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Publication #ENY-469

Insect Management for Potatoes1

S. E. Webb2

Chewing insects can cause serious yield and quality losses in potatoes by feeding on the leaves, stems or tubers. Sucking insects can cause direct losses from feeding and indirect losses by transmitting viral diseases. The most important of these insects are described below. A table at the end of the chapter lists insecticides currently registered for potatoes.

Colorado Potato Beetle,Leptinotarsa decemlineata

Description

Adult beetles have 10 lengthwise black stripes on yellow-orange wing covers and are approximately 3/8 to 1/2 inch long. They are stout and strongly convex in shape. The yellow-orange spindle-shaped eggs are laid in clusters of 10 to 30 on the undersides of leaves. They are very similar to ladybird beetle eggs but are larger. The larvae are humpbacked, red to orange, and have two rows of black spots on each side of their soft bodies.

Figure 1. 

Colorado potato beetle.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Biology

The major food plant of the Colorado potato beetle is potato. Other crop hosts include tomato and eggplant. Wild hosts found in Florida include horsenettle, groundcherry, and tropical soda apple. Horsenettle is found mainly in North Central and North Florida, which is also where the beetle is generally found. Tropical soda apple is found throughout the state, but it is not clear if the distribution of CPB has changed following the introduction of this invasive weed. Adults overwinter in fields where they developed as larvae or in uncultivated areas adjacent to fields. They can also overwinter in wooded areas. Only a small proportion of a population leaves its field of origin by flying. Each adult female can produce about 450 eggs. Larvae, which pass through 4 instars, are generally found near the top of the plant and they seldom move far from the plant on which they hatch unless all the leaves are eaten. About two-thirds of all feeding by larvae occurs in the fourth or last instar. When the larvae have completed their development they enter an inactive pupal stage in the soil. After 5 to 7 days, adults emerge and begin to feed on the potato plants. Under ideal conditions, the life cycle can be completed in three weeks. Potato beetles are unaffected by high concentrations of toxic glycoalkaloids, the naturally occurring bitter compounds in potatoes. The efficient detoxification system of the beetle may also play a part in detoxifying insecticides and in the development of insecticide resistance.

Damage

The Colorado potato beetle is a significant problem only in North Florida production regions. High numbers of late instar larvae can defoliate plants. Yield loss is greatest if heavy damage occurs during tuber formation. Bacterial ring rot and potato spindle tuber disease, which are easily spread by mechanical means, can also be transmitted by Colorado potato beetle.

Table 1. 

Management options for Colorado potato beetle.

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ Thresholds

A dynamic treatment threshold developed at Ohio State University has worked well in research trials in Hastings, FL. Examine at least 15 plants (or 15 one-foot sections of row after plants have grown together). Count all the small and large larvae and adults. Divide the number of small larvae in half and add the number of large larvae and adults per plant. If the average per plant is more than 1-2 before or at first bloom, treatment is needed. Up to 3 per plant can be tolerated at peak bloom, and 6 per plant at the end of bloom.

Notes

More damage can be tolerated before and after tuber formation.

Cultural Practices

Crop rotation is essential and effective for delaying and reducing the initial infestation. Fields should be at least several hundred yards from areas previously infested with beetles.

Natural Enemies

Lady beetles, predacious stinkbugs, parasitic flies, and fungi can help reduce populations. Conserve by limiting applications of broad-spectrum insecticides.

Resistant Varieties

Genetically engineered to contain Bt toxin genes

Wireworms,Melanotus communis,Conoderusspp.

Description

Wireworms are the larvae of the click beetle. They are shiny, slender, hard-bodied and yellow to brown. Adults are large brown beetles that make a clicking sound when they try to right themselves after being turned over.

Figure 2. 

Wireworm larva and adult.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Biology

Depending on species and soil temperature, wireworm larvae can take from 1 to 5 years to develop. Corn wireworm (Melanotus communis), common in Florida, may complete its development in 2 to 3 years in South Florida. Most flight activity occurs in May and June. Females lay eggs in cracks or crevices or burrow into the soil. Larvae tend to move deeper as soil temperatures become hotter and move closer to the soil surface when it is cooler. If temperatures drop further, larvae will again move deeper into the soil. Other wireworms found in Florida (Conoderus spp.) can complete their development in a year or less, resulting in up to three generations per year in South Florida. These species tend to stay close to the soil surface.

Damage

The adult wireworms do not attack potatoes. However, the larvae ("wireworms") feed on potato seed pieces and developing tubers. Wounds to seed pieces allow disease organisms, such as fungi and bacteria, to enter. The greatest damage occurs when larvae tunnel into developing tubers, reducing their quality and value. Damaged tubers are often malformed.

Table 2. 

Management options for wireworms.

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ Threshold

Determine population density 4 to 5 weeks before planting. Baits are the easiest method. Small amounts of corn, oats, or wheat can be enclosed in a mesh bag and buried 4 to 6 inches deep in 4 or 5 sites per acre for two to three weeks. If soil is below 45 to 50 F, covering the baited area with a clear plastic sheet will help warm it and increase wireworm activity. One wireworm per bait station justifies treatment with a soil insecticide.

Notes

To determine if a sidedress treatment of insecticide is needed after planting, dig seed pieces at random throughout the field as shoots emerge to check for wireworm damage.

Natural Enemies

Not well known, do not seem to be important. A fungus and a parasitic wasp have been reported.

Site Selection

If possible, avoid areas with a history of wireworm problems.

Cultural Practices

Avoid planting potatoes in areas that have been in cereals or grasses. In South Florida, delaying the planting of sorghum-sudangrass cover crops until July (well after harvest of winter potatoes) helps keep wireworm populations low.

Leafminers

Description and Biology

The adult is a small fly, approximately 1/8 inch long, with a black head, yellow between the eyes, a black thorax and a tube-like “ovipositor” at the end of the abdomen used to puncture the upper leaf surface for egg laying. The white, oval egg is inserted in the leaf tissue, but many punctures (called stipples) are used by the adult for feeding and do not contain eggs. The larva, a yellow maggot with black, sickle-shaped mouth hooks, feeds between the upper and lower leaf surface for approximately seven days, leaving a serpentine mine containing a string of black frass (fecal matter). The mature larva exits from the mine and falls to the ground where it molts to a pupa within a golden brown, barrel-shaped, and ribbed puparium from which the adult emerges in seven to 14 days. Generation time is 15 to 28 days depending upon temperature.

Figure 3. 

Vegetable leafminer.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Damage

Leafminer damage is only foliar, caused by serpentine mines carved in leaves by feeding leafminer larvae. Heavy damage can reduce photosynthesis and cause leaf desiccation and abscission.

Table 3. 

Management options for leafminers.

Management Options

Recommendation

Scouting/ Threshold

Sampling can be done at the same time that plants are examined for Colorado potato beetle. No thresholds have been determined for leafminers on potatoes, however.

Note(s)

Insecticides applied for leafminer control should target small larvae for best results.

Natural Enemies

A number of parasitic wasps attack vegetable and serpentine leafminers in Florida and may provide high levels of mortality, especially late in the season. Therefore, insecticides with low or no toxicity to leafminer parasites should be selected for controlling leafminers and other pests.

Flea Beetle,Epitrix hirtipennis, others

Description

Tobacco flea beetle (Figure 4) is a fairly typical flea beetle pest of potatoes in Florida. Adults are very small, 1/12 to 1/20 of an inch long. They are reddish-yellow with a brown abdomen and a brown patch crossing the wing covers. Eggs are elongate and slightly pointed at one end. They change from white to lemon yellow as they get close to hatching. Larvae are whitish except for their yellow or yellow-brown heads and reach a length of 1/6 of an inch long.

Figure 4. 

Tobacco flea beetle.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Biology

Tobacco flea beetle feeds on tobacco, potato, tomato, eggplant and other plants in the family Solanaceae. In Florida, at least 4 generations a year can develop. Beetles overwinter as adults under plant debris. If the weather is warm enough, they may remain active all winter. Eggs are laid in the soil near the base of the host plant, in clusters of 5 or 6. Overwintering females can produce up to 200 eggs with later generations producing about 100 eggs per female. Larvae develop through three instars and feed mainly on fine roots near the soil surface. They pupate near the soil surface also. Adults feed on leaves.

Damage

The adult beetle eats small holes partly or completely through the leaves, resulting in the formation of many small "shot holes" in the leaves. Seedlings are most vulnerable to severe damage. Feeding wounds may serve as a point of entry for pathogens.

Table 4. 

Management options for flea beetles.

Management Options

Recommendation

Scouting/ Threshold

Adults can be monitored with yellow sticky traps or by sweeping, but no thresholds for treatment have been developed.

Note(s)

Systemic insecticides are useful for protecting seedlings in areas where flea beetles are a consistent problem.

Natural Enemies

General predators such as big-eyed bug, a parasitoid wasp, and a nematode, Howardula dominicki

Cultural Practices

No effective methods available.

Leafhopper,Empoasca fabaeand close relatives

Description

The adult potato leafhopper (Figure 5) is pale green with a row of white spots just behind its head. It has a slender body form and is about 1/8 to 1/7 inch long. Eggs are transparent to pale yellow and are inserted into the veins and petioles of leaves. Young nymphs are very small (about 1/25 inch). Wing pads develop from the third through fifth instars.

Figure 5. 

Leafhopper.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Biology

The adult potato leafhopper overwinters in Gulf Coast States, including Florida, and disperses northward. In Florida, it can complete six generations a year. It feeds on many wild and cultivated plants, but potato is a particularly good host plant. Females can produce 200 to 300 eggs. These hatch in from 7 to 20 days depending on temperature. The average developmental time for nymphs is about 15 days. Adults can live from one to two months. Leafhoppers seem to have few effective natural enemies.

Damage

Leafhopper damage (hopper burn) late in the season is often confused with maturity of the plants (damaged leaves first turn brown along the margins but remaining foliage is often green). The adults and nymphs attack the underside of the leaves and suck the sap. They secrete a toxin into the plant as they feed. This causes the leaves to curl, yellow, and exhibit hopper burn symptoms. Plants may be stunted and yields reduced.

Aphids,Myzus persicaeandMacrosiphum euphorbiae

Description

Aphids are small, soft-bodied insects that reproduce rapidly and feed on plant sap. In Florida, green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) (Figure 6) is the most common aphid on potatoes, but potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) (Figure 7) can also be found. Aphids occur in both winged and wingless forms. The mature wingless form of green peach aphid is egg-shaped, the tubercles at the base of the antennae are prominent and point inward, and the cornicles, tube-like structures on the back of the aphid, are long and unevenly swollen. They can range in color from light green to pink to almost translucent. Potato aphid is larger and more elongated with longer, straight cornicles and can be green, yellow, or pink. The pink form is common in the Hastings area. Its antennal tubercles point outward.

Figure 6. 

Wingless green peach aphid.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 7. 

Potato aphid.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Biology

In Florida, aphids can reproduce without mating all year, as long as host plants are available. They give birth to nymphs rather than laying eggs and their offspring can be producing nymphs of their own in 7 to 10 days depending on temperature. High populations can develop very quickly as plants get crowded. Winged forms develop and fly to new host plants. Aphids have many natural enemies, both general predators such as lacewing and ladybeetle larvae, and more specific parasitoid wasps. Fungi can kill large numbers of aphids in a short period of time.

Damage

Aphids cause damage by sucking juices from the underside of leaves on the above ground portion of the potato plant. Feeding by potato aphids can cause distortion of young leaves and the dying back of the shoot or stem. Green peach aphid is more common in Florida. Early season infestation is the most damaging and can result in yield loss. Green peach aphid is also an excellent virus vector, transmitting viruses from plant to plant. At this time, potato leafroll virus and potato virus Y, the most important of the aphid-transmitted plant viruses affecting potato, are not common in Florida potato fields. Currently, aphids are managed with systemic insecticides applied at planting.

Caterpillar Pests (beet armyworm, fall armyworm, southern armyworm, cutworms, cabbage looper, etc.)

Larvae of moths can damage and occasionally defoliate potato plants. Two examples are described below.

Cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Figure 8), feeds on a variety of crops. The adults (Figure 9) are night-flying moths with brown, mottled forewings marked in the center with a small, silver figure eight. They lay their eggs (small, ridged, round, greenish-white) singly on both upper and lower leaf surfaces. The eggs hatch into larvae that are green with white stripes running the length of their bodies. The caterpillar has three pairs of slender legs near its head and then three pairs of thick prolegs near the end of its body. It moves in a characteristic looping motion, alternately stretching forward and arching its back as it brings the back prolegs close to its front legs. After feeding for two to four weeks, the caterpillar, about 1.25 inches long when fully grown, spins a cocoon and pupates. The adults emerge 10 days to two weeks later. There can be several generations per year depending on climate. They tend to feed on older leaves.

Figure 8. 

Cabbage looper larva.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 9. 

Cabbage looper adult male.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Figure 10), also feeds on many crops and weeds. The highly mobile adult moth (Figure 11) has dark forewings with mottled lighter markings and hind wings thinly covered with whitish scales. Each female can lay over 600 eggs, generally in masses of about 100 on the undersides of leaves in the lower plant canopy. Very young caterpillars feed in groups, and then disperse as they grow older (third instar). The dull green caterpillars have wavy, light-colored stripes lengthwise down the back and broader stripes on each side. After feeding from one to three weeks, they construct a cocoon and pupate, emerging as adults about one week later. Beet armyworm survives the winter in South Florida and can complete many generations a year there. From South Florida, adults migrate into North Florida and other parts of the Southeast.

Figure 10. 

Beet armyworm larva.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 11. 

Beet armyworm adult.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Table 5. 

Management options for caterpillar pests.

Management Option

Recommendation

Scouting/ Thresholds

Fields should be monitored for the presence of caterpillars and feeding damage.

Note(s)

Many different forms of Bacillus thuringiensis are available that are highly specific for caterpillar pests and will not harm beneficial insects. However, only small caterpillars are highly susceptible.

Natural Enemies

In Florida, cabbage loopers have been found naturally infected with an insect virus and granulate cutworm has been found infected with a protozoan. A virus and fungal pathogens also infect beet armyworm. Parasitoids, both wasps and tachinid flies, attack beet armyworm. A number of small wasps and a tachinid fly parasitize caterpillars or eggs of cabbage looper. Predaceous bugs, wasps, green lacewings, and spiders may consume eggs and small caterpillars.

Tables

Table 6. 

Selected insecticides approved for use on insects attacking potatoes.

Trade Name

(Common Name)

Rate

(Product/acre)

REI (hours)

Days to Harvest

Insects

MOA Code1

Notes

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

1.5-3.0 oz

12

14

aphids (higher rate), Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, potato leafhopper

4A

Toxic to bees. Do not use following soil application of Platinum. Maximum 6 oz/acre per season.

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

5.7-8.7 fl oz as soil treatment or as seed piece treatment: 3.5-7.0 fl oz/100 lb seed

12

at planting, see label for options

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, potato leafhopper, wireworms (seed-piece protection only)

4A

Do not apply more than, 0.31 lb ai per acre per season. Seed piece rate is based on seeding rate of 2000 lb/acre.

Agree WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

1.0-2.0 lb

4

0

lepidopteran larvae (caterpillar pests)

11A

Apply when larvae are small for best control. OMRI-listed2.

*Agri-Mek SC

(abamectin)

1.75-3.5 fl oz

12

14

Colorado potato beetle, Liriomyza leafminers, potato psyllid, spider mites

6

No more than 2 sequential applications. Must be applied with non-ionic activator type wetting, spreading, or penetrating adjuvant. See label for resistance management.

*Ambush 25W

(permethrin)

3.2-12.8 oz

12

14

cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, potato aphid, potato flea beetle, potato leafhopper, potato tuberworm

3A

Do not apply more than 1.6 lb active ingredient per season (102.4 oz).

*Asana XL (0.66 EC) (esfenvalerate)

2.9-9.6 fl oz

12

7

beet armyworm (aids in control), cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, cucumber beetles (adults), cutworms, flea beetles, grasshoppers, potato aphid, potato leafhopper, potato tuberworm, tarnished plant bug

3A

Do not apply more than 0.35 lb ai/acre per season (7 applications at highest rate).

Assail 30SG

(acetamiprid)

1.5-4.0 oz

12

7

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, cucumber beetle, flea beetle, leafhoppers

4A

Do not make more than 4 applications per season. Do not exceed a total of 0.3 lb ai per acre per season.

Avaunt

(indoxacarb)

2.5-6.0 oz

12

7

cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle

22

Do not apply more than 24 oz/acre per crop.

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1-2 pts, up to 3.5 pts, if needed

4

0

aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, stink bugs, thrips, weevils, whiteflies

un

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5-21 fl oz

4

0

aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, weevils, whiteflies

un

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

*Baythroid XL

(beta-cyfluthrin)

0.8-2.8 fl oz

12

0

cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, cutworms, flea beetles, potato leafhopper,potato psyllid, potato tuberworm, tarnished plant bug

3A

Allow at least 5 days between applications. A maximum of 16.8 fl oz may be applied per acre per season.

Belay Insecticide (clothianidin)

9-12 fl oz (soil application)

2-3 fl oz (foliar)

12

Foliar: 14, or at planting or sidedress or spray at ground crack over row at hilling

Soil: aphids, Colorado potato beetle, corn wireworm, flea beetle, leafhoppers, southern potato wireworm, white grubs, suppression of other wireworms

Foliar: aphids, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, leafhoppers

4A

See label for in-furrow or side dress applications.

Beleaf 50 SG

(flonicamid)

2.0-2.8 oz

12

7

aphids, plant bugs

9C

Begin applications before pest populations reach damaging levels. Do not apply more than 8.4 oz/acre per season.

Biobit HP

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars (will not control large armyworms)

11

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used in the greenhouse. For organic production.

BotaniGard 22 WP, ES

(Beauveria bassiana)

WP: 0.5-2 lb/100 gal

ES: 0.5-2 qt/100 gal

4

0

aphids, thrips, whiteflies

--

May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides.

*Brigade 2 EC

(bifenthrin)

9.6-19.2 oz at-plant (soil);

3.2-9.6 oz at lay-by (soil);

2.1-6.4 oz (foliar)

12

21

cucumber beetles, flea beetles, sweetpotato weevil adults (foliar), whitefringed beetle adults, white grub adults, white grubs (lay-by), wireworm adults, wireworms (at-plant and lay-by)

3A

No more than 2 foliar applications, at least 21 days apart. Do not apply more than 0.5 lb active ingredient per acre per season, including soil applications.

Clinch

(abamectin)

1 lb

12

0

fire ants

6

Apply when ants are actively foraging. Apply after dew or rainfall has dried for maximum effectiveness. Do not apply if rainfall is anticipated within 4-6 hours. No more than 4 applications per year.

Coragen

(rynaxypyr)

3.5-5.0 fl oz

4

14

cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle

28

Do not apply more than 15.4 fl oz per acre per crop per season. Foliar or overhead sprinkler irrigation systems only.

Crymax WDG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11A

Use high rate for armyworms. Treat when larvae are young. Not for organic production.

Deliver

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.25-1.5 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11A

Use higher rates for armyworms. OMRI-listed2.

Dimethoate 4 EC

(dimethoate)

0.5-1.0 pt

48

0 if mechanically harvested, 14 otherwise

aphids, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, leafminers

1B

Highly toxic to bees.

DiPel DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11A

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. OMRI-listed2.

*Endigo ZC

(lambda-cyhalothrin, thiamethoxam)

3.5-4.5 fl oz

24

14

armyworms, blister beetles, Colorado potato beetle, corn earworm, crickets, cucumber beetles, cutworms, flea beetles, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, loopers, plant bugs, saltmarsh caterpillar, stink bugs, thrips, webworms, whiteflies

3A, 4A

Do not exceed a total of 10 fl oz of product per acre per growing season. Do not use with other Group 4A insecticides.

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

3-10 fl oz

4

7

armyworms, Colorado potato beetle, dipteran leafminers, loopers, thrips

5

Do not apply to consecutive generations of Colorado potato beetle. Do not apply more 21 fl oz per acre per season or more than 4 times/crop. OMRI-listed2.

Extinguish

((S)-methoprene)

1.0-1.5 lb

4

0

fire ants

7A

Slow‑acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks. May be applied by ground equipment or aerially.

Fulfill

(pymetrozine)

2.75-5.5 oz

12

14

green peach aphid, potato aphid, potato psyllid

9B

Apply when aphids first appear. Do not exceed 11.0 oz/acre/season.

Grandevo

(Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1-3 lb

4

0

aphids, armyworms, loopers, potato leafhopper, potato psyllid, whiteflies

OMRI-listed2.

Imidan 70 W

(phosmet)

1.3 lb

5 days

7

Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, potato leafhopper

1B

Use only on potatoes to be harvested by machine.

Javelin WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.12-1.5 lb

10-12 lb

4

0

most caterpillars, but not Spodoptera species (armyworms)

11A

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential.

OMRI-listed2.

Kryocide

(cryolite)

10-12 lb

12

0

Colorado potato beetle

--

Application to exposed tubers may result in excess residues.

*Lannate LV; *SP

(methomyl)

LV: 1.5-3.0 pt

SP: 0.5-1.0 lb

48

6

aphids, beet armyworm, fall armyworm, flea beetles, leafhoppers, loopers, potato tuberworm, variegated cutworm

1A

Do not make more than 10 applications per crop or apply more than 15 pt (LV) or 5 lb (SP) per acre per crop.

Malathion 8F

(malathion)

1-1.5 pt

12

0

aphids, false chinch bugs, grasshoppers, mealybugs, leafhoppers

1B

Maximum of two applications per year.

*Mocap 15 G, *EC

(ethoprop)

See labels

48

preplant or at planting

symphylans, wireworms

1B

Use broadcast application for moderate to heavy infestations of wireworms.

*Monitor 4 EC (methamidophos)

1.5-2 pts

4 days

14

aphids, armyworms, cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, cutworms, flea beetles, Lygus bug, potato leafhopper, potato tuberworm

1B

Monitor cannot be used after Dec. 31, 2013.

Movento

(spirotetramat)

4.0-5.0 fl oz

24

7

aphids, psyllids, whiteflies

23

Maximum of 10 fl oz/acre per season.

M-Pede 49% EC

Soap, insecticidal

1-2% V/V

12

0

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, leafhoppers, plant bugs, thrips, whiteflies, mites

--

OMRI-listed2.

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

1.4-4.3 oz

12

1

cabbage looper, cucumber beetles, cutworms, flea beetles, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, tarnished plant bug, vegetable weevil, whitefringed beetle (adult), yellowstriped armyworm; aids in control of aphids and beet armyworm

3A

A maximum of 0.3 lb ai/acre per season may be applied.

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

4-16 fl oz

12

0

Aphids, armyworms, caterpillars and loopers, grasshoppers, Colorado potato beetle, whiteflies

un

Insect growth regulator and anti-feedant. OMRI-listed2.

Oberon 2SC

(spiromesifen)

8-16 fl oz

12

7

potato psyllid, twospotted spider mite, whiteflies

23

Maximum amount per crop: 32.0 fl oz/acre. Maximum applications: 2.

*Penncap-M

(methyl parathion)

2-6 pt

12 days

5

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, cutworms, flea beetles, grasshoppers, potato leafhopper, tarnished plant bug

1B

Do not apply more than 24 pt per acre per year.

Platinum

Platinum 75SG

(thiamethoxam)

5-8 fl oz

1.66-2.67 oz

12

applied at planting or at plant emergence

aphids, Colorado potato beetles, flea beetles, potato leafhoppers, wireworms (seed-piece only)

4A

For many crops that are not on the label, a 120-day plant-back interval must be observed. To manage resistance, avoid using Actara or Provado in conjunction with Platinum.

*Pounce 25 WP (permethrin)

6.4-12.8 oz

12

14

aphids, aster leafhopper, beet armyworm, cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, cutworms, flea beetles, leafhoppers, potato tuberworm, tarnished plant bug

3A

Do not apply more than 0.8 lb ai/acre per season.

Provado 1.6 F (imidacloprid)

3.8 oz

12

7

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, leafhoppers

4A

Do not use if other 4A insecticides have been used at planting.

Pyganic Crop Protection EC 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5-18.0 fl oz

12

0

most insects—see label.

3A

Harmful to bees. Degrades rapidly in sunlight. Good coverage essential. OMRI-listed2

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

4.5-8 fl oz

4

7

armyworms, Colorado potato beetle, Liriomyza leafminers, loopers, thrips

5

No more than 4 applications per year.

*Regent 4SC

(fipronil)

3.2 fl oz

0

90

wireworms

 

Many plant-back restrictions. One in-furrow application at time of planting only. Must be incorporated and covered with soil.

Requiem

(extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides)

2-3 qt

4

0

green peach aphid

un

Treat when threshold reached.

Rimon 0.83EC

(novaluron)

6-12 fl oz

12

14

armyworms, Colorado potato beetle, loopers, other foliage feeding caterpillars, potato tuberworm, sweetpotato leafminer, whiteflies

15

Do not apply more than 24 oz per acre per season.

Scorpion 35SL

(dinotefuran)

foliar: 2-2.75 fl oz

soil: 11-13 fl oz

12

foliar - 7

soil - at planting

Colorado potato beetle, flea beetle, potato leafhopper, suppression of green peach aphid and potato aphid

4A

Apply as foliar or soil application, but not both.

Sevin XLR, 4 F; 80 S

(carbaryl)

XLR, 4F: 0.5-2.0 qt

80S: 0.63-2.5 lb

12

7

Colorado potato beetle, corn earworm, cutworms, fall armyworm, flea beetles, leafhoppers, stink bugs, tarnished plant bug

1A

Do not apply more than a total of 6 qt (4F, XLR) or 7.5 lb (80S).

Sun Spray 98.8%,

MS Stylet-Oil, others

(oil, insecticidal)

3-6 qt/100 gal (JMS)

4

0

leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, whiteflies, mites

--

See label for tank mix cautions. Organic Stylet-Oil is OMRI-listed2.

*Thimet 20 G

(phorate)

See label - varies with soil type and time of application.

48

90

aphids, Colorado potato beetle (early season), flea beetles (larvae), leafhoppers, leafminers, wireworms

1B

One application per season.

*Thionex 50W

(endosulfan)

1-2 lb

12 days

12

aphids, armyworms, Colorado potato beetle, false chinch bugs, flea beetles, leafhoppers, plant bugs, potato tuberworm, stink bugs, three‑lined potato beetle, whiteflies

2

No more than 4 applications per year. Do not exceed 2 lb ai/acre per year. It will not be legal to use this product in Florida after Dec. 31, 2014.

Trigard

(cyromazine)

2.66-5.32 oz

12

7

Colorado potato beetle larvae, leafminers

17

Most effective for control of 1st and 2nd instar larvae. Does not control adult CPB. Use lower rate for leafminers.

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

0.5-2.0% V/V

4

0

aphids, mites, suppression of thrips and whiteflies

un

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment.

OMRI-listed2.

Venom Insecticide

(dinotefuran)

foliar: 1-1.5 oz

soil: 6.5-7.5 oz

12

foliar - 7

soil - at planting

Foliar: Colorado potato beetle, flea beetle, potato leafhopper, psyllid, suppression of green peach aphid and potato aphid

Soil: Colorado potato beetle, flea beetle, potato leafhopper, suppression of green peach aphid, potato aphid, and pysllids

4A

Do not apply more than 4.5 oz per acre per season to foliage. One soil application, either preplant, preemergence, or at ground crack. Donot use with other Group 4A insecticides.

Voliam Flexi

(thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

4 oz

12

14

aphids, beet armyworm, cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, potato leafhopper

4A, 28

No more than two applications.

*Voliam Xpress

5-9 oz

24

14

aphids, armyworms, Colorado potato beetle adults, crickets, cutworms, flea beetle adults, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, loopers, saltmarsh caterpillar, stink bugs, webworms, others

3A, 28

Do not apply more than 27.0 fl. oz of product per acre per season. Supplemental label.

(lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorantraniliprole)

*Vydate L

(oxamyl)

foliar: 1-4 pt

48

7

aphids, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, potato leafhopper, tarnished plant bug

1A

No more than 8 foliar applications per crop.

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96-1.92 fl oz

24

7

cutworms, leafhoppers, saltmarsh caterpillar, aphids, armyworms, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, loopers, potato tuberworm, stink bugs, thrips, webworms

3A

Only exposed insects can be controlled. Do not apply more than 7.68 fl oz of product per acre per season.

Xentari DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

0.5-2.0 lb

4

0

caterpillars

11A

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. May be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production.

The pesticide information presented in this table was current with federal and state regulations at the time of revision. The user is responsible for determining the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow label instructions.

1Mode of Action codes for vegetable pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode of Action Classification v.7.2 February 2012. http://www.irac-online.org/wp-content/uploads/MoA-classification.pdf

1A. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Carbamates (nerve action)

1B. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Organophosphates (nerve action)

2A. GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists (nerve action)

3A. Sodium channel modulators—pyrethroids

4A. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists (nerve action)

5. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric activators—spinosins (nerve action)

6. Chloride channel activators (nerve and muscle action)

7A. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation)

7C. Juvenile hormone mimics (growth regulation)

9B & 9C. Selective homopteran feeding blockers

10B. Mite growth inhibitors (growth regulation)

11A. Microbial disruptors of insect midgut membranes

12B. Inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase (energy metabolism)

15. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 0, lepidopteran (growth regulation)

16. Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 1, homopteran (growth regulation)

17. Molting disruptor, dipteran (growth regulation)

18. Ecdysone receptor agonists (growth regulation)

20B. Mitochondrial complex III electron transport inhibitors (energy metabolism)

21A. Mitochondrial complex I electron transport inhibitors (energy metabolism)

22. Voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers (nerve action)

23. Inhibitors of acetyl Co-A carboxylase (lipid synthesis, growth regulation)

28. Ryanodine receptor modulators (nerve and muscle action)

un. Compounds of unknown or uncertain mode of action

2OMRI listed: Listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute for use in organic production.

*Restricted Use Only.

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENY-469 (IG155), one of a series of the Entomology & Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Published November 2001. Revised March 2010 and June 2013. For more publications related to horticulture/agriculture, please visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/.

2.

S. E. Webb, associate professor, Entomology and Nematology Department, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0640.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication does not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition. All chemicals should be used in accordance with directions on the manufacturer's label. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow directions on the manufacturer's label.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.