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Publication #ENY-464

Insect Management for Crucifers (Cole Crops) (Broccoli, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Collards, Kale, Mustard, Radishes, Turnips)1

S. E. Webb, A. Niño, and H. A. Smith2

Cruciferous vegetables are a large and increasingly important crop group in Florida. A number of insects feed exclusively on crucifers and affect all of the crops listed in the title above. Because most of the newer insecticides are being labeled for the entire crop group or for a subset, either head and stem Brassica vegetables (like cabbage and broccoli) or leafy Brassica vegetables (like kale), there are no longer specific tables for individual Brassica crops at the end of this document. Instead, exceptions are given in the Notes column. Other crucifers not listed in the title but that also have the same pest complex include head and stem brassicas, such as Brussels sprouts, Chinese broccoli, and Chinese mustard, and leafy brassicas, such as bok choy, mizuna, and rape greens. Check pesticide labels carefully to see if these crops are included. Radishes and turnip roots are included in the root vegetables group, even though they are also crucifers and have similar pest problems. A separate table of pesticides for radishes is included.

Diamondback moth is the most serious pest of crucifers in Florida. Cabbage looper is also considered a major pest, although it has been less of a problem over the past decade. Insect pests that have been considered major in the past and are only occasionally a problem now include aphids (turnip, green peach, cabbage), harlequin bug, beet armyworm, cabbage webworm, and cutworms (black and granulate). Yellowmargined leaf beetle is a particular problem on mustard and Chinese cabbage, especially for organic growers. Cross-striped cabbageworm is more of a problem on broccoli and cauliflower than it is on other crucifers. Aphids, cutworms, and wireworms are the major insect pests affecting radishes.

Diamondback Moth

Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

Description

The adult moth (Figure 1) is small and slender with very long antennae. It is grayish-brown with a broad, cream or light brown band along its back. The band can have constrictions, which give it a diamond-like pattern. When viewed from the side, the wing tips appear to turn up slightly. Eggs are oval and flattened, yellow to pale green, and approximately 0.02 inches long and 0.01 inches wide. There are four larval instars. Even the oldest is quite small and very active. Larvae will wriggle violently if disturbed and will drop from the leaf suspended by a strand of silk. The body tapers at both ends, and the fifth pair of prolegs (abdominal legs) protrudes from the posterior (Figure 2). After the first instar, which is colorless, the larvae are green. Larvae pupate in a loose cocoon on lower or outer leaves or in the florets of cauliflower and broccoli.

Figure 1. 

Top and side of diamondback moth.


Credit:

Lyle J. Buss, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 2. 

Diamondback moth larva.


Credit:

Lyle J. Buss, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Biology

The female moth attaches her eggs to the lower leaf surface, either singly or in groups of two or three. Within a few days, the eggs hatch, and the larvae begin to feed on the underside of the leaf. The larval stage can last from ten days to a month, depending on temperature. Diamondback moth larvae slow their feeding at temperatures below 50°F, and population growth is most rapid at temperatures greater than 80°F. The pupal stage is passed within a transparent, loose cocoon, which is usually attached to the underside of leaves. In warm weather, the pupal stage may be completed in 3 to 4 days.

In southern Florida, diamondback moth is most abundant from December to February or March and can attack at any time during the crop cycle. By the end of May, moth counts in pheromone traps fall to near zero. Moth counts may rise in mid-fall through early winter, but activity is limited during that time. Populations build on winter weeds, such as wild mustard, before moving into winter and early spring plantings of cabbage and other crucifers. From mid-winter through the spring, when it is a serious pest, diamondback moth may cause losses of up to 70% in the absence of control. Populations may decrease after heavy rains.

Damage

Plants at all stages of growth may be attacked. Larvae chew small holes in leaves, with larger larvae making larger holes. Young larvae often feed on one surface of the leaf, leaving a thin layer or “window” of leaf epidermis. Diamondback moth larvae will also attack developing cabbage heads. The resulting damage deforms the heads and leaves entry points for decay pathogens.

Cabbage Looper

Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Description

The cabbage looper feeds on a variety of crops. The adults (Figure 3) are night-flying moths with brown, mottled fore wings marked in the center with a small, silver figure eight-like spot. Eggs are small, ridged, round, and greenish-white. They hatch into larvae that are green with white stripes running the length of their bodies. The caterpillar (Figure 4) has three pairs of slender legs near its head and three pairs of thick prolegs near the end of its body. It moves in a characteristic looping motion, alternately stretching forward and arching its back as it brings the back prolegs close to its front legs. The caterpillar is about 1.25 inches long when fully grown.

Figure 3. 

Cabbage looper adult male.


Credit:

Lyle J. Buss, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 4. 

Cabbage looper larva.


Credit:

Lyle J. Buss, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Biology

Eggs are deposited singly or in small clusters on either leaf surface, although more are found on the lower leaf surface. Each female moth can produce 300 to 600 eggs during the approximately 10 to 12 days it is alive. Two to four weeks after hatching, the mature larva spins a thin cocoon on the lower leaf surface, in plant debris, or soil. The pupal stage lasts approximately two weeks. Total time required for development from egg to adult averages 42 days at 69.8°F and 22 days at 89.6°F. Development is abnormal above 94°F.

Populations tend to be highest during the late spring and summer months, and, in some years, in the late fall. Cabbage looper does not enter diapause and cannot survive prolonged cold weather. The insect remains active and reproduces throughout the winter months only in the southern part of Florida (south of Orlando). In central Florida, cabbage looper populations peak during early fall and again during late spring.

Damage

The cabbage looper is still an important annual pest in north Florida crucifers. It is less of a problem in southern Florida, where it is considered a minor pest. In general, cabbage looper is more of a problem during the fall than during the winter or spring months.

Cabbage looper larvae damage plants by chewing holes in leaves. Smaller larvae remain on the lower leaf surface, while larger larvae produce large holes throughout the leaf. In addition to feeding on the wrapper leaves of cabbage, larvae may bore into the developing head. Some defoliation can be tolerated before head formation, but feeding damage and excrement left behind on heads make cabbage unmarketable. Cabbage with damage confined to wrapper leaves is marketable but with reduced value.

Aphids

Turnip Aphid [Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach)], Green Peach Aphid [Myzus persicae (Sulzer)], Cabbage Aphid [Brevicoryne brassicae (Linneaus)]

Description

Turnip aphid (Figure 5) and green peach aphid (Figure 6) are the most important aphids on crucifers in Florida. Cabbage aphid (Figure 7) is not as common in Florida. Although aphid problems on crucifers in Florida tend to be sporadic, they follow diamondback moth and cabbage looper in importance. Adults are soft-bodied, pear- or spindle-shaped insects with a posterior pair of tubes (cornicles or siphunculi), which project upward and backward from the dorsal surface of the abdomen and which are used for excreting an alarm pheromone. Aphids have fine piercing-sucking mouthparts with which they penetrate leaf tissue to feed on phloem sap. Nymphs are smaller but otherwise similar in appearance to wingless adults.

Figure 5. 

Turnip aphid. A pale brown, slightly bloated appearance indicates that the aphid has been parasitized by parasitic wasps.


Credit:

James Castner, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 6. 

Green peach aphid.


Credit:

Lyle J. Buss, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 7. 

Cabbage aphid.


Credit:

Lyle J. Buss, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Turnip aphid adults are whitish-green or green and about 0.06–0.09 inches long. The antennae are dark and the cornicles are pale with dusky tips. The body is covered with a white secretion. Nymphs are pale greenish yellow. Green peach aphid adults vary from 0.04 to 0.08 inches in length and are light green to yellow to pink and pear-shaped. The tubercles (bumps between antennae) point inward and are a distinguishing characteristic. Winged forms have a black patch on the back of the abdomen. Cabbage aphid adults are very similar in appearance to turnip aphids although larger (0.08–0.1 inches long), with shorter cornicles, and covered with a grayish waxy powder.

Biology

Aphids reproduce very rapidly. In Florida, males are uncommon, and females give birth to live nymphs all year without mating or laying eggs. Nymphs mature in 7 to 10 days. When host plant quality deteriorates or if plants become overcrowded, winged forms develop and migrate to new host plants. They are often protected from their many natural enemies by ants, which feed on the sugary waste product of the aphids called honeydew. Aphids are more abundant during the spring and fall and almost disappear in summer.

Damage

Green peach aphid is a major pest of greens (collards, kale, and mustard), as well as many other unrelated crops. They attack cabbage mainly before heading begins. Turnip aphids attack only crucifers, preferring turnips and radishes. Aphids suck plant juices with their piercing-sucking mouthparts, resulting in yellowing and curling of the leaves. The plant, particularly when attacked as a seedling, may become stunted or die as a result of aphid feeding. Foliage may be contaminated with aphid bodies, cast skins, and honeydew. Aphids feeding within the curled leaves or inside the cupped leaves of headed plants are normally protected from contact insecticides. Green peach aphid and turnip aphid transmit turnip mosaic virus in Florida.

Beet Armyworm

Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Description and Biology

The beet armyworm has a wide host range, and, in addition to crucifers, attacks such vegetables as asparagus, bean, beet, celery, chickpea, corn, cowpea, eggplant, lettuce, onion, pea, pepper, potato, spinach, sweet potato, and tomato. It also feeds on many field crops and weeds.

The highly mobile adult moth (Figure 8) has dark front wings with mottled lighter markings and hind wings thinly covered with whitish scales. Each female can lay over 600 eggs, generally in masses of about 100 on the undersides of leaves in the lower plant canopy. Egg masses are covered with fuzzy, white scales. Very young caterpillars (Figure 9), which are pale with dark heads, feed in groups and then disperse as they grow older (third instar). By the third instar, caterpillars have wavy, light-colored stripes lengthwise down the back and broader stripes on each side. Although often dull green, the color of caterpillars can vary. After feeding from 1 to 3 weeks, they construct a cocoon from sand and bits of soil and pupate in the soil, emerging as adults about one week later. Beet armyworm is a tropical insect and survives the winter in southern Florida where it can complete many generations a year. From southern Florida, adults migrate into northern Florida and other parts of the Southeast.

Figure 8. 

Beet armyworm adult.


Credit:

Lyle J. Buss, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 9. 

Beet armyworm larva.


Credit:

Lyle J. Buss, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Damage

Larvae feed on foliage of host plants. Beet armyworm larvae consume greater amounts of leaf tissue than the diamondback moth but not as much as the cabbage looper. An action threshold of 0.3 beet armyworm larvae per plant has been used on cabbage in Texas. Because adults can readily invade a field from nearby crops or weeds, monitoring the crop twice a week for beet armyworm presence and damage is recommended.

Beet armyworm is a sporadic pest on Florida crucifers, and it is usually kept under damaging levels by controls targeted to diamondback moth. It can be a serious pest of napa cabbage in northern Florida in the spring. Beet armyworm populations in southern Florida are highest from late March through mid-June, with a smaller population rise from mid-August through October. The increase in the late summer and fall is thought to be related to beet armyworm activity on late summer weeds, while the population increase in the spring coincides with the vegetable production season in southern Florida.

Cabbage Webworm

Hellula rogatalis (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

Description

The moth (Figure 10) has yellowish-brown front wings marked with white bands and a dark kidney-shaped spot. The hind wings are grayish-white with a darker margin. The wingspan is about 0.7–0.8 inches. Eggs have a flattened shape and are gray or yellowish-green to begin with but turn pink as they get close to hatching. There are five larval instars. The mature larva (Figure 11) is yellowish-gray with five brownish-purple bands running the length of its body. Its head is black. Moderately long yellow or light brown hairs sparsely cover the body.

Figure 10. 

Cabbage webworm adult.


Credit:

Lyle J. Buss, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 11. 

Cabbage webworm larva.


Credit:

Lyle J. Buss, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Biology and Damage

Cabbage webworm eggs are usually laid singly or in small masses on the terminal leaves. Upon hatching, the larvae mine the leaves and also feed on the underside of the leaves, producing small holes. At about the third instar, larvae begin to web and fold the foliage. The webs become covered with dirt and excrement. Larger larvae can burrow into buds, stems, and leaves. The insect may feed on the growing point, causing severe damage to young plants. When fully grown, larvae pupate in the buds, on the sides of stems, or on the surface of the soil.

Like beet armyworm, cabbage webworm is seen sporadically and is controlled by treatments for diamondback moth. A related species, H. phidilealis (Walker), or cabbage budworm, can be a problem in southern Florida.

Cutworms

Black Cutworm [Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel)] and Granulate Cutworm [Feltia subterranea (Fabricius)] (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Description

Black cutworm moths (Figure 12) are large, with a wingspan of 1.5 to slightly over 2.0 inches. The front wings are dark brown with a lighter band near the end of each wing. The hind wings are whitish to gray. The ribbed eggs are first white, then turn brown, and are usually deposited in clusters. The larvae (Figure 13) are stout, gray caterpillars with a greasy appearance. Black cutworm larvae have numerous dark, coarse granules over most of their bodies.

Figure 12. 

Black cutworm adult.


Credit:

John Capinera, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 13. 

Black cutworm larva.


Credit:

John Capinera, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Granulate cutworm moths (Figure 14) are smaller, with a wingspan of 1.2 to 1.7 inches. The front wings are often yellowish-brown and have distinct bean-shaped and round spots in the center. The hind wings are mostly white. Eggs are hemispherical and ridged. Like black cutworm eggs, they are initially white and darken with age. Larvae (Figure 15) are grayish to reddish-brown. Each abdominal segment has a dull yellowish oblique mark. A weak gray line occurs along the length of the body with spots of white or yellow.

Figure 14. 

Granulate cutworm adult.


Credit:

Lyle J. Buss, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 15. 

Granulate cutworm larva.


Credit:

Lyle J. Buss, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Biology

The black cutworm is one of the most destructive of the cutworms; it attacks a wide range of plants. Although cutworm larvae can disperse into a field from adjacent areas, most dispersion occurs by adults flying into the field. The moth deposits eggs in groups of 1 to 30 on leaves, stems, stubble, or field debris near ground level. The egg stage lasts from 5 to 15 days, the larval stage lasts from 3 to 4 weeks, and the pupal stage takes 12 to 36 days. At high temperatures, when development is more rapid, the life cycle can be completed in 6 or 7 weeks. The life cycle of the granulate cutworm is similar to that of the black cutworm. They are active at night, feeding on the stems and leaves. During the day, they take refuge in the soil at the base of the plants. Larvae tend to curl up into a ring when disturbed or handled. They may also bite and release a greenish-brown fluid.

Damage

Recently transplanted crucifers are particularly susceptible to attack by cutworms, which can cut thin-stemmed plants off at or slightly below the soil surface. They can also cut out large holes in leaves touching the soil. Several plants in a row are usually affected, and the cutworm often pulls the end of the leaf on which it is feeding into a protected area of the soil. Cutworms can also eat into heading cabbage and may remain within the head during the day. Overall, while some damage to leaves and heads occurs, greatest losses from cutworm damage are the result of reduced stands.

Black cutworms do most of their feeding at ground level. Larvae feed on young plants, cutting off leaves, or in later instars, entire plants. Populations of this pest tend to be higher in weedy and in wet fields. Granulate cutworm larvae can cut off entire seedling plants, as well as climb and feed on leaves of older plants. This cutworm is not associated with weedy fields as is the black cutworm. First instar larvae stay on plants, while older larvae climb and feed on plants only during the night.

Harlequin Bug

Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

Description

Eggs are barrel-shaped, light gray or pale yellow, and are encircled by 2 black bands. They are generally found beneath leaves in clusters of 12, arranged in 2 rows of 6. Young nymphs (Figure 16) are first pale green with black markings but soon turn black or blue with red and yellow or orange markings. Adults (Figure 17) are also brightly colored, mainly black and yellow or black and red.

Figure 16. 

Harlequin bug eggs and nymphs.


Credit:

Lyle J. Buss, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 17. 

Harlequin bug adult.


Credit:

James L. Castner, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Biology

The harlequin bug reproduces all year round in Florida. Females produce an average of 115 eggs during their lifetime. Eggs hatch in 4–5 days in warm weather. Newly hatched nymphs stay close to the eggs for one or two days. There are five or six instars. Reported development times range from 30 to 70 days, depending on temperature. Adults can live about two months.

Damage

Harlequin bugs prefer crucifers although they will occasionally feed on other plants. They have piercing-sucking mouthparts and leave white blotches where they feed. Plant may wilt, become deformed, or die, if bugs are abundant.

Brown Stink Bugs

Euschistus obscurus (Palisot de Beauvois) and Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

Description

Adult stink bugs are shield-shaped and vary from greyish-yellow to brown in color. They have numerous blackish spots scattered on the head, thorax, and hardened part of the forewing. The shoulders are usually rounded with a light transverse band between them. In E. obscurus, the head and anterior part of the thorax have several black dots, making them darker than the rest of the body (Figure 18a). The last two segments at the tip of the antenna in E. servus are darker in color (Figure 18b). The underside is yellow or green. Eggs are somewhat elliptical in shape, semi-translucent, and slightly yellow but become pinkish upon reaching maturity. Eggs are laid in masses of up to 35 eggs on the underside of leaves. Small, rounded, and wingless nymphs, which otherwise resemble adults, emerge from the eggs and go through five instars before molting to adults.

Figure 18. 

Adult stink bug (a) Euschistus obscurus and (b) Euschistus servus.


Credit:

Lyle J. Buss, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Biology

Euschistus obscurus is distributed throughout the southern United States. It has been reported in Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and Texas. Euschistus servus is distributed in southern Canada, part of North America, including the southern United States. Both species are frequently found on cotton and soybean, but they feed on many different crops, including the crucifers mustard and bok choy.

Damage

Stink bugs have piercing-sucking mouthparts for feeding on the plant’s fluids. They feed on leaves, stems, and flowers. During feeding, tissue-degrading enzymes are injected into the plant, causing injury that results in discolored spots on the leaves. Feeding on growing points causes stunting and development of small heads in broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower. Large numbers can weaken plants, and plant pathogens can enter the punctures created where the bugs insert their mouthparts.

Cross-Striped Cabbageworm

Evergestis rimosalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

Description

The adult moth (Figure 19) has a wingspan of about one inch. The front wings are straw-colored, with olive or purplish-brown markings, and crossed by narrow transverse lines. Hind wings are transparent and whitish, bordered with a darker band. Eggs, laid in small masses, are oval, yellow, and flattened, and overlap slightly. Larvae (Figure 20), which have 4 instars, are gray with black tubercles to begin with and become bluish-gray with numerous transverse black bands. There is a yellow line along each side of the caterpillar. The mature caterpillar is about 0.6–0.7 inches long. The pupa is yellowish-brown and enclosed in a small cocoon covered with sand.

Figure 19. 

Cross-striped cabbageworm adult.


Credit:

Lyle J. Buss, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 20. 

Cross-striped cabbageworm larva.


Credit:

Lyle J. Buss, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Biology

A crucifer specialist, the cross-striped cabbageworm is more of a problem on broccoli, cauliflower, collards, and Brussels sprouts than it is on kale and cabbage. Development time from egg to adult ranges from 61 days at 68°F to 18 days at 95°F. It can be abundant during the winter and spring cropping period in Florida. Larvae pupate in the soil, near the surface.

Damage

Larvae feed on leaves, creating small holes. They prefer terminal buds and may also burrow into the center of developing cabbage heads.

Great Southern White

Ascia monuste (Linneaus) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)

Description

The adult butterfly (Figure 21) has a wingspan that ranges 2.5 to 3.4 inches. The wings of males are white with a black margin in a zigzag pattern on the forewings. Female color varies from white to gray, and, like the males, they have a black margin and a small black spot on the forewings. Both sexes have turquoise antennal clubs. Yellow, spindle-shaped eggs are laid singly or in clusters on host leaves. Larvae (Figure 22) have yellow and gray longitudinal stripes and multiple small black spots along the body. This insect goes through five instars. Pupae are white or yellow with black markings and they are woven to the plants.

Figure 21. 

Great southern white adult.


Credit:

Lyle J. Buss, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 22. 

Great southern white larvae.


Credit:

Lyle J. Buss, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Biology

The great southern white is a subtropical and tropical species, and it is mainly found in coastal areas. It is present year-round in southern Texas, peninsular Florida, and along the Gulf Coast. The developmental time from egg to adult emergence is approximately 32 days at 77ºF. It is considered an important pest of cole plants, including wild species, such as beach cabbage (Cakile maritima Scopoli), and cultivated plants, such as kale, cauliflower, broccoli, arugula, cabbage, and mustard.

Damage

Larvae chew the leaves of plants. They usually feed in groups. Newly emerged larvae consume their eggshells and any eggs that have not hatched. Adults feed on the nectar of many flowers.

Yellowmargined Leaf Beetle

Microtheca ochroloma (Stål) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

Description

The dark bronze or black adult beetle (Figure 23) is about 0.2 inches long. The edges of the wing covers are bordered with yellow. Eggs are bright orange, elongate, and are deposited singly or in small clusters in protected spots on the plant or in leaf litter. The soft-bodied larva is yellowish-brown and covered with a fine layer of hairs (Figure 24). The head is dark brown or black. The mature larva pupates in a loose, net-like case in folds of foliage or in debris on the soil surface.

Figure 23. 

Yellowmargined leaf beetle adult.


Credit:

Angie Niño, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 24. 

Yellowmargined leaf beetle larva.


Credit:

James Castner, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Biology

Yellowmargined leaf beetle is native to South America and was first found in the United States in 1947. It is established in the southeastern part of the United States. The life cycle is not well known in Florida. The beetle is capable of completing development in about one month and may be limited by food availability because it feeds only on crucifers. Adults are active all winter in Florida and may live from 2 to over 3 months. Turnips, radishes, and mustard are more preferred than cabbage and collards, and females that develop on the first three crops produce the most eggs (up to almost 500 eggs per female).

Damage

Yellowmargined leaf beetle is a particular problem for organic growers. It is especially devastating on specialty cruciferous greens like mizuna, but also feeds on turnips, mustard, and other cole crops. The spring crop may suffer more damage than the fall crop. Adults and larvae feed on leaves.

Tables

Table 1. 

Insecticides approved for managing insect pests of cole crops.

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Insects

MOA

Code1

Trade Name

(Active Ingredient)

*Restricted

Rate

Product/Acre

REI

hours

Days to

Harvest

Notes2

Aphids

BotaniGard 22 WP, ES (Beauveria bassiana)

WP: 0.5–2 lb/100 gal;

ES: 0.5–2 qt/100 gal

4

0

May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides.

Grandevo Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1.0–3.0 lb.

4

0

Can be used in organic production. OMRI-listed.2

M-Pede 49% EC (soap, insecticidal)

1–2%V/V

12

0

OMRI-listed.2

Saf-T-Side, others

(Oil, insecticidal)

1–2 gal/100 gal

4

up to day of harvest

Saf-T-Side is OMRI-listed.2

un

Azatin XL (azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

un

Trilogy

0.5–2% V/V

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed2.

1B

*Dibrom 8 EC

(naled)

1 pt.

48

1

Apply no more than 1 pt per acre in Florida. Do not apply more than 5 pt per acre per season. Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale, and collards.

1B

Dimethoate 4 EC (dimethoate)

0.5-1 pt – broccoli, cauliflower; 0.5 pt – kale, mustard greens, turnip

48

7–broccoli,

cauliflower;

14– kale, mustard greens, turnip

Highly toxic to bees. For broccoli, cauliflower, kale, turnip greens and roots, and mustard greens only.

1B

*Lorsban Advanced (chlorpyrifos) and other generic products

Preplant, at plant, post plant soil application: See label.

Foliar: 1–2 pt

24, 72 for cauliflower

Preplant: 30

Foliar: 21

See label for crop-specific instructions; Pre- or post-plant soil application for root aphids only. Foliar: Do not make more than 3 applications of products containing chlorpyrifos.

1B

Malathion 5EC, 8F

(malathion)

5EC: 1–2 pt, 1.6 pt for collards, kale, mustard greens;

8F: 1.25 pt, 1 for collards, kale, mustard greens

48, 12 for collards, kale, and mustard greens

2 for head and stem Bras-

sica except cabbage, 7 for greens and cabbage

See label for limitations on number of applications per season—varies by crop.

1B

*MSR Spray Concentrate

(oxydemeton-methyl)

1.5–2 pt.

7 days

7

Broccoli, broccoflower, broccolini, cabbage, cauliflower—See label for restrictions.

3A

*Ambush 25W3 (and generics )

3.2–6.4 oz

3.2–12.8 oz – cabbage and Chinese cabbage only

12

1

Do not apply more than 51.2 oz/acre per season.

Head and stem Brassica crops only.

3A

*Brigade 2 EC3

2.1–6.4 fl oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 0.4 lb ai/acre for leafy or

0.5

3A

*Mustang3

(zeta-cyand generics)

2.4–4.3 fl oz

12

1

Do not make applications less than 7 days apart. Diamondback moth populations in Florida have been found to be resistant to pyrethroids.

3A

Pyganic 5.0 (pyrethrins)

4.5–18 oz

12

0

Harmful to bees. Can be used in greenhouses.

4A

Actara (thiamethoxam)

1.5–5.5 oz

12

0 -head and stem

7- leafy

Foliar application. Do not use if other 4A insecticide has been applied.

4A

Admire Pro (imidacloprid)

(see appropriate labels for other brands)

soil: 4.4-10.5 fl oz,

foliar: 1.3 fl oz

12

soil: 21,

foliar: 7

Most effective as a soil application. Do not apply more than 10.5 fl oz per acre per crop season as a soil application or 6.5 fl oz as foliar applications. Do not apply to both soil and foliage.

4A

Assail 30SG

(acetamiprid)

2.0–4.0 oz—head and stem cole crops, 2.0–5.3 oz—leafy cole crops and turnip greens

12

7-head and stem, 3-leafy cole crops and turnip

greens

Succeptibility may vary with aphid species. Do not apply more than 5 times per season for head and stem cole crops or 4 times per season for leafy cole crops, or apply more often than every 7 days. Turnip roots cannot be used for food/feed.

4A

Belay Insecticide; 50 WDG

(clothianidin)

Insecticide: soil: 9–12 fl oz,

foliar: 3–4 fl oz;

50 WDG: soil: 4.8–6.4 oz,

foliar: 1.6–2.1 oz

12

Insecticide: soil: apply at planting, foliar: 7; 50

WDG: 7

Insecticide: soil: Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. See label for application

instructions. foliar: Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant. Toxic to bees. 50 WDG: Includes turnip greens. Do not apply more than 0.2 lb ai/acre regardless of application method (or a total of 12 fl oz of this formulation).

4A

Platinum, Platinum 75SG

(thiamethoxam)

Platinum: 5.0–11 fl oz;

Platinum 75SG: 1.66––3.67 oz

12

30

soil application.

4A

Venom Insecticide Scorpian 35 SL insecticide (dinotefuran)

Soil and foliar rates different; Check label

12

foliar - 1

soil - 21

Use one application method, not both (soil or foliar). For head and stem Brassica only. Foliar: Do not apply more than 0.268 lb ai per acre per season.

4D

Sivanto 200 SL

(flupyradifurone)

7–14 fl oz

4

1

Soil or foliar application. Maximum per crop season: 28 fl oz/acre. Maximum crop seasons per year: 3

4A, 28

Durivo (thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

10-13 fl oz

12

30

Soil application. May be applied via one of several different applications methods. One application per season within 28 days of plant emergence or transplanting.

4A, 28

Voliam Flexi

(thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole)

4–7 oz.

12

head and stem — 3, leafy Brassica greens —7

Foliar application. Highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops.

9B

Fulfill

(pymetrozine)

2.75 fl. oz.

12

7

Apply when aphids first appear. Maximum of 2 applications per crop.

9C

Beleaf 50 SG (flonicamid)

2.0–2.8 oz

12

0

Do not apply more than 8.4 oz/acre per season. Begin applications before pests reach damaging levels.

23

Movento (spirotetramat)

4–5 fl. oz.

24

1

Limited to 10 oz/acre per season. Only use a spreading-penetrating adjuvant known to be safe for the target crop.

28

Exirel

(cyazypyr)

7.0–20.5 fl oz

12

1

Do not apply more than 0.4 lb ai/acre of cyazypyr or cyantraniliprole containing products per crop whether applications are made to foliage or soil. See label for diamondback moth resistance management.

28

Verimark

(cyazypyr)

5–13.5 fl oz

4

N/A: applied at planting

See label for diamondback moth resistance management.

Caterpillars (including Diamondback moth, cabbage looper, imported cabbageworm, corn earworm, cross-striped cabbageworm, cabbareworm, armyworm, root maggot, symphylans

Checkmate DBM-F

(pheromone)

3.1–6.2 fl oz

0

0

For mating disruption of diamondback moth. Does not affect larvae and eggs already on plants. Do not exceed 23 fl oz per acre per year.

Grandevo Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1.0–3.0 lb.

4

0

Can be used in organic production. OMRI-listed.2

un

Aza-Direct and other (productsazadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 pt, if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

OMRI-listed.2

un

Prokil Cryolite

(cryolite)

8–16 lb.

12

7

For broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower only. Do not apply more than 96 lb per season or more often than every 7 days.

1A

*Lannate LV; *SP (methomyl)

LV: 1.5–3.0 pt

SP: 0.5–1 lb

48

Cabbage -1, broccoli and cauliflower - 3, otheres - 10

Do not make more than 10 applications per crop (8 for collards, kale, mustard and turnip greens). For use on brovvoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, fresh market collards, kale, mustard and turnip greens.

1A

*Larvin 3.2 (thiodicarb)

16–40 fl oz

48

7

Do not exceed more than 4.0 lb active ingredient per acre per season. (160 fl oz) For broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower only.

1A

Sevin 80S; XLR Plus, 4F and other generic products (carbaryl)

80S: 0.625–2.5 lb; XLR, 4F: 0.5–2 qt

12

3, or 14 depending on specific crop

Apply no more than 7.5 lb/acre of 80S or 6 qt of 4F or XLR Plus per crop. See label for specific crops.

1B

*Diazinon AG-500, *50 W

(diazinon)

AG500 preplant: 1–4 qt

50W: 2–8 lb

96

preplant

Root maggot, cutworms only. Broccoli,

cabbage, cauliflower, collard, kale, mustard greens. See label for depth to incorporate.

1B

*Dibrom 8 EC

(naled)

1 pt.

48

1

Apply no more than 1 pt per acre in Florida. Do not apply more than 5 pt per acre per season. Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale, and collards.

 

1B

*Lorsban Advanced (chlorpyrifos) and other generic products

Preplant, at plant, post plant soil application: See label. Foliar: 1–2 pt

24, 72 for cauliflower

Preplant: 30

Foliar: 21

Preplant for root maggot, cutworms, and symphylans only. See label for crop-specific instruc- tions; Foliar: Do not make more than 3 applications of products containing chlorpyrifos. Will not control organophosphate-resistant diamondback moth.

 

1B

Malathion 5EC, 8F

(malathion)

5EC: 1-2 pt, 1.6 pt for collards, kale, mustard greens;

8F: 1.25 pt, 1 for collards, kale, mustard greens

48, 12 for collards, kale, and mustard greens

2 for head and stem Bras-

sica except cabbage, 7 for greens and cabbage

See label for limitations on number of applications per season--varies by crop.

 

3A

*Ambush 25W3 (and generics)

3.2–6.4 oz

3.2–12.8 oz – cabbage and Chinese cabbage only

12

1

Do not apply more than 51.2 oz/acre per season.

Head and stem Brassica crops only.

 

3A

*Asana XL (0.66 EC)3

(esfenvalerate)

2.9–9.6 fl oz – head and stem Brassicas, 5.8–9.6 oz –collards, 9.6 – mustard greens

12

3-head

and stem; 7-collards, mustard greens

Do not apply more than 0.4 lb ai/acre per season for head and stem Brassica or 0.2 lb ai/acre per season for collards and mustard greens.

 

3A

*Baythroid XL3 (beta-cyfluthrin)

0.8–3.2 fl oz

12

0

Maximum per crop season: 12.8 fl oz/A.

 

3A

*Brigade 2 EC3

(bifenthrin)

2.1–6.4 fl oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 0.4 lb ai/acre for leafy or 0.5 lb ai/acre for head and stem.

 

3A

*Capture LFR3 (bifenthrin)

3.4–8.5 fl oz

12

at planting

For mixing directly with liquid fertilizer to control soil insect pests.

 

3A

*Danitol3

(fenpropathrin)

10.67–16 fl oz

24

7

Do not apply more than 42.67 fl oz per acre per season. Head and stem Brassica only.

 

3A

*Declare Insecticide3

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

0.77–1.54 fl oz

24

1

(1) First and second instars only.

Head and stem Brassica only.

Do not apply more than 12.3 fl oz per acre per season.

 

3A

*Mustang3

(zeta-cyand generics)

4.5–18 oz

12

0

Harmful to bees. Can be used in greenhouses.

OMRI-listed.2

 

3A

Pyganic 5.0

(pyrethrins)

       
 

3A

*Warrior II3

(lambda-cyhalothrin

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

1

Do not apply more than 0.24 lb ai/acre or 15.36 fl oz of produc/acre per season. 11st and 2nd instar only. For head and stem Brassica only.

 

4A, 28

Durivo

(thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

10–13 fl oz

12

30

May be applied via one of several different soil applications methods. One application per season within 28 days of plant emergence or transplanting.

 

4A, 28

Voliam Flexi

(thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole)

4–7 oz

12

head and stem – 3, leafy Brassica greens - 7

Highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops.

 

5

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

5–10 fl oz

4

1

Do not apply to seedlings grown for transplant. Do not make more than two consecutive applications of Group 5 insecticides. Recommended to reserve for thrips where they are a problem.

 

6

*Proclaim

(emamectin benzoate)

2.4–4.8 oz

12

7 - head and

stem; 14 - leafy

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications without rotating to another product with a different mode of action. Do not apply by aircraft. Not for turnips grown for roots.

 

11A

DiPel DF and other products

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5–2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. See label for rates for specific pests. Good coverage is essential. OMRI- listed.2 Can be used in greenhouses.

 

11A

Xentari DF and other products

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

0.5–2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. May be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production.

 

15

Rimon 0.83 EC

(novaluron)

6–12 fl oz

12

7

No more than 3 applications or 24 fl oz per acre per season. No more than 2 applications for thrips or whiteflies. Head and stem Brassica only.

 

18

Intrepid 2F

(methoxyfenozide)

4–10 fl oz, depending on pest

4

1

Do not apply more than 64 oz per acre per season.

 

22

Avaunt

(indoxacarb)

2.5–3.5 oz

12

3

Do not apply more than 14 oz per acre per crop. Add a wetting agent to improve coverage. Do not use in greenhouse or in crops grown for transplant.

 

28

Belt SC

(flubendiamide)

2.0––2.4 fl oz

12

8

Do not apply more than 7.2 fl oz/acre per season.

 

28

Coragen

(rynaxypyr)

3.5–5.0 fl oz

4

3

For best results, use an adjuvant when using as a foliar spray. Can be applied to soil at planting or by drip chemigation. See label for diamondback moth resistance management.

 

28

Exirel

(cyazypyr)

7.0–20.5 fl oz

12

1

Do not apply more than 0.4 lb ai/acre of cyazypyr or cyantraniliprole containing products per crop whether applications are made to foliage or soil. See label for diamondback moth resistance management.

Fire Ants

3A

Pyganic 5.0 (pyrethrins)

4.5–18 oz

12

0

Harmful to bees. Can be used in greenhouses. OMRI-listed.2

7A

Extinguish

((S)-methoprene)

1.0–1.5 lb

4

0

Slow-acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks. May be applied by ground equipment or aerially.

7C

Esteem Ant Bait (pyriproxyfen)

1.5–2.0 lb

12

1

Apply when ants are actively foraging. Do not exceed 0.134 lb ai per acre per season

Flea Beetles

--

*Declare Insecticide3

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

0.77–1.54 fl oz

24

1

(1) First and second instars only.

Head and stem Brassica only.

Do not apply more than 12.3 fl oz per acre per season.

--

Grandevo (Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1.0–3.0 lb

4

0

Can be used in organic production. OMRI-listed.2 Leaf beetle larvae: newly hatched to second instar

un

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

un

Prokil Cryolite

(cryolite)

8–16 lb

12

7

For broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower only. Do not apply more than 96 lb per season or more often than every 7 days.

1A

*Larvin 3.2

(thiodicarb)

16–40 fl oz

48

7

Do not exceed more than 4.0 lb active ingredient per acre per season. (160 fl oz) For broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower only.

1A

Sevin 80S; XLR Plus, 4F (carbaryl)

80S: 0.625–2.5 lb; XLR, 4F: 0.5–2 qt

12

3 or 14, depending on specific crop

Apply no more than 7.5 lb/acre of 80S or 6 qt of 4F or XLR Plus per crop. See label for specific crops

1B

*Lorsban Advanced

(chlorpyrifos)

Preplant, at plant, post plant soil application: See label. Foliar: 1–2 pt

24, 72 for cauliflower

Preplant: 30

Foliar: 21

See label for crop-specific instructions; Foliar: Do not make more than 3 applications of products containing chlorpyrifos.

1B

Malathion 5EC, 8F

(malathion)

5EC: 1–2 pt, 1.6 pt for collards, kale, mustard greens;8F: 1.25 pt, 1 for collards, kale, mustard greens

48, 12 for collards, kale, and mustard greens

2 for head and stem Brassica except cabbage, 7 for greens and cabbage

See label for limitations on number of applications per season—varies by crop.

3A

*Asana XL (0.66 EC)3

(esfenvalerate)

2.9–9.6 fl oz – head and stem Brassicas, 5.8–9.6

oz –collards, 9.6 – mustard greens

12

3-head

and stem; 7-collards, mustard greens

Do not apply more than 0.4 lb ai/acre per season for head and stem Brassica or 0.2 lb ai/acre per season for collards and mustard greens.

3A

*Baythroid XL3

(beta-cyfluthrin)

0.8–3.2 fl oz

12

0

Maximum per crop season: 12.8 fl oz/A.

3A

*Brigade 2 EC3

2.1–6.4 fl oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 0.4 lb ai/acre for leafy or 0.5 lb ai/acre for head and stem.

3A

*Mustang3

(zeta-cyand generics)

2.4–4.3 fl oz

12

1

Do not make applications less than 7 days apart. Diamondback moth populations in Florida have been found to be resistant to pyrethroids.

3A

Pyganic 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5–18 oz

12

0

Harmful to bees. Can be used in greenhouses.

OMRI-listed.2

3A

*Warrior II3 and generics (lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

1

Do not apply more than 0.24 lb ai/acre or 15.36 fl oz of produc/acre per season. (1)1st and 2nd instar only. For head and stem Brassica only.

4A

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

1.5–5.5 oz

12

0 -head and stem

7 - leafy

Do not use if other 4A insecticide has been applied.

4A

Belay Insecticide; 50 WDG

(clothianidin)

Insecticide: soil: 9–12 fl oz,

foliar: 3–4 fl oz; //

50 WDG: soil: 4.8–6.4 oz,

foliar: 1.6–2.1 oz

12

Insecticide: soil: apply at planting, foliar: 7; 50

Insecticide: soil: Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. See label for application

instructions. foliar: Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant. Toxic to bees. 50 WDG: Includes turnip greens. Do not apply more than 0.2 lb ai/acre regardless of applica- tion method (or a total of 12 fl oz of this formulation).

4A

Platinum; Platinum 75SG

(thiamethoxam)

5.0–11 fl oz; 75G: 1.66–3.67 oz

12

30

Soil application.

4A

Venom and Scorpion Insecticide (dinotefuran)

Soil and foliar rates different; Check label

12

foliar - 1

soil - 21

 

4A, 28

Durivo

(thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

10–13 fl oz

12

30

May be applied via one of several different soil applications methods. One application per season within 28 days of plant emergence or transplanting.

4A, 28

Voliam Flexi

(thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole)

4–7 oz

12

head and

stem – 3, leafy Brassica greens - 7

Highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops.

15

Rimon 0.83 EC

(novaluron)

6–12 fl oz

12

7

No more than 3 applications or 24 fl oz per acre per season. No more than 2 applications for thrips or whiteflies. Head and stem Brassica only.

28

Exirel

(cyazypyr)

7.0–20.5 fl oz

12

1

Do not apply more than 0.4 lb ai/acre of cyazypyr or cyantraniliprole containing products per crop whether applications are made to foliage or soil. See label for diamondback moth resistance management.

28

Verimark

(cyazypyr)

5–13.5 fl oz

4

N/A: applied at planting

See label for diamondback moth resistance management.

Grasshoppers

3A

*Asana XL (0.66 EC)3

(esfenvalerate)

2.9–9.6 fl oz – head and stem Brassicas, 5.8–9.6

oz –collards, 9.6 – mustard greens

12

3-head

and stem; 7-collards, mustard greens

Do not apply more than 0.4 lb ai/acre per season for head and stem Brassica or 0.2 lb ai/acre per season for collards and mustard greens.

3A

*Mustang3

(zeta-cyand generics)

2.4–4.3 fl oz

12

1

Do not make applications less than 7 days apart. Diamondback moth populations in Florida have been found to be resistant to pyrethroids.

3A, 28

*Voliam Xpress3

(lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole)

5–9 fl oz

24

3

Highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops. Head and stem Brassica only.

4A

Venom Insecticide

(dinotefuran)

foliar: 1–4 oz soil: 5–6 oz

12

foliar - 1

soil - 21

Use one application method, not both (soil or foliar). For head and stem Brassica only. Foliar: Do not apply more than 0.268 lb ai per acre per season.

15

*Dimilin 2L

(diflubenzuron)

2–4 fl oz

12

7

Not effective against adult stage. No more than 4 applications per season. May be applied only to turnip varieties that do not produce a harvestable root.

Harlequin bug, stink bug, plant bugs

--

*Declare Insecticide3

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

0.77–1.54 fl oz

24

1

(1) First and second instars only.

Head and stem Brassica only.

Do not apply more than 12.3 fl oz per acre per season.

 

1A

Sevin 80S; XLR Plus, 4F

(carbaryl)

80S: 0.625–2.5 lb; XLR, 4F: 0.5–2 qt

12

13 or 14 depending on specific crop

Apply no more than 7.5 lb/acre of 80S or 6 qt of 4F or XLR Plus per crop. See label for specific crop.

 

3A

*Baythroid XL3

(beta-cyfluthrin)

0.8–3.2 fl oz

12

0

Maximum per crop season: 12.8 fl oz/A.

 

3A

*Brigade 2 EC3

(bifenthrin)

2.1–6.4 fl oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 0.4 lb ai/acre for leafy or

0.5 lb ai/acre for head and stem.

 

3A

*Danitol3

(fenpropathrin)

10.67–16 fl oz

24

7

Do not apply more than 42.67 fl oz per acre per season. Head and stem Brassica only.

 

3A

*Mustang3

(zeta-cyand generics)

2.4–4.3 fl oz

12

1

Do not make applications less than 7 days apart. Diamondback moth populations in Florida have been found to be resistant to pyrethroids.

 

3A

Pyganic 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5–18 oz

12

0

Harmful to bees. Can be used in greenhouses.

OMRI-listed.2

 

3A

*Warrior II3 and generics (lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

1

Do not apply more than 0.24 lb ai/acre or 15.36 fl oz of produc/acre per season. (1)1st and 2nd instar only. For head and stem Brassica only.

 

3A, 28

Voliam Xpress3

(lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole)

5–9 fl oz

24

3

Highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops. Head and stem Brassica only.

 

4A

Assail 30SG

(acetamiprid)

2.0–4.0 oz—head and stem cole crops, 2.0–5.3 oz—leafy cole crops and turnip greens

12

7-head and stem, 3-leafy cole crops and turnip

greens

Begin applications for whiteflies when first adults are noticed. Do not apply more than 5 times per season for head and stem cole crops or 4 times per season for leafy cole crops, or apply more often than every 7 days. Turnip roots cannot be used for food/feed.

 

4A

Belay Insecticide; 50 WDG

clothianidin)

Insecticide: soil: 9–12 fl oz,

foliar: 3–4 fl oz;

50 WDG: soil: 4.8–6.4 oz,

foliar: 1.6–2.1 oz

12

Insecticide: soil: apply at planting, foliar: 7; 50

WDG: 7

Insecticide: soil: Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. See label for application

instructions. foliar: Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant. Toxic to bees. 50 WDG: Includes turnip greens. Do not apply more than 0.2 lb ai/acre regardless of application method (or a total of 12 fl oz of this formulation).

 

4A

Scorpion 35SL Insecticide (dinotefuran)

foliar: 2–7 fl oz, soil: 9–10.5 fl oz

12

foliar, 1; soil, 21

Head and stem Brassica only. Do not use more than 10.5 fl oz when applying to foliage or 21 fl oz when applying to soil. Use only one application method.

 

4A

Venom Insecticide

(dinotefuran)

foliar: 1–4 oz soil: 5–6 oz

12

foliar—1

soil—21

Use one application method, not both (soil or foliar). For head and stem Brassica only. Foliar: Do not apply more than 0.268 lb ai per acre per season.

 

15

Rimon 0.83 EC

(novaluron)

6–12 fl oz

12

7

No more than 3 applications or 24 fl oz per acre per season. No more than 2 applications for thrips or whiteflies. Head and stem Brassica only.

Leafminers

un

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 pt, if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

OMRI-listed.2

un

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

un

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4–16 fl.oz

12

0

IGR and feeding repellant. Greenhouse and field. OMRI-listed.2

4A

Belay Insecticide; 50 WDG

clothianidin)

Insecticide: soil: 9–12 fl oz,

foliar: 3–4 fl. oz;

50 WDG: soil: 4.8–6.4 oz,

foliar: 1.6–2.1 oz

12

Insecticide: soil: apply at planting, foliar: 7; 50

WDG: 7

Insecticide: soil: Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. See label for application

instructions. foliar: Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant. Toxic to bees. 50 WDG: Includes turnip greens. Do not apply more than 0.2 lb ai/acre regardless of application method (or a total of 12 fl oz of this formulation).

4A

Scorpion 35SL Insecticide (dinotefuran)

foliar: 2–7 fl. oz, soil: 9–10.5 fl. oz

12

foliar—1; soil—21

Head and stem Brassica only. Do not use more than 10.5 fl oz when applying to foliage or 21 fl oz when applying to soil. Use only one application method.

4A

Venom Insecticide

(dinotefuran)

foliar: 1–4 oz soil: 5–6 oz

12

foliar—1

soil—21

Use one application method, not both (soil or foliar). For head and stem Brassica only. Foliar: Do not apply more than 0.268 lb ai per acre per season.

5

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

5–10 fl. oz.

4

1

Do not apply to seedlings grown for transplant. Do not make more than two consecutive applications of Group 5 insecticides.

6

*Proclaim

(emamectin benzoate)

2.4–4.8 oz

12

7—head and

stem; 14—leafy

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications without rotating to another product with a different mode of action. Do not apply by aircraft. Not for turnips grown for roots.

15

Rimon 0.83 EC

(novaluron)

6–12 fl oz

12

7

No more than 3 applications or 24 fl oz per acre per season. No more than 2 applications for thrips or whiteflies. Head and stem Brassica only.

17

Trigard

(cyromazine)

2.66 oz.

12

7

Limited to 6 applications. Includes turnip greens, not grown for roots.

28

Exirel

(cyazypyr)

7.0–20.5 fl oz

12

1

Do not apply more than 0.4 lb ai/acre of cyazypyr or cyantraniliprole containing products per crop whether applications are made to foliage or soil. See label for diamondback moth resistance management.

28

Verimark

(cyazypyr)

5–13.5 fl oz

4

N/A: applied at planting

See label for diamondback moth resistance management.

Mites

--

Saf-T-Side, others

(Oil, insecticidal)

1–2 gal/100 gal

4

up to day of harvest

Saf-T-Side is OMRI-listed.2

Whitefly

--

BotaniGard 22 WP, ES (Beauveria bassiana

WP: 0.5–2 lb/100 gal; ES: 0.5–2 qt/100 gal

4

0

May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides.

--

Grandevo (Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1.0–3.0 lb

4

0

Can be used in organic production. OMRI-listed.2 Leaf beetle larvae: newly hatched to second instar.

--

M-Pede 49% EC (soap, (insecticidal)

1–2 % V/V

12

0

OMRI-listed.2

--

Saf-T-Side, others (Oil, insecticidal)

1–2 gal/100 gal

4

up to day of harvest

Saf-T-Side is OMRI-listed.2

un

Aza-Direct (azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 pt, if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.2

un

Azatin XL (azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

un

Neemix 4.5 (azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

12

0

IGR and feeding repellant. Greenhouse and field. OMRI-listed.2

un

Requiem EC (extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides)

2–4 qt

4

0

Apply before pests reach damaging levels.

un

Trilogy (extract of neem oil)

0.5–2% v/v

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed.2

4A

Actara (thiamethoxam)

1.5–5.5 oz

12

0—head and stem 7—leafy

Do not use if other 4A insecticide has been applied.

4A

Admire Pro (imidacloprid) see appropriate labels for other brands)

4.4–10.5 fl oz for soil application, 1.3 fl oz for foliar

12

21—soil, 7—foliar

Do not apply more than 10.5 fl oz per acre per crop season as a soil application or 6.5 fl oz as foliar applications. Do not apply to both soil and foliage.

4A

Assail 30SG (acetamiprid)

2.0–4.0 oz—head and stem cole crops, 2.0–5.3 oz—leafy cole crops and turnip greens

12

7—head and stem, 3—leafy cole crops and turnip greens

Begin applications for whiteflies when first adults are noticed. Do not apply more than 5 times per season for head and stem cole crops or 4 times per season for leafy cole crops, or apply more often than every 7 days. Turnip roots cannot be used for food/feed.

4A

Belay Insecticide; 50 WDG (clothianidin)

Insecticide: soil: 9–12 fl oz, foliar: 3–4 fl oz; 50 WDG: soil: 4.8–6.4 oz, foliar: 1.6–2.1 oz

12

Insecticide: soil: apply at planting, foliar: 7; 50

WDG: 7

Insecticide: soil: Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. See label for application instructions. foliar: Do not apply more than 6.4 oz per acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant. Toxic to bees. 50 WDG: Includes turnip greens.

Do not apply more than 0.2 lb ai/acre regardless of application method (or a total of 12 fl oz of this formulation).

4A

Platinum; Platinum 75SG (thiamethoxam)

5.0–11 fl oz; 75G: 1.66–3.67 oz

12

30

Soil application.

4A

Scorpion 35SL Insecticide (dinotefuran)

foliar: 2–7 fl oz; soil: 9–10.5 fl oz

12

foliar—1; soil—21

Head and stem Brassica only. Do not use more than 10.5 fl oz when applying to foliage or 21 fl oz when applying to soil. Use only one application method.

4A

Venom Insecticide dinotefuran)

foliar: 1–4 oz; soil: 5–6 oz

12

foliar—1

soil—21

Use one application method, not both (soil or foliar). For head and stem Brassica only. Foliar: Do not apply more than 0.268 lb ai per acre per season.

4A, 28

Durivo (thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

10–13 fl oz

12

30

May be applied via one of several different soil applications methods. One application per season within 28 days of plant emergence or transplanting.

4A, 28

Voliam Flexi (thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole)

4–7 oz

12

head and stem—3, leafy Brassica greens—7

Highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops.

4D

Sivanto 200 SL (flupyradifurone)

7–14 fl oz

4

1

Maximum per crop season: 28 fl oz/acre. Maximum crop seasons per year: 3.

7C

Knack (pyriproxyfen)

8–10 fl oz

12

7

Immatures only. Apply when nymphs first appear. Limited to 2 applications per season.

9B

Fulfill (pymetrozine)

2.75 oz

12

7

Apply when aphids and whiteflies first appear. Provides suppression of whiteflies. Maximum of 2 applications per crop.

15

Rimon 0.83 EC (novaluron)

6–12 fl oz

12

7

No more than 3 applications or 24 fl oz per acre per season. No more than 2 applications for thrips or whiteflies. Head and stem Brassica only.

16

Courier 40SC (buprofezin)

9.0–13.6 fl oz

12

1

Immatures only. Do not make more than 2 applications per crop cycle or 4 applications per year.

23

Movento (spirotetramat)

4–5 fl oz

12

1

Limited to 10 oz/acre per season. Only use a spreading-penetrating adjuvant known to be safe for the target crop.

23

Oberon 2 SC (spiromesifen)

7.0–8.5 fl oz

12

7

Maximum amount per crop: 25.5 fl oz/acre. No more than 3 applications. Not for turnip greens.

28

Exirel (cyazypyr)

7.0–20.5 fl oz

12

1

Do not apply more than 0.4 lb ai/acre of cyazypyr or cyantraniliprole containing products per crop whether applications are made to foliage or soil. See label for diamondback moth resistance management.

28

Verimark (cyazypyr)

5–13.5 fl oz

4

N/A: applied at planting

See label for diamondback moth resistance management.

Wireworms

1B

*Diazinon AG-500, *50 W (diazinon)

AG500 preplant: 1–4 qt 50W: 2–8 lb

96

preplant

Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, collard, kale, mustard greens. See label for depth to incorporate.

1B

Lorsban 75WG (chlorpyrifos)

Foliar: 0.67–1.33 lb Preplant soil: 2.66 lb for cauliflower, 3.00 lb for all others

At plant or post planting: 0.8–2.15 oz/1000 feet of row. Specific rate depends on the crop.

24, 72 for cauliflower

21; pre or at planting

Do not make more than 3 applications of products containing chlorpyrifos. Will not control organophosphate-resistant diamondback moth. Preplant: Incorporate preplant applications 2–4 inches deep.

3A

*Capture LFR3 (bifenthrin)

3.4–8.5 fl oz

12

at planting

For mixing directly with liquid fertilizer to control soil insect pests.

1 Mode of Action (MOA) codes for plant pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode of Action Classification v. 7.3, February 2014. Number codes (1 through 28) are used to distinguish the main insecticide mode of action groups, with additional letters for certain sub-groups within each main group. All insecticides within the same group (with same number) indicate same active ingredient or similar mode of action. This information must be considered for the insecticide resistance management decisions. un = unknown, or a mode of action that has not been classified yet.

2 Information provided in this table applies only to Florida. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any product. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in the publication does not imply endorsement by the University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. OMRI listed: Listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute for use in organic production.

3 Avoid pyrethroids if diamondback moth is a problem. Larvae have been shown to be resistant.

* Restricted use insecticide.

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENY-464, one of a series of the Department of Entomology and Nematology, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date July 2002. Revised March 2010, June 2013, and February 2017. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

S. E. Webb, associate professor, Department of Entomology and Nematology; A. Niño, PhD, UF/IFAS Indian River Research and Education Center; and H. A. Smith, assistant professor, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast REC; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication does not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition. All chemicals should be used in accordance with directions on the manufacturer's label. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow directions on the manufacturer's label.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.