.


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Green peach aphid adults vary from 0.04 to 0.08 inch in length and are light green to yellow to pink and pear-shaped. The tubercles (bumps between antennae) point inward and are a distinguishing characteristic. Winged forms have a black patch on the back of the abdomen. Turnip aphid adults are whitish-green or green, about 0.06–0.1inches long. The antennae are dark and the cornicles are pale with dusky tips. The body is covered with a white secretion. Nymphs are pale greenish yellow.

Biology

Aphids reproduce very rapidly. In Florida, males are uncommon and females give birth to live nymphs all year rather than mating and laying eggs. Nymphs mature in 7 to 10 days. When host plant quality deteriorates or if plants become overcrowded, winged forms develop and migrate to new host plants. Aphids have fine, piercing-sucking mouthparts and feed on plant sap. They are often protected from their many natural enemies by ants, which feed on a sugary waste product of the aphids called honeydew. Aphids are more abundant during the spring and fall and almost disappear in summer.

Damage

Green peach aphid is a major pest of greens (collards, kale, and mustard), as well as many other unrelated crops. They attack cabbage mainly before heading begins. Turnip aphids attack only crucifers, preferring turnips and radishes. Aphids suck plant juices with their piercing-sucking mouthparts, resulting in yellowing and curling of the leaves. The plant, particularly when attacked as a seedling, may be stunted or die as a result of aphid feeding. Foliage may be contaminated with aphid bodies, cast skins, and honeydew. Aphids can be protected from insecticide sprays within the curled leaves or inside the cupped leaves of headed plants. Green peach aphid and turnip aphid vector turnip mosaic virus in Florida.

Beet Armyworm

Spodoptera exigua (Hubner)]

The beet armyworm has a wide host range, and in addition to crucifers it attacks such vegetables as asparagus, bean, beet, celery, chickpea, corn, cowpea, eggplant, lettuce, onion, pea, pepper, potato, spinach, sweet potato, and tomato. It also feeds on many field crops and weeds.

The highly mobile adult moth (Figure 7) has dark front wings with mottled lighter markings and hind wings thinly covered with whitish scales. Each female can lay over 600 eggs, generally in masses of about 100 on the undersides of leaves in the lower plant canopy. Egg masses are covered with fuzzy, white scales. Very young caterpillars (Figure 8), which are pale with dark heads, feed in groups and then disperse as they grow older (third instar). By the third instar, caterpillars have wavy, light-colored stripes lengthwise down the back and broader stripes on each side. Although often dull green, the color of caterpillars can vary. After feeding from one to three weeks, they construct a cocoon from sand and bits of soil and pupate in the soil, emerging as adults about one week later. Beet armyworm is a tropical insect and survives the winter in southern Florida. It can complete many generations a year there. From southern Florida, adults migrate into northern Florida and other parts of the Southeast.

Description and Biology

The beet armyworm has a wide host range, and in addition to crucifers it attacks such vegetables as asparagus, bean, beet, celery, chickpea, corn, cowpea, eggplant, lettuce, onion, pea, pepper, potato, spinach, sweet potato, and tomato. It also feeds on many field crops and weeds.

The highly mobile adult moth (Figure 7) has dark front wings with mottled lighter markings and hind wings thinly covered with whitish scales. Each female can lay over 600 eggs, generally in masses of about 100 on the undersides of leaves in the lower plant canopy. Egg masses are covered with fuzzy, white scales. Very young caterpillars (Figure 8), which are pale with dark heads, feed in groups and then disperse as they grow older (third instar). By the third instar, caterpillars have wavy, light-colored stripes lengthwise down the back and broader stripes on each side. Although often dull green, the color of caterpillars can vary. After feeding from one to three weeks, they construct a cocoon from sand and bits of soil and pupate in the soil, emerging as adults about one week later. Beet armyworm is a tropical insect and survives the winter in southern Florida. It can complete many generations a year there. From southern Florida, adults migrate into northern Florida and other parts of the Southeast.

Figure 7. 

Beet armyworm adult.


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Figure 8. 

Beet armyworm larva.


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Damage

Larvae feed on both foliage and fruit of host plants. Beet armyworm larvae consume greater amounts of leaf tissue than the diamondback moth but not as much as the cabbage looper. An action threshold of 0.3 beet armyworm larvae per plant has been used on cabbage in Texas. Since adults can readily invade a field from nearby crops or weeds, monitoring the crop twice a week for beet armyworm presence and damage is recommended.

Beet armyworm is a sporadic pest on Florida crucifers, and it is usually kept under damaging levels by controls targeted to diamondback moth. Beet armyworm populations in southern Florida are highest from late March through mid-June, with a smaller population rise from mid-August through October. The increase in the late summer and fall is thought to be related to beet armyworm activity on late summer weeds, while the population increase in the spring coincides with the leafy vegetable production season in southern Florida.

Cabbage Webworm

Hellula rogatalis (Hulst)

Description

The moth (Figure 9) has yellowish-brown front wings marked with white bands and a dark kidney-shaped spot. The hind wings are grayish-white with a darker margin. The wingspan is about 0.7–0.8 inches. Eggs have a flattened shape and are gray or yellowish-green to begin with but turn pink as they get close to hatching. There are five larval instars. The mature larva (Figure 10) is yellowish-gray with five brownish-purple bands running the length of its body. Its head is black. Moderately long yellow or light brown hairs sparsely cover the body.

Figure 9. 

Cabbage webworm adult.


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Figure 10. 

Cabbage webworm larva.


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Biology and Damage

Cabbage webworm eggs are usually laid singly or in small masses on the terminal leaves. Upon hatching, the larvae mine the leaves and also feed on the underside of the leaves producing small holes. At about the third instar, larvae begin to web and fold the foliage. The webs become covered with dirt and excrement. Larger larvae can burrow into buds, stems, and leaves. The insect may feed on the growing point, causing severe damage to young plants. When fully grown, larvae pupate in the buds, on the sides of stems, or on the surface of the soil.

Like beet armyworm, cabbage webworm is seen sporadically and is controlled by treatments for diamondback moth. A related species, H. phidilealis, or cabbage budworm, can be a problem in south Florida.

Cutworms

black cutworm [Agrotis ipsilon (Rott.)] and granulate cutworm [Feltia subterranea (Fabricius)]

Description

Black cutworm moths (Figure 11) are large, with a wingspan of 1.5 to slightly over 2 inches. The front wings are dark brown with a lighter band near the end of each wing. The hind wings are whitish to gray. The ribbed eggs are first white, and then turn brown and are usually deposited in clusters. The larvae (Figure 12) are stout, gray caterpillars with a greasy appearance. Black cutworm larvae have numerous dark, coarse granules over most of their bodies.

Figure 11. 

Black cutworm adult.


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Figure 12. 

Black cutworm larva.


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Granulate cutworm moths (Figure 13) are smaller, with a wingspan of 1.2 to 1.7 inches. The front wings are often yellowish-brown and have distinct bean-shaped and round spots in the center. The hind wings are mostly white. Eggs are hemispherical and ridged. Like black cutworm eggs, they are initially white and darken with age. Larvae (Figure 14) are grayish to reddish-brown. Each abdominal segment has a dull yellowish oblique mark. A weak gray line occurs along the length of the body with spots of white or yellow.

Figure 13. 

Granulate cutworm adult.


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Figure 14. 

Granulate cutworm larva.


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Biology

The black cutworm is one of the most destructive of the cutworms and attacks a wide range of plants. Although cutworm larvae can migrate into a field from adjacent areas, most migration occurs by adults flying into the field. The moth deposits eggs in groups of one to 30 on leaves, stems, stubble or field debris near ground level. The egg stage lasts from 5 to 15 days, the larval stage lasts from three to four weeks, and the pupal stage takes 12 to 36 days. At high temperatures, when development is more rapid, the life cycle can be completed in six or seven weeks. The life cycle of the granulate cutworm is similar to that of the black cutworm. They are active at night, feeding on the stems and leaves. During the day, they take refuge in the soil at the base of the plants. Larvae tend to curl up into a ring when disturbed or handled. They may also bite and release a greenish-brown fluid.

Damage

Recently transplanted crucifers are particularly susceptible to attack by cutworms, which can cut thin-stemmed plants off at or slightly below the soil surface. They can also cut out large holes from leaves touching the soil. Several plants in a row are usually affected, and the cutworm often pulls the end of the leaf on which it is feeding into a protected area of the soil. Cutworms can also eat into heading cabbage and may remain within the head during the day. Overall, while some damage to leaves and heads occurs, greatest losses from cutworm damage are the result of reduced stands.

Black cutworms do most of their feeding at ground level. Larvae feed on young plants, cutting off leaves, or in later instars, entire plants. Populations of this pest tend to be higher in weedy and in wet fields. Granulate cutworm larvae can cut off entire seedling plants, as well as climb and feed on leaves of older plants. This cutworm is not associated with weedy fields as is the black cutworm. First instar larvae stay on plants, while older larvae climb and feed on plants only during night.

Harlequin Bug

Murgantia histrionica (Hahn)

Description

Eggs are barrel-shaped, light gray or pale yellow and are encircled by two black bands. They are generally found beneath leaves in clusters of 12 arranged in two rows of six. Young nymphs (Figure 15) are first pale green with black markings but soon turn black or blue with red and yellow or orange markings. Adults (Figure 16) are also brightly colored, mainly black and yellow or black and red.

Figure 15. 

Harlequin bug nymph.


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Figure 16. 

Harlequin bug adult.


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Biology

Harlequin bug reproduces all year round in Florida. Females produce an average of 115 eggs during their lifetime. Eggs hatch in 4–5 days in warm weather. Newly hatched nymphs stay close to the eggs for one or two days. There are five or six instars. Development times that have been reported range from 30 to 70 days, depending on temperature. Adults can live about two months.

Damage

Harlequin bugs prefer crucifers although they will occasionally feed on other plants. They have piercing-sucking mouthparts and leave white blotches where they feed. Plant may wilt, become deformed, or die, if bugs are abundant.

Cross-striped Cabbageworm

Evergestis rimosalis (Guenée)

Description

The adult moth (Figure 17) has a wingspan of about one inch. The front wings are straw-colored, marked with olive or purplish-brown, and crossed by narrow transverse lines. Hind wings are transparent and whitish, bordered with a darker band. Eggs, laid in small masses, are oval, yellow, and flattened, and overlap slightly. Larvae (Figure 18), which have 4 instars, are gray with black tubercles to begin with and become bluish-gray with numerous transverse black bands. There is a yellow line along each side of the caterpillar. The mature caterpillar is about 0.6–0.7 inches long. The pupa is yellowish-brown, enclosed in a small cocoon covered with sand.

Figure 17. 

Cross-striped cabbageworm adult.


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Figure 18. 

Cross-striped cabbageworm larva.


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Biology

A crucifer specialist, the cross-striped cabbageworm is more of a problem on broccoli, cauliflower, collards, and Brussels sprouts than it is on kale and cabbage. Development time from egg to adult ranges from 61 days at 68°F to 18 days at 95°F. It can be abundant during the winter and spring cropping period in Florida. Larvae pupate in the soil, near the surface.

Damage

Larvae feed on leaves, creating small holes. They prefer terminal buds and may also burrow into the center of developing cabbage heads.

Yellowmargined Leaf Beetle

Microtheca ochroloma Stal

Description

The dark bronze or black adult beetle (Figure 19) is about 0.2 inches long. The edges of the wing covers are bordered with yellow. Eggs are bright orange and elongate and are deposited singly or in small clusters in protected spots on the plant or in leaf litter. The soft-bodied larva is yellowish-brown and covered with a fine layer of hairs. The head is dark brown or black. The mature larva pupates in a loose, net-like case in folds of foliage, or in debris on the soil surface.

Figure 19. 

Yellowmargined leaf beetle.


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Biology

Yellowmargined leaf beetle is native to South America and was first found in the United States in 1947. It is restricted to the Gulf Coast states. The life cycle is not well known in Florida. The beetle is capable of completing development in about one month and may be limited by food availability because it is restricted to crucifers. Adults are active all winter in Florida and may live from two to over three months. Turnips, radishes, and mustard are more preferred than cabbage and collards and females that develop on the first three crops produce the most eggs (up to almost 500 eggs per female).

Damage

Yellowmargined leaf beetle is a particular problem for organic growers. It is especially devastating on specialty cruciferous greens like mizuna, but also feeds on turnips, mustard, and other cole crops. The fall crop may suffer more damage than the spring crop. Adults and larvae feed on leaves.

Tables

Table 1. 

Diamondback moth

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ Thresholds

Fields should be scouted weekly. One method is to walk a zigzag or figure eight path through the field, in such a way that all four quarters of the field are checked and both interior and border areas are examined. Carry a hand lens (at least 10X) and a notebook and pencil to record observations. Small plastic bags are useful for collecting insects for identification. Thresholds of 0.1 to 0.3 larvae per plant have been used in northeast Florida cabbage. Examine 50 to 100 plants per field (stop 10 to 20 times and examine 5 plants in each location).

Notes

Resistance to insecticides has been the major problem in managing diamondback moth. To reduce this problem, avoid producing crucifers from May to August, destroy crop residues, use pest-free transplants, use different types of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) as the main insecticides, alternating with some of newer pesticides if needed, and avoid the use of carbamates and pyrethroids.

Natural Enemies

A parasitoid wasp helps control diamondback moth larvae, especially if Bt is the main pesticide used. An egg parasitoid (Trichogramma sp.) and fungal pathogens also aid in control.

Cultural Controls

As listed above, avoiding the warmer months, and destroying crop residues are both important. A recent method of managing diamondback on cabbage is to plant several rows of collards around the perimeter of the fields as a trap crop. For high-value, specialty crucifers, floating row covers put in place immediately after transplanting may eliminate damage.

Table 2. 

Cabbage looper

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ Thresholds

Fields should be scouted weekly. See diamondback moth, above.

Notes

Relying on Bts as the main insecticide and using some of the newer pesticides (spinosad, indoxacarb, tebufenozide) when needed, will help preserve natural enemies.

Natural Enemies

Parasitoid wasps and flies, and general predators help control cabbage looper. A nucleopolyhedrosis virus also kills loopers.

Cultural Controls

Avoid the warmer months when pests are most abundant, destroy crop residues, and control weeds. Planting a nectar source for beneficial insects may be helpful—sweet alyssum has been tested in cabbage. For high-value, specialty crucifers, floating row covers put in place immediately after transplanting may eliminate damage.

Table 3. 

Aphids

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ Thresholds

Fields should be scouted weekly. See diamondback moth, above. No information on thresholds is available.

Notes

Relying on Bts as the main insecticide for caterpillar pests and using some of the newer pesticides (spinosad, indoxacarb, tebufenozide) when needed, will help preserve natural enemies of aphids.

Natural Enemies

Parasitoid wasps and general predators, such as ladybeetles, lacewing larvae, and syrphid fly larvae, may completely control aphids if broad spectrum pesticides can be avoided.

Cultural Controls

Destroy crop residues and control cruciferous weeds. Planting a nectar source for beneficial insects may be helpful—sweet alyssum has been tested in cabbage. For high-value, specialty crucifers, floating row covers put in place immediately after transplanting may eliminate damage. However, if any aphids are trapped beneath covers, they will multiply freely in the absence of their natural enemies.

Table 4. 

Beet armyworm

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ Thresholds

Fields should be monitored at least weekly for damage by caterpillars feeding on leaves. Pheromone traps can be used to monitor occurrence of moths. Young plants are more susceptible to damage. Look for egg masses on the leaves. Look toward the base of leaves for damage and under outer leaves near the soil surface for larvae that may hide during the day away from their feeding site. Treat if you find 0.3 larvae per plant, using the sampling procedure described for diamondback moth. Best time to treat for this pest is in early morning or early evening.

Notes

Insecticides are most effective against the younger instars with higher rates and more frequent applications needed to try to control later instars. Insecticides are available for foliar applications. Coverage and penetration are important in treating for all of the moth species. Use of surfactants to increase surface coverage increases insecticidal control.

Natural Enemies

Insect predators and parasitoids, as well as pathogens aid in control, but generally do not exert enough pressure to prevent yield loss.

Cultural Controls

Field disking and destruction of crop residues are important for control of all caterpillar and aphid pests to reduce their migration into nearby crops. Beet armyworms develop well on several weeds in the Amaranth group, so weed control on ditch banks surrounding fields can help reduce populations before they invade fields.

Table 5. 

Cabbage webworm

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ Thresholds

Fields should be scouted weekly. See diamondback moth, above.

Notes

Relying on Bts as the main insecticide and using some of the newer pesticides (spinosad, indoxacarb, tebufenozide, and others) when needed, will provide control. Younger larvae, less protected by webbing and folded leaves, should be targeted.

Natural Enemies

No important natural enemies are known.

Cultural Controls

Avoid the warmer months when pests are most abundant, destroy crop residues, and control weeds. Planting a nectar source for beneficial insects may be helpful—sweet alyssum has been tested in cabbage. For high-value, specialty crucifers, floating row covers put in place immediately after transplanting may eliminate damage.

Table 6. 

Cutworms

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ Thresholds

Seedling crops should be scouted as frequently as twice per week to detect cutworms or their damage, particularly in areas known for this pest. Young larvae may be found grouped together on foliage, but older larvae will usually be found in soil or beneath leaf trash during the day. Look for wilted foliage or plants with severed stems. Adults can be monitored with black light and pheromone traps.

Notes

Insecticides are available for at-plant, pre- and post-emergence broadcast and banded applications. Post emergence applications are the most efficient.

Natural Enemies

Natural enemies such as parasitic wasps, flies, and predacious ground beetles can exert tremendous control pressure that may approach 80%. However, seedlings emerging in fields without resident natural enemy populations can experience significant stand loss from first generation cutworms. Larvae are also targets for attack by pathogenic fungi and viruses.

Cultural Controls

Weedy fields quickly rotated to leafy vegetables have higher potential for stand loss due to surviving older larvae cutting off the emerging plants. Therefore, prepare fallowed fields for production as soon as possible to allow time for surviving larvae to complete development before planting.

Table 7. 

Cross-striped cabbageworm

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ Thresholds

Fields should be scouted weekly. See diamondback moth, above.

Notes

Relying on Bts as the main insecticide and using some of the newer pesticides (spinosad, indoxacarb, tebufenozide) when needed, will help preserve natural enemies.

Natural Enemies

Parasitoid wasps and possibly general predators help control cross-striped cabbageworm.

Cultural Controls

Avoid the warmer months when pests are most abundant, destroy crop residues, and control weeds. Planting a nectar source for beneficial insects may be helpful—sweet alyssum has been tested in cabbage. For high-value, specialty crucifers, floating row covers put in place immediately after transplanting may eliminate damage.

Table 8. 

Selected insecticides approved for use on insects attacking cole crops.

Trade Name

(Common Name)

Rate (Product/acre)

REI (hours)

Days to Harvest

Insects

MOA Code1

Notes

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

1.5-5.5 oz

12

0 -head & stem

7 - leafy

aphids, flea beetles, thrips, whiteflies

4A

Do not use if other 4A insecticide has been applied.

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

(see appropriate labels for other brands)

4.4-10.5 fl oz

12

21

aphids, leafhoppers, foliage-feeding thrips, whiteflies

4A

Do not apply more than 10.5 fl oz per acre per year.

Agree WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

lepidopteran larvae (caterpillar pests)

11A

Apply when larvae are small for best control. Can be used in greenhouse. OMRI-listed2.

*Ambush 25W3 (permethrin)

3.2-6.4 oz

3.2-12.8 oz – cabbage and Chinese cabbage only

12

1

cabbage aphid (suppression), cabbage looper, diamondback moth3, imported cabbageworm

3A

Do not apply more than 51.2 oz/acre per season. Head and stem Brassica crops only.

*Asana XL (0.66 EC)3 (esfenvalerate)

2.9-9.6 fl oz – head and stem Brassicas, 5.8-9.6 oz –collards, 9.6 – mustard greens

12

3-head & stem 7-collards, mustard greens

beet armyworm (aids in control), cabbage looper, cutworms, flea beetles, grasshoppers, imported cabbageworm

3A

Do not apply more than 0.4 lb ai/acre per season for head and stem Brassicas or 0.2 lb ai/acre per season for collards and mustard greens.

Assail 30SG

(acetamiprid)

2.0-4.0 oz

12

7

aphids, thrips, whiteflies, suppression of diamondback moth

4A

Begin applications for whiteflies when first adults are noticed. Do not apply more than 5 times per season or apply more often than every 7 days.

Avaunt

(indoxacarb)

2.5-3.5 oz

12

3

beet armyworm, cabbage looper, cabbage webworm, cross-striped cabbageworm, diamondback moth, imported cabbageworm

22

Do not apply more than 14 oz per acre per crop. Add a wetting agent to improve coverage. Do not use in greenhouse or in crops grown for transplant.

Aza-Direct (azadirachtin)

1-2 pts, up to 3.5 pts, if needed

4

0

aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, weevils, whiteflies

un

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, whiteflies

un

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

*Baythroid XL

(beta-cyfluthrin)

0.8-3.2 fl oz

12

0

beet armyworm (1st & 2nd instar), cabbage looper, cabbage webworm, cutworms, diamondback moth larvae3, flea beetle, grasshoppers, imported cabbageworm, potato leafhopper, southern armyworm (1st & 2nd instar), stink bugs, thrips, yellowstriped armyworm

3A

Maximum per crop season: 12.8 fl oz/A.

Belay 50 WDG

(clothianidin)

1.6-3.2 oz (foliar)

12

7

aphids, flea beetles, harlequin bug, leafhoppers, stink bugs, whiteflies (suppression)

4A

Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant. Toxic to bees. High rate on supplemental label expiring on Dec. 30, 2013.

Belay 50 WDG

(clothianidin)

4.8 -6.4 oz

(soil application)

12

Apply at planting

aphids, flea beetles, harlequin bug, leafhoppers, leafminers (suppression), thrips, whiteflies (suppression)

4A

Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. See label for application instructions.

Beleaf 50 SG

(flonicamid)

2.0-2.8 oz

12

0

aphids, plant bugs

9C

Do not apply more than 8.4 oz/acre per season. Begin applications before pests reach damaging levels.

Belt SC

(flubendiamide)

2.0-2.4 fl oz

12

8

armyworms, cabbage webworm, corn earworm, cross-striped cabbageworm, diamondback moth, garden webworm, imported cabbageworm, loopers, saltmarsh caterpillar

28

Do not apply more than 7.2 fl oz/acre per season.

Biobit HP

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars (will not control large armyworms)

11A

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used in the greenhouse.

BotaniGard 22 WP, ES

(Beauveria bassiana)

WP:

0.5-2 lb/100 gal

ES:

0.5-2 qts/100 gal

4

0

aphids, thrips, whiteflies

--

May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides.

*Brigade 2 EC3

(bifenthrin)

2.1-6.4 fl oz

12

7

aphids, armyworms, corn earworm, crickets, cucumber beetles, cutworms, diamondback moth, flea beetles, ground beetles, imported cabbageworm, leafhoppers, loopers, mites, saltmarsh caterpillar, stink bugs, thrips, tobacco budworm, whitefly

3A

Do not apply more than 0.4 lb ai/acre for leafy or 0.5 lb ai/acre for head and stem.

*Brigadier Insecticide3

(bifenthrin)

3.8-6.1 fl oz

12

7

aphids, armyworms, corn earworm, crickets, cucumber beetles, cutworms, diamondback moth, flea beetles, ground beetles, imported cabbageworm, leafhoppers, loopers, mites, saltmarsh caterpillar, stink bugs, adult thrips, tobacco budworm, whitefly

3A, 4A

Do not apply more than 30.72 fl oz product per acre per season. Will not control beet armyworm.

*Capture LFR

(bifenthrin)

3.4-8.5 fl oz

12

at planting

wireworms, grubs, maggots, root aphids, cutworms

3A

For mixing directly with liquid fertilizer to control soil insect pests. For Head and Stem Brassicas only.

Checkmate DBM-F

(pheromone)

3.1-6.2 fl oz

0

0

diamondback moth

--

For mating disruption. Does not affect larvae and eggs already on plants. Do not exceed 23 fl oz per acre per year.

Coragen

(rynaxypyr)

3.5-5.0 fl oz

4

3

beet armyworm, cabbage looper, corn earworm, cross-striped cabbageworm, diamondback moth, Hawaiian beet webworm, imported cabbageworm

28

For best results, use an adjuvant when using as a foliar spray. Can be applied to soil at planting or by drip chemigation. See label for diamondback moth resistance management.

Courier 40SC

(buprofezin)

9.0-13.6 fl oz

12

1

leafhoppers, planthoppers, whiteflies

16

Do not make more than 2 applications per crop cycle or 4 applications per year. Head and stem brassicas only.

Crymax WDG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11A

Use high rate for armyworms. Treat when larvae are young.

*Danitol3

(fenpropathrin)

10.67-16 fl oz

24

7

cabbage looper, imported cabbageworm, yellowstriped armyworm

3A

Do not apply more than 42.67 fl oz per acre per season. Head and stem brassicas only.

Deliver

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.25-1.5 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11A

Use higher rates for armyworms. OMRI-listed2.

*Diazinon AG-500, *50 W

(diazinon)

AG500 preplant: 1-4 qt

50W: 2-8 lb

96

preplant

cutworms, mole crickets, wireworms

1B

Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, collard, kale, mustard greens. See label for depth to incorporate.

*Dibrom 8 EC

(naled)

1 pt

48

1

aphids, diamondback moth, imported cabbageworm

1B

Apply no more than 1 pt per acre in Florida. Do not apply more than 10 pt per acre per season. Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale and collards.

Dimethoate 4 EC

(dimethoate)

0.5-1 pt – broccoli, cauliflower;

0.5 pt – kale, mustard greens, turnip

48

7 – broccoli, cauliflower,

14 – kale, mustard greens, turnip

aphids

1B

Highly toxic to bees. For broccoli, cauliflower, kale, turnip greens and roots, and mustard greens only.

*Dimilin 2L

(diflubenzuron)

2-4 fl oz

12

7

grasshoppers

15

All Brassica crops. No more than 4 applications per season. May be applied only to turnip varieties that do not produce a harvestable root.

DiPel DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11A

Treat when larvae are young. See label for rates for specific pests. Good coverage is essential. OMRI-listed2.

Durivo

(thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

10-13 fl oz

12

30

aphids, caterpillars, flea beetles, thrips, whiteflies

4A, 28

May be applied via one of several different soil applications methods.

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

1.5-10 fl oz

4

1

armyworms, cabbage looper, diamondback moth, imported cabbageworm, leafminers, thrips, suppression of flea beetles

5

See label for resistance management. Do not apply more than 29 oz per acre per crop. OMRI-listed2.

Esteem Ant Bait

(pyriproxyfen)

1.5-2.0 lb

12

1

red imported fire ant

7C

Apply when ants are actively foraging. Do not exceed 0.134 lb ai per acre per season

Extinguish

(S)-methoprene)

1.0-1.5 lb

4

0

fire ants

7A

Slow‑acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks. May be applied by ground equipment or aerially.

Fulfill

(pymetrozine)

2.75 oz

12

7

cabbage aphid, green peach aphid, turnip aphid, suppression of whiteflies

9B

Apply when aphids and whiteflies first appear. Provides suppression of whiteflies. Maximum of 2 applications per crop.

Grandevo

(Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1.0-3.0 lb

4

0

armyworms, cabbage looper, cabbage webworm, cross-striped cabbageworm, cutworms, diamondback moth, imported cabbageworm, aphids, billbugs leafhoppers, mites, plant bugs, thrips, whiteflies, yellowmargined leaf beetle larvae (newly hatched to second instar)

Can be used in organic production. OMRI-listed2

Intrepid 2F

methoxyfenozide)

4-10 fl oz, depending on pest

4

1

beet armyworm, cabbage looper, cabbageworm, cross-striped cabbageworm, fall armyworm garden webworm, imported cabbageworm, southern armyworm, true armyworm, yellowstriped armyworm

18

Do not apply more than 64 oz per acre per season.

Javelin WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.12-1.50 lb

4

0

most caterpillars, but not Spodoptera species (armyworms)

11A

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. OMRI-listed2. See label for crops (most cole crops).

Knack

(pyriproxyfen)

8-10 fl oz

12

7

whiteflies (immatures)

7C

Limited to 2 applications per season.

*Lannate LV; *SP

(methomyl)

LV: 0.75-3.0 pt

SP: 0.25-1 lb

48

Cabbage – 1, broccoli and cauliflower – 3, others –10

Beet armyworm, diamondback moth, fall armyworm, imported cabbageworm, loopers, variegated cutworm (pests vary by specific crop)

1A

Do not make more than 10 applications per crop (8 for collards, kale, mustard and turnip greens). For use on broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, fresh market collards, kale, mustard and turnip greens.

*Larvin 3.2

(thiodicarb)

16-40 fl oz

48

7

beet armyworm, cabbage looper, diamondback moth, flea beetles, imported cabbageworm

1A

Do not exceed more than 4.0 lb active ingredient per acre per season. (160 fl oz) For broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower only.

Lorsban 75WG, (chlorpyrifos)

Foliar:

0.67-1.33 lb

24, 72 for cauliflower

21

Armyworms (including beet armyworm), cabbage aphid, cutworms, striped flea beetle, imported cabbageworm

1B

For use on broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, collards, kale, kohlrabi. See label for specific crop directions.

Lorsban 15G, 75WG, *Advanced

See labels for rates for soil application

24, 72 for cauliflower

30

root maggots. If preplant (Lorsban Advanced), also billbugs, cutworms, grubs, symphylans, wireworms

1B

Only one application per season. See label for restrictions and specific crop directions.

Malathion 8F

(malathion)

1.25 pt, 1 for collards, kale, mustard greens

48, 12 for collards, kale, and mustard greens

2 for head and stem Brassica except cabbage, 7 for greens and cabbage

aphids, cabbage looper, flea beetles, imported cabbageworm

1B

see label for limitations on number of applications per season--varies by crop.

Movento

(spirotetramat)

4-5 fl oz

24

1

aphids, whiteflies

23

Limited to 10 oz/acre per season.

M-Pede 49% EC

(soap, insecticidal)

1-2 % V/V

12

0

aphids, leafhoppers, mites, thrips, whiteflies

--

OMRI-listed2.

*MSR Spray Concentrate (oxydemeton-methyl)

1.5-2 pt

7 days

7

aphids, thrips

1B

Broccoli, broccoflower, broccolini, cabbage, cauliflower - See label for restrictions.

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.4-4.3 oz

12

1

aphids (some), armyworms, cabbage looper, cabbage webworm, corn earworm, crickets, cucumber beetles, cutworm, flea beetles, grasshoppers, imported cabbageworm, leafhoppers, saltmarsh caterpillar, southern cabbageworm, stink bugs, aids in control of whiteflies

3A

Do not make applications less than 7 days apart. Diamondback moth populations in Florida have been found to be resistant to pyrethroids.

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

aphids, armyworms, cabbage looper, caterpillars, cutworms, diamondback moth, dipterous leafminers, leafminers, imported cabbageworm, whiteflies

un

IGR and feeding repellant. Greenhouse and field. OMRI-listed2.

Oberon 2 SC

(spiromesifen)

7.0-8.5 fl oz

12

7

whiteflies

23

Maximum amount per crop: 25.5 fl oz/acre. No more than 3 applications. Not for turnip greens.

Platinum

Platinum 75SG

(permethrin)

5.0-11 fl oz

1.66-3.67 oz

12

30

aphids, flea beetles, thrips, whiteflies

4A

Soil application.

*Pounce 25 WP3

(permethrin)

See label for crop-specific rates.

12

1

armyworms, cabbage looper, diamondback moth, imported cabbageworm, plant bugs, thrips

3A

Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese broccoli, collards, turnips.

*Proaxis Insecticide3

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

1.92-3.84 fl oz

24

1

aphids(2), armyworm, beet armyworm(1), cabbage looper, cabbage webworm, corn earworm, cutworms, diamondback moth, fall armyworm(1), flea beetles, grasshoppers, imported cabbageworm, leafhoppers, southern cabbageworm, spider mites(2), stink bugs, thrips(2), vegetable weevil (adult), whiteflies(2), yellowstriped armyworm

3A

(1) First and second instars only.

(2)Suppression only.

Do not apply more than 1.92 pints per acre per season.

Head and stem brassicas only.

*Proclaim

(emamectin benzoate)

2.4-4.8 oz

12

7 - head & stem

14 - leafy

beet armyworm, cabbage webworm, corn earworm, cross-striped cabbageworm, diamondback moth, fall armyworm, imported cabbageworm, loopers, suppression of Liriomyza leafminers

6

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications without rotating to another product with a different mode of action. Do not apply by aircraft. Not for turnips grown for roots.

Prokil Cryolite

(cryolite)

8-16 lb

12

7

cabbage looper, cutworms, diamondback moth, flea beetles, imported cabbageworm, yellowstriped armyworm

un

For broocoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower only. Do not apply more than 96 lb per season or more often than every 7 days.

Provado 1.6F (imidacloprid)

3.8 oz

12

7

aphids, whiteflies

4A

Do not apply more than 0.5 lb ai per year.

Pyganic 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5-18 oz

12

0

insects

3A

Harmful to bees. Can be used in greenhouses. OMRI-listed.2

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

5-10 fl oz

4

1

armyworms, cabbage looper, diamondback moth, imported cabbageworm, Liriomyza leafminers, thrips

5

Do not apply to seedlings grown for transplant. Do not make more than two consecutive applications of Group 5 insecticides.

Requiem 25EC

(extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides)

2-4 qt (no more than 2% v/v)

4

0

green peach aphid, turnip aphid, whiteflies

un

 

Rimon 0.83 EC

(novaluron)

6-12 fl oz

12

7

armyworms, cabbage looper, cabbage webworm, corn earworm, cucumber beetles, diamondback moth, imported cabbageworm, lepidopteran and dipteran leafminers, stink bugs, vegetable weevil, thrips, whiteflies

15

No more than 3 applications or 24 fl oz per acre per season. No more than 2 applications for thrips or whiteflies. Head and stem Brassica only.

Saf-T-Side, others

(Oil, insecticidal)

1-2 gal/100 gal

4

up to day of harvest

aphids, leafhoppers, mites, plant bugs, thrips, whiteflies

--

OMRI-listed2.

Scorpion 35SL Insecticide

(dinotefuran)

foliar: 2-7 fl oz, soil: 9-10.5 fl oz

12

foliar, 1; soil, 21

brown stink bug, cabbage aphid (suppression), cucumber beetles, flea beetles, grasshoppers, green peach aphid (suppression), harlequin bug, leafminers, southern green stink bug, thrips, whiteflies

4A

Head and stem brassicas only.

Sevin 80S; XLR, 4F (carbaryl)

XLR, 4F:

0.5-2 qts

12

3 or 14, depending on specific crop

armyworms, corn earworm, diamondback moth, flea beetles, harlequin bug, imported cabbage worm, leafhoppers

1A

Up to 4 applications, at least 7 days apart. See label for specific crops.

Trigard

(cyromazine)

2.66 oz

12

7

leafminers

17

Limited to 6 applications. Includes turnip greens, not grown for roots.

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

0.5-2% V/V

4

0

aphids, mites, suppression of thrips and whiteflies

un

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed2.

Venom Insecticide

(dinotefuran)

Venom 20 SG

foliar: 1-4 oz

soil: 5-6 oz

foliar: 0.44-0.895 lb

soil: 1.13-1.34 lb

12

foliar - 1

soil - 21

Foliar: brown stink bug, suppression of cabbage aphid, flea beetle, grasshopper, suppression of green peach aphid, green sink bug, harlequin bug, southern green stink bug

Soil: suppression of green peach aphid and cabbage aphid, leafminer, whiteflies

4A

Use one application method, not both (soil or foliar).

Foliar: Do not apply more than 0.268 lb ai per acre per season.

Soil: Do not apply more than 0.536 lb ai per acre per season.

Vetica

(buprofezin and flubendiamide)

10-20 fl oz

12

1

armyworms, cabbage looper, cabbage webworm, corn earworm, cross-striped cabbageworm, cutworms, diamondback moth, garden webworm, imported cabbageworm, saltmarsh caterpillar, leafhoppers, planthoppers, and whiteflies

16, 28

Do not make more than 2 applications per crop cycle.

Voliam Flexi

(thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole)

4-7 oz

12

head and stem – 3, leafy Brassica greens - 7

aphids, beet armyworm, cabbage looper, cabbage webworm, corn earworm, diamondback moth, fall armyworm, flea beetles, imported cabbageworm, thrips, whitefly, yellowstriped armyworm

4A, 28

Highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops.

*Voliam Xpress

(lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole)

5-9 fl oz

24

3

aphids (supression), beet armyworm, cabbage looper, cabbage webworm, corn earworm, diamondback moth, fall armyworm, flea beetles, grasshoppers, imported cabbageworm,leafhoppers, plant bugs, stink bugs, supression of thrips and whiteflies, yellowstriped armyworm

3A, 28

Highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops. Head and stem Brassica only.

*Warrior II3 (lambda‑cyhalothrin)

0.96-1.92 fl oz

24

1

aphids(1), beet armyworm(2), cabbage looper, cabbage webworm, corn earworm, cutworms, diamondback moth, fall armyworm(2), flea beetles, grasshoppers, imported cabbageworm, leafhoppers, plant bugs, stink bugs, thrips(1), whiteflies(1), yellowstriped armyworm

3A

Do not apply more than 0.24 lb ai/acre per season.

(1)suppression only

(2)1st and 2nd instar only

For head and stem Brassicas only.

Xentari DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11A

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. May be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production.

The pesticide information presented in this table was current with federal and state regulations at the time of revision. The user is responsible for determining the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow label instructions.

1Mode of Action codes for vegetable pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode of Action Classification v.7.2 February 2012. http://www.irac-online.org/wp-content/uploads/MoA-classification.pdf

1A. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Carbamates (nerve action)

1B. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Organophosphates (nerve action)

2A. GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists (nerve action)

3A. Sodium channel modulators—pyrethroids

4A. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists (nerve action)

5. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric activators—spinosins (nerve action)

6. Chloride channel activators (nerve and muscle action)

7A. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation)

7C. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation)

9B & 9C. Selective homopteran feeding blockers

10B. Mite growth inhibitors (gr1A. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Carbamates (nerve action)

11A. Microbial disruptors of insect midgut membranes

12B. Inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase (energy metabolism)

15. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 0, lepidopteran (growth regulation)

16. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 1, homopteran (growth regulation)

17. Molting disruptor, dipteran (growth regulation)

18. Ecdysone receptor agonists (growth regulation)

20B. Mitochondrial complex III electron transport inhibitors (energy metabolism)

21A. Mitochondrial complex I electron transport inhibitors (energy metabolism)

22. Voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers (nerve action)

23. Inhibitors of acetyl Co-A carboxylase (lipid synthesis, growth regulation)

28. Ryanodine receptor modulators (nerve and muscle action)

un. Compounds of unknown or uncertain mode of action

2OMRI listed: Listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute for use in organic production.

* Restricted Use Only.

Table 9. 

selected insecticides approved for use on insects attacking radishes.

Trade Name

(Common Name)

Rate

(product/acre)

REI

(hours)

Days to Harvest

Insects

MOA Code1

Notes

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

1.5-4.0 oz

12

7

aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, whiteflies

4A

Do not exceed 4 oz per acre per season. Use higher rate for whiteflies.

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

4.4-10.5 fl oz

12

21

aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, thrips (foliage feeding), whiteflies

4A

Limited to one soil application.

Agree WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

lepidopteran larvae (caterpillar pests)

11A

Apply when larvae are small for best control. OMRI-listed2.

*Asana XL (0.66 EC ) (esfenvalerate)

5.8-9.6 fl oz

12

7

armyworms, beetles

3A

Do not apply more than 0.1 lb active ingredient per acre per season. (19.2 oz)

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pts, up to 3.5 , if needed

4

0

aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, stink bugs, thrips, weevils, whiteflies

un

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, weevils, whiteflies

un

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

*Baythroid XL

(beta-cyfluthrin)

1.6-2.8 fl oz

12

0

cutworms, flea beetles, potato leafhopper

3A

Do not consume tops. Maximum amount per crop = 14.0 fl oz.

Beleaf 50 SG

(flonicamid)

2.0-2.8 oz

12

3

aphids, plant bugs

9C

Do not apply more than 3 times at high rate.

Biobit HP

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars (will not control large armyworms)

11A

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used in the greenhouse. Can be use in organic production.

BotaniGard 22 WP, ES

(Beauveria bassiana)

WP:

0.5-2.0 lb/100 gal

ES:

0.5-2 qt 100/gal

4

0

aphids, thrips, whiteflies

--

May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides.

*Brigade 2EC

(bifenthrin)

5.12-6.4 fl oz

12

21

aphids, beet armyworm, corn earworm, cutworms, fall armyworm, fire ants, flea beetles, loopers, southern armyworm, spider mites, whiteflies

3A

Do not apply more than 0.5 lb ai/acre per season.

Coragen

(chlorantraniliprole)

3.5.5.0fl oz

4

1

beet armyworm

28

Do not make more than 4 applications per acre per crop or a maximum of 15.4 fl oz per acre per year.

Crymax WDG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11A

Use high rate for armyworms. Treat when larvae are young. Not for organic production.

Deliver

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.25-1.5 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11A

Use higher rates for armyworms. OMRI-listed2.

*Diazinon AG-500

*50 W

(diazinon)

preplant -

AG500: 1-4 qt

50W: 2-8 lb

72

preplant

cutworms, mole crickets, wireworms

1B

No more than one application per year.

DiPel DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. OMRI-listed2.

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

3-6 fl oz

4

3

armyworms, dipteran leafminers, flea beetle, loopers, thrips

5

3 applications per year. No more than 6 oz per acre per crop. OMRI-listed2.

Extinguish

((S)-methoprene)

1-1.5 lb

4

0

fire ants

7A

Slow-acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks. May be applied by ground equipment or aerially.

Grandevo

(Chromobacaterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1-3b

4

0

aphids, armyworms, cabbage looper potato leafhopper, psyllids, whiteflies

-

OMRI-listed2

Intrepid 2F

(methoxyfenozide)

4-16 fl oz for leaves, 6-16 for roots

4

leaves: 1, roots:14

armyworms, cabbageworm, loopers, saltmarsh caterpillar, webworms

18

Do not apply more than 64 fl oz per acre/season.

Javelin WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis

0.12-1.5 lb

4

0

most caterpillars, but not Spodoptera species (armyworms)

11A

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential.

OMRI-listed2.

*Lannate SP

(methomyl)

*LV

0.5 lb

1.5 pt

48

3

beet armyworm

1A

SLN [24(c)] label for Florida.

Lorsban 15G, 75WG *Advanceed (chlorpyrifos)

15G: 3.3 oz per 1000 ft of row

75WG: 0.67 oz per 1000 ft of row

Advanced: 5.5 pints

24

at planting

preplant

At planting: root maggot preplant application of Lorsban Advanced: billlbugs, cutworms, grubs, symphylans, wireworms

1B

One application per season.

Malathion 5 EC

(malathion)

1.6pts

12

7

aphids

1B

 

M-Pede 49% EC

Soap, insecticidal

1-2% V/V

12

0

aphids, leafhoppers, mites, thrips, whiteflies

--

OMRI-listed2.

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

1.4-4.3 oz

12

1

cabbage looper, cucumber beetles, cutworms, flea beetles, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, tarnished plant bug, vegetable weevil, whitefringed beetle (adult), yellowstriped armyworm; aids in control of aphids and beet armyworm

3A

A maximum of 0.3 lb ai/acre per season may be applied. Leaves cannot be used for food or feed.

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

aphids, armyworms, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, whiteflies

un

Does not kill adult insects. IGR and feeding repellant. OMRI-listed2.

Platinum

75SG

(thiamethoxam)

5.0-6.5 fl oz

1.7-2.17 oz

12

at planting

aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, whiteflies

4A

Do not exceed 6.5 fl Platinum or 2.17 oz 75SG per acre per crop.

Provado 1.6F

(imidacloprid)

3.5 oz

12

7

aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, whiteflies

4A

One application per season.

Pyganic Crop

(pyrethrins)

4.5-18 fl oz

12

0

aphids, beetles, caterpillars, crickets, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, stink bugs, thrips, whiteflies

3A

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed3

Radiant

(spinetoram)

6-8 fl oz

4

3

armyworms, dipterous leafminers, loopers, thrips

5

Maximum of 3 applications per year. If harvesting roots, lower rate and less product per season must be used

Sevin 80S; XLR; 4F

(carbaryl)

80S: 0.63-2.5 lb

XLR, 4F: 0.5 -2.0 qt

12

7

armyworms, aster leafhopper, corn earworm, fall armyworm, flea beetle, leafhoppers, stink bugs, tarnished plant bug

1A

Do not apply more than a total of 7.5 lb or 6 qt per acre per crop.

Sun Spray 98.8%, others

Oil, insecticidal

1-2 gal/100 gal

4

0

aphids, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, thrips, whiteflies

--

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

0.5-2.0% V/V

4

0

aphids, mites, suppression of thrips and whiteflies

un

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed2.

Xentari DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. May be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production.

The pesticide information presented in this table was current with federal and state regulations at the time of revision. The user is responsible for determining the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow label instructions.

1Mode of Action codes for vegetable pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode of Action Classification v.7.2 February 2012. http://www.irac-online.org/wp-content/uploads/MoA-classification.pdf

1A. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Carbamates (nerve action)

1B. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Organophosphates (nerve action)

2A. GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists (nerve action)

3A. Sodium channel modulators—pyrethroids

4A. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists (nerve action)

5. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric activators—spinosins (nerve action)

6. Chloride channel activators (nerve and muscle action)

7A. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation)

7C. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation)

9B & 9C. Selective homopteran feeding blockers

10B. Mite growth inhibitors (gr1A. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Carbamates (nerve action)

11A. Microbial disruptors of insect midgut membranes

12B. Inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase (energy metabolism)

15. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 0, lepidopteran (growth regulation)

16. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 1, homopteran (growth regulation)

17. Molting disruptor, dipteran (growth regulation)

18. Ecdysone receptor agonists (growth regulation)

20B. Mitochondrial complex III electron transport inhibitors (energy metabolism)

21A. Mitochondrial complex I electron transport inhibitors (energy metabolism)

22. Voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers (nerve action)

23. Inhibitors of acetyl Co-A carboxylase (lipid synthesis, growth regulation)

28. Ryanodine receptor modulators (nerve and muscle action)

un. Compounds of unknown or uncertain mode of action

2OMRI listed: Listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute for use in organic production.

* Restricted Use Only.

Table 10. 

Selected insecticides approved for use on insects attacking turnips.

Trade Name

(Common Name)

Rate

(product/acre)

REI

(hours)

Days to Harvest

Insects

MOA Code1

Notes

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

1.5-4.0 oz

12

7

aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, whiteflies

4A

Use higher rate for whiteflies. For turnips grown for roots. Do not exceed 8 oz/acre per season.

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

4.4-10.5 fl oz

12

21

aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, thrips, whiteflies

 

One application, no more than 10.5 oz/acre. Greens may be used for food.

Agree WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

lepidopteran larvae (caterpillar pests)

11A

Apply when larvae are small for best control.

*Ambush 25W2

(permethrin)

3.2-6.4 oz

12

1

cabbage aphid (suppression), cabbage looper, diamondback moth (larvae), imported cabbageworm

3A

Do not exceed 4 applications. Do not graze treated areas or feed crop refuse to livestock. For turnips grown for roots.

*Asana XL (0.66 EC)

(esfenvalerate)

5.8-9.6 fl oz

12

7

armyworm, flea beetles, imported cabbageworm

3A

Do not apply more than 0.4 lb ai per acre per season.

Avaunt

(indoxacarb)

2.5-3.5 oz

12

3

beet armyworm, cabbage looper cabbage webworm, diamondbacknmoth, imported cabbageworm

22

For turnip greens only, not for turnips grown for roots. Do not apply more than 14 oz per acre per crop.

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pts, up to 3.5 pts, if needed

4

0

aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, stink bugs, thrips, weevils, whiteflies

un

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed3.

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, weevils, whiteflies

un

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

*Baythroid XL2

(beta-cyfluthrin)

0.8-3.2 fl oz

12

0

beet armyworm (1st & 2nd instar), cabbage looper, cabbage webworm, cutworms, diamondback moth larvae, fall armyworm (1st & 2nd instar), grasshoppers, imported cabbageworm, southern armyworm (1st & 2nd instar), thrips, yellowstriped armyworm

3

Maximum amount per season - 12.8 fl oz/A.

For use on turnip greens only, not for turnips grown for roots.

Belay 50 WDG (clothianidin)

1.6-3 oz - foliar

4.8-6.4 oz - soil

12

7 - foliar at planting- soil

aphids, flea beetles, harlequin bug, leafhoppers, stink bugs, supperssion of whiteflies, thrips (soil only)

4A

A supplelmental label that expires Dec. 30 2013 covers rates above 2.1 oz for foliar applications . For turnip

Beleaf 50 SG (flonicamid)

2.0-2.8 oz

12

3

aphids, plant bugs

4A

No more than 3 applications at high rate per season. Greens and roots

Belt Sc

(flubendiamide)

2.02.4 fl oz oz

12

3

armyworms, cabbage looper, cabbage webworm, corn, earworm, cross-striped cabbageworm, cutworms, diamondback moth, garden webworm, imported cabbageworm, saltmarsh

28

Greens only. Not for turnips grown for roots. Do not apply more than 7.2 oz per acre per season

Biobit HP

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars (will not control large armyworms)

11

Treat when larvae are young.

OMRI-listed3.

BotaniGard 22 WP, ES

(Beauveria bassiana)

WP:

0.5-2 lb/100 gal

ES:

0.5-2 qt/100 gal

4

0

aphids, thrips, whiteflies

--

May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides.

Brigade 2 EC 2

2.16.4 fl oz

12

7

aphids, armyworms, corn earworm, crickets, cucumber beetles cutworms, flea beetles, grasshoppers, imported cabbageworm, loopers, mites, saltmarsh caterpillar, stink bugs, thrips, whitefly

3A

Turnip greens only.

Checkmate DBM-F

(pheromone)

3.1-6.2 fl oz

0

0

diamondback moth

--

For mating disruption. Does not affect eggs and larvae already on plants.

Confirm 2F

(tebufenozide)

6-8 fl oz

4

7

armyworms, cabbage looper, cabbage webworm, cross-striped cabbageworm, garden webworm, imported cabbageworm

18

If diamondback moth is also present another, or an additional, insecticide should be considered. Do not exceed 56 ounces of product per acre per season.

Coragen

(chlorantraniliprole)

3.5-5.0 fl oz

4

1

beet armyworm

28

Foliar application only. Make no more than 4 applications per crop or exceed 15.4 fl oz of product per acre per crop.

Crymax WDG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11A

Use high rate for armyworms. Treat when larvae are young.

Deliver

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.25-1.5 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11A

Use higher rates for armyworms. OMRI-listed3.

Dimethoate 4EC

(dimethoate)

0.5 pt

48

14

aphids, leafhoppers, leafminers

1B

Highly toxic to bees. No More than 3 applications per year.

Dimilin 2L

(diflubenzuron)

2-4 oz

12

7

grasshoppers

15

Dimilan is an insect growth regulator – insects must ingest and molt before effects are seen. Apply when grasshoppers are in the 2nd to 3rd nymphal stage. Turnip greens only. Do not use on turnip cultivaars that produce a harvestable

DiPel DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

1

caterpillars

11

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. OMRI-listed3.

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

1.5-10 fl oz (greens)

3.0.6 fl oz (roots)

4

3

armyworms, cabbage looper, diamondback moth, imported cabbageworm, leafminers, thrips

5

Do not apply to cole crops grown within a greenhouse or screenhouse for transplant. OMRI-listed3.

Extinguish

((S)-methroprene)

1.0-1.5 lb

4

0

fire ants

7A

Slow-acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks. May be applied by ground equipment or aerially.

Fulfill

(pymetrozine)

2.75 oz

12

7

cabbage aphid, green peach aphid, turnip aphid, whiteflies

9B

Apply when aphids and whiteflies first appear. Provides suppression of whiteflies. Maximum of 2 applications per crop. Greens only.

Grandevo

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1

1-3 lb

4

0

aphids, armyworms, cabbage looper diamondback moth, potato leafhopper, psyllids, whiteflies

-

Greens and roots. OMRI-listed3

Intrepid 2F

(methoxyfenozide)

4-8 fl oz if grown for greens

6-16 fl oz if grown for roots

4

1 - greens

14 - roots

beet armyworm, cabbage looper, cabbageworm, cross-striped cabbageworm, fall armyworm garden webworm, imported cabbageworm, southern armyworm, true armyworm, yellowstriped armyworm

18

Do not apply more than 64 oz per acre per season.

Javelin WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.12-1.50 lb

4

0

most caterpillars, but not Spodoptera species (armyworms)

11

Roots only. Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. OMRI-listed3.

Knack IGR (pyriproxyfen)

8-10 fl oz

12

7

whiteflies

7D

Insect growth regulator has no effect on adult whiteflies. Do not make more than 2 applications per growing season and wait at least 14 days between applications. Greens only.

*Lannate LV, *SP (methomyl)

LV: 1.5-3.0 pt

SP: 0.5-1.0 lb

48

10

beet armyworm, cabbage looper, cabbageworm, diamondback moth (larvae), imported cabbageworm

1A

Greens only.

Lepinox WDG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

1.0-2.0 lb

12

0

for most caterpillars, including beet armyworm (see label)

11A

Treat when larvae are small. Thorough coverage is essential.

Lorsban 15 G, 75G

(chlorpyrifos)

See labels for rates

24

30

root maggots

1B

One application per season.

Malathion 57 EC

1-2 pt

12

1

aphids, cabbage looper, imported cabbageworm

--

Apply no more than 3 times per season. Minimum retreatment interval for greens is 5 days and for roots, 7 days.

M-Pede 49% EC

(Soap, insecticidal)

1-2% V/V

12

0

aphids, leafhoppers, mites, plant bugs, thrips, whiteflies

--

OMRI-listed2.

*Mustang2 (zeta-cypermethrin)

2.4-4.3 oz – greens 1.4-4.3 oz – roots

12

1

aphids, armyworms, cabbage webworm, corn earworm, crickets, cucumber beetles, cutworms, flea beetles, grasshoppers, ground beetles, imported cabbageworm, leafhoppers, loopers, Lygus bugs, saltmarsh caterpillar, stink bugs, tobacco budworm, vegetable weevil, whiteflies, wireworm adults

3A

Use no more than 25.8 oz of product per acre per season.

Neemix 4.5 EC (azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

aphids, armyworms, cabbage looper, cutworms, diamondback moth (larvae), imported cabbageworm, leafminers, thrips, whiteflies

un

IGR and feeding repellant. Greenhouse and field use.

OMRI-listed3.

Platinum

Platinum 75SG

5-12 fl oz

1.7-4.01 oz

12

at planting

aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, whiteflies

4A

Roots only. Do not exceed a total of 12 fl oz per acre per season or 4.01 oz (75SG).

*Pounce 25 WP (permethrin)

3.2-9.6 oz

12

1

aphids (suppression), armyworms, beet armyworm, cabbage looper, corn earworm, cutworms, diamondback moth (larvae), fall armyworm, imported cabbageworm, leafhoppers, leafminers, southern armyworm, southern white butterfly

3

Roots only. Do not apply more than 0.45 lb ai/acre per season.

*Proclaim

(emamectin benzoate)

2.4-4.8 oz

12

14

beet armyworm, cabbage webworm, corn earworm, cross-striped cabbageworm, diamondback moth, fall armyworm, imported cabbageworm, cabbage looper, suppression of Liriomyza leafminers

6

Greens only.

Provado 1.6F

(imidacloprid)

3.5 oz

12

7

aphids, flea beetles, whiteflies

4A

Do not use in conjunction with Admire. Maximum of 10.5 fl oz per acre per season.

Pyganic Crop

(pyrethrins)

4.5-18 fl oz

12

0

aphids, beetles, caterpillars, crickets, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, stink bugs, thrips, whiteflies,

3A

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed3

Radiant

(spinetoram)

6-8 - roots

5-10 - tops

4

3

armyworms, diamondback moth, imported cabbageworm, Liriomyza leafminers, loopers, thrips

5

See label.

Sevin XLR;4F (carbaryl)

0.5-2.0 qt

12

14-greens 7-roots

armyworms, aster leafhopper, corn earworm, fall armyworm, flea beetles, leafhoppers, Lygus bug, spittlebugs, stink bug, tarnished plant bug

1A

Do not apply more than a total of 7.5 lb or 6 qt per acre per crop.

Trigard

(cyromazine)

2.66 oz

12

7

leafminers

17

Limited to 6 applications. Turnip greens only. Not for dual purpose varieties.

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

0.5-2.0% V/V

4

0

aphids, mites, suppression of thrips and whiteflies

un

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed3.

Xentari DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11A

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. May be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production.

The pesticide information presented in this table was current with federal and state regulations at the time of revision. The user is responsible for determining the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow label instructions.

1Mode of Action codes for vegetable pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode of Action Classification v.7.2 February 2012. http://www.irac-online.org/wp-content/uploads/MoA-classification.pdf

1A. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Carbamates (nerve action)

1B. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Organophosphates (nerve action)

2A. GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists (nerve action)

3A. Sodium channel modulators—pyrethroids

4A. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists (nerve action)

5. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric activators—spinosins (nerve action)

6. Chloride channel activators (nerve and muscle action)

7A. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation)

7C. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation)

9B & 9C. Selective homopteran feeding blockers

10B. Mite growth inhibitors (gr1A. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Carbamates (nerve action)

11A. Microbial disruptors of insect midgut membranes

12B. Inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase (energy metabolism)

15. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 0, lepidopteran (growth regulation)

16. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 1, homopteran (growth regulation)

17. Molting disruptor, dipteran (growth regulation)

18. Ecdysone receptor agonists (growth regulation)

20B. Mitochondrial complex III electron transport inhibitors (energy metabolism)

21A. Mitochondrial complex I electron transport inhibitors (energy metabolism)

22. Voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers (nerve action)

23. Inhibitors of acetyl Co-A carboxylase (lipid synthesis, growth regulation)

28. Ryanodine receptor modulators (nerve and muscle action)

un. Compounds of unknown or uncertain mode of action

2OMRI listed: Listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute for use in organic production.

* Restricted Use Only.

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENY-464, one of a series of the Entomology & Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Published July 2002. Revised March 2010 and June 2013. For more publications related to horticulture/agriculture, please visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

S. E. Webb, associate professor, Entomology and Nematology Department, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0640.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication does not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition. All chemicals should be used in accordance with directions on the manufacturer's label. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow directions on the manufacturer's label.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.