University of FloridaSolutions for Your Life

Download PDF
Publication #ENY-668

Identification and Monitoring of Insect Pests in Peanut1

Richard K. Sprenkel2

Production of peanut, as with all crops, includes decisions on protecting the crop from damage by insect pests. Most crops can withstand some insect damage without experiencing yield loss. For peanut, the ability to sustain insect damage and not suffer economic loss has been well documented. This ability of the plant to withstand damage allows growers to reduce pesticide usage and crop production costs. The problem faced by those managing the crop arises when it is determined the tolerable damage has been exceeded and economic losses are likely.

This publication has been developed to assist farmers and those monitoring the peanut crop in identifying and sampling the major insect pests of peanut in Florida. All parts of the peanut plant, foliage, roots, pegs, and pods, are damaged by one or more insect pests. This publication is divided into two sections; the first section deals with those insects that primarily damage foliage; the second addresses those that primarily damage the pods, pegs, and roots. Some insect pests can be difficult to detect even though their damage is readily evident. To aid in identifying these pests, a description of the characteristic damage for each insect pest is also given.

Foliage Feeding Insect Pests

Thrips

Several species of thrips cause damage to peanut. In addition to the physical damage described below, some species of thrips are capable of transmitting the tomato spotted wilt virus to peanut. Thrips are small (slightly less than 1/16 inch in length when fully mature), cigar-shaped insects that move rapidly when disturbed. The immature or larval stage has a shape similar to the adult's but lacks wings. Thrips vary from pale yellow to dark brown or black.

Eggs of thrips are inserted into leaf tissue and hatch after about seven days. The immature stage is completed in 5-6 days. Adults live for up to 30 days, and the female thrips is capable of ovipositing 50-60 eggs during her lifetime. Reproduction is continuous throughout the summer and several generations occur on peanut.

Each spring soon after crop emergence, peanuts are infested by adults, which migrate from a wide variety of wild and cultivated hosts. This initial population, which emigrates to peanut, can be large. This coupled with the slow initial growth of the peanut plant can result in considerable damage. Thrips prefer to feed in developing leaflets in the terminal of the plant. They damage the plants by puncturing the plant tissue with their mouthparts and then sucking up the released plant juices. When the damaged leaflets open, they have a scarred, deformed appearance that is referred to as "possum-eared." Severe infestations cause stunting of the plants and delayed development. After peanut plants begin blooming, adult thrips are found primarily in the flowers. Damage to peanut flowers is negligible.

Figure 1. 

Thrips on leaf.


Credit: R. K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Leafhoppers

Several species of leafhoppers feed on peanut. The species range in size from 1/8 to 1/4 inch in length, and color varies from brown to green with reddish markings. All leafhoppers are wedge-shaped and very active, frequently flying ahead of a person walking through a peanut field. Immature leafhoppers are similar in appearance to the adults but lack wings.

Adult leafhoppers live for up to 30 days, and each female may each lay up to 100 eggs during her lifetime. Eggs hatch in 4-5 days, and nymphs feed for approximately three weeks during warm weather. In cool weather, this feeding period nearly triples in duration.

Leafhoppers have a wide host range and generally migrate to peanut late in the growing season when other hosts are unsuitable or populations become overcrowded. On peanut, leafhoppers feed on the undersides of peanut leaflets usually in the vicinity of the midribs where they insert their mouthparts and suck plant juices. Frequently this feeding causes the tip of the leaflet to turn pale yellow. This yellowing inhibits photosynthesis, results in leaf deterioration, and may lead to defoliation. The yellow leaflets have been given the name "hopperburn."

Figure 2. 

Hopperburn on leaves.


Credit: R. K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Threecornered Alfalfa Hopper

The threecornered alfalfa hopper, Spissistilus festinus, is a type of leafhopper. It is discussed separately in this publication because of the distinct type of damage that this pest causes. Rather than the hopperburn type of damage, the threecornered alfalfa hopper feeds on leaf petioles and stems causing a girdling injury.

The threecornered alfalfa hopper is distinctive in appearance. The adults are pale green in color and approximately 1/4 inch in length. They are wedge-shaped in outline and, like other leafhoppers, are very active. Nymphs have a similar color and shape as the adults but lack wings. They may be located by parting the foliage and closely checking the stems. Nymphs will try to remain hidden by moving to the back side of the stems or by hopping from the plant.

The threecornered alfalfa hopper overwinters in the egg stage in plant tissue in protected areas. Adults may be found early in the spring on wild hosts indicating that the insect may be active year round during milder winters. Each female will lay up to 40 eggs, and there are 4-5 generations per year.

Twospotted Spider Mite

The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is an insect-related pest that is inconspicuous and small, only about 1/60 inch in diameter. However, when abundant, spider mite feeding damage is evident from a considerable distance.

Spider mites feed by inserting their mouthparts into the plant and sucking out juices. They feed on the undersides of the leaves usually near the midribs between the leaf veins. This feeding gives the upperside of the leaves a speckled appearance. As the population of spider mites increases, the feeding damage may cause the entire leaflet to turn a brownish-yellow and die. Although they may be present in all types of weather, populations tend to increase more rapidly and damage is more severe in hot, dry weather.

Spider mites have a very short life cycle when temperatures are high. In as few as 7-8 days, spider mites can go from the egg stage, through protonymph 1, protonymph 2, deutonymph, and adult stages. With the exception for the protonymph 1 stage, which has six legs, all the other feeding stages have eight legs.

Spider mites overwinter in the adult stage in protected areas. Although they are wingless, the adults, as well as the immature feeding stages, are able to move considerable distances by riding wind currents after releasing a silken strand. Once established on a host, females lay up to 8 eggs per day over a 12-14 day period, leading to a rapid population increase.

Figure 3. 

Spider mites on peanut leaf.


Credit: R. K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Silverleaf Whitefly

The silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii, is an occasional pest of peanut in Florida. On the east end of the peanut production area, this pest has historically been more abundant and has caused more losses.

The silverleaf whitefly has a host range that includes more than 500 plant species representing 74 families. The early occurrence of the whitefly in the spring suggests that it overwinters on one or more of these hosts in protected locations.

The elliptical eggs are approximately 1/125 inch long and are whitish-yellow when first laid. As they approach hatching in 5-7 days, they become darker. After hatching, the first stage, called the crawler, has antennae and legs and is about 1/95 inch in length. The second through fourth stages are immobile and range in color from greenish-yellow to pale yellow. At the end of the nymphal cycle, it enters into what is commonly referred to as the pupal stage. This stage has two conspicuous red eyespots and a flattened body. Adults emerge from the pupal stage through a T-shaped slit. The adults are approximately 1/16 inch in length and have white wings and yellow bodies. At rest, the adults fold their wings over their bodies in a tent-like fashion. The female whitefly lays, on average, 160 eggs during her lifetime.

Figure 4. 

Silverleaf whitefly eggs and adults.


Credit: Jim Castner, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

The whitefly feeds by sucking up plant juices. The feeding removes nutrients from the plant, which in turn can result in stunting, poor growth, and yield loss. In addition, they excrete a sticky substance called honeydew. Honeydew contains several types of sugars, which are used by fungi. This fungal growth on the honeydew is known as sooty mold. Excess sooty mold reduces photosynthesis of the host plant.

Granulate Cutworm

There are several species of cutworms that are capable of causing damage to peanut. However, one of the most common species is the granulate cutworm, Agrotis subterranea. Larvae of the granulate cutworm are smooth, plump worms that vary from gray to light brown. When disturbed, the larvae curl into a tight C-shape. Fully grown larvae are up to 1 1/2 inches in length.

Although cutworm damage in a field may be conspicuous, the cutworms themselves may not be readily evident. This is because the cutworm feeds mainly at night and on cloudy days. During the day, cutworms may be found on or just beneath the soil surface or under trash.

Cutworms cause several types of damage to peanut. Early in the season, they can cause serious damage by feeding on the stems of young plants near the soil surface causing the plants to fall over. Later in the season, cutworms can climb the plants and feed on foliage. Cutworms have the distinction of consuming more foliage per larva than any of the other foliage-feeding worms on peanut. However, high numbers of cutworms per foot of row do not always result in extensive foliage loss. This is because cutworms frequently feed on organic residue on the soil surface leaving the foliage relatively untouched.

Figure 5. 

Cutworm on soil.


Credit: R.K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

The third type of damage that has been associated with cutworms occurs at harvest. Occasionally, cutworms will feed on drying peanuts after the plants have been dug. However, feeding is usually confined to immature pods (referred to as 'pops') causing little yield loss.

Eggs are laid singly, usually on the upper leaf surface and hatch in 4-5 days. A female cutworm moth may lay as many as 1500 eggs during her life span. The larval stage lasts 20-30 days, and the entire life cycle is completed in 30-40 days.

Velvetbean Caterpillar

A second type of foliage-feeding "worm" on peanut is the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis. The velvetbean caterpillar does not overwinter in north Florida, and, consequently, most of the damage occurs late in the season after populations have increased through several generations. They feed solely on peanut foliage, where, due to large numbers of larvae, they can completely defoliate a field in a few days.

The female moth lays eggs singly on the undersurface of peanut leaves. Eggs hatch in 3-4 days into a pale green larvae that can be difficult to distinguish from several other kinds of foliage-feeding larvae. However, as velvetbean caterpillar larvae grow, they take on the characteristic slender body shape, which is slightly tapered at both the head and tail ends. Larvae have four pairs of abdominal prolegs and are extremely active when disturbed. When at rest, the last pair of prolegs (anal prolegs) project toward the rear. Coloration of large larvae is highly variable, ranging from green to yellow to nearly black. Usually, yellowish-white stripes run the length of both sides of the body. Larvae usually have a yellow head capsule, a characteristic that is used to to separate velvetbean caterpillars from other larvae on peanut. After feeding for 15-21 days, the larvae enter the soil and pupate. The entire life cycle takes approximately 30 days to complete.

Figure 6. 

Dark phase of velvetbean caterpillar.


Credit: R. K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Green Cloverworm

The green cloverworm, Platypena scabra, is an occasional pest of peanut in Florida. When present, it is usually in a mixed population with other foliage-feeding worms.

The female green cloverworm moth lays eggs singly on the undersides of leaves. The eggs hatch in 3-4 days, and the larval feeding period lasts for 18-20 days. Larvae are pale green in color and are very active when disturbed. They may be distinguished from the other larvae feeding on peanut by their three pairs of abdominal prolegs.

Corn Earworm

The corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, can be a serious pest of peanut in Florida. In addition to defoliation during the season, larvae are also capable of causing damage after the peanuts are dug by feeding on the drying peanuts. Since the corn earworm has numerous cultivated and wild hosts in north Florida, there is a potential for the development of a large population that can cause considerable damage to peanut late in the season.

The corn earworm overwinters in north Floridaas pupae in the soil. The first generation in the spring usually infests corn or wild hosts. The color of the adults varies from light gray to tan with dark irregular lines and a dark spot near the tip to the wing. However, these features may be difficult to see in older moths that have lost scales on their wings. Adults are active at night and are very strong flyers, which enables them to infest a host at considerable distances from where they emerged from the pupal stage.

On peanut, the female moth lays its eggs singly on the undersurfaces of the leaves, usually on or near the terminal. During her lifetime, a single female may lay as many as 300 eggs. Eggs hatch in 2-3 days and larvae begin feeding in the terminals of the branches. This feeding causes a ragged appearance to the plant when the leaflets unfold. Larvae feed for 2-3 weeks before entering the soil to pupate. Larval color of older larvae varies from light green to pink to brown to nearly black. The undersides of larvae are lighter in color. Each larvae is marked with light and dark stripes running lengthwise on the body and an orangish-cream-colored head capsule. When examined closely, the larvae are seen to be covered with numerous spiny projections or hairs that arise from shield-shaped dark areas on the skin. The pupal stage lasts for 7-10 days. The complete life cycle is approximately 30 days long.

Figure 7. 

Small corn earworm larva.


Credit: R. K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 8. 

Large corn earworm larva.


Credit: R. K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Fall Armyworm

The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is usually the most serious of the defoliating pests of peanut in Florida. Unlike the corn earworm, the fall armyworm does not overwinter in north Florida. However, due to its strong flying ability, it is able to infest crops and wild hosts early in the spring.

The moths are dark gray with silvery markings on the wings. They are active at night, and female moths deposit their eggs in masses on the upper surface of the peanut leaves. The egg masses have a fuzzy appearance due to the scales and body hairs that the female moths place on the masses. There may be as many as 150 eggs per mass. During her lifetime, a female moth may lay up to 1000 eggs.

The eggs hatch in 3-4 days, and they initially feed on the terminal where the egg mass was laid.

Figure 9. 

Fall armyworm egg mass on peanut leaf.


Credit: R. K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

As they mature, the larvae disperse to adjacent terminals and plants. The larvae vary from tan to green to nearly black. They have several fine, light-colored lines running down their backs. They have fewer stout hairs than the corn earworm and a light-colored inverted Y on the front of a dark brown head capsule. After feeding for 15-20 days, the larvae, which reach a length of nearly 1 1/2 inches, enter the soil where they pupate. Adults emerge after 7-10 days, and the entire life cycle requires approximately 30 days to complete.

Figure 10. 

Small fall armyworm larva with damage to peanut leaf.


Credit: R. K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 11. 

Large fall armyworm larva on peanut leaf.


Credit: R. K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Beet Armyworm, Southern Armyworm, and Yellowstriped Armyworm

Several other species of armyworms are occasionally found on peanut. These include the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, and the yellowstriped armyworm, Spodoptera ornithgalli. These species occur sporadically and, by comparison, cause considerably less damage than the fall armyworm. Female moths of each of these species lay their eggs in masses. Beet armyworm larvae are pale green in color and have cream-colored lines running the length of both sides of their bodies. The beet armyworm may be distinguished from the other armyworm larvae by the presence of a small dark spot on each side of the body above the middle pair of true legs (those legs just behind the head).

The southern armyworm is dark gray to black with a pair of dorsal triangular markings on most body segments. On each side of the body, the southern armyworm has a bright yellow to orange stripe running the length of the body.

The yellowstriped armyworm, as the name suggests, has several yellow lines on both sides of the body extending from the area just behind the head to the tail end. A yellowstriped armyworm may be distinguished from the southern armyworm by the lack of the triangular markings and the presence of a large black spot on each side of the body just behind the third pair of true legs.

All of these armyworms have a life cycle that requires 30-35 days, and each pupates in the soil.

Figure 12. 

Larva of southern armyworm on peanut leaf.


Credit: R. K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Looper

Both the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and the soybean looper, Trichoplusia includens, may be present on peanut. Populations are usually scattered, and damage is minimal in contrast to the fall armyworm and the corn earworm.

Moths of both species of loopers lay their eggs singly on the peanut foliage. When they first hatch, looper larvae will skeletonize the leaves. Later on, the looper larvae consume entire leaves like other defoliators.

Loopers may be easily distinguished from the other larvae feeding on peanut foliage by the presence of only two pairs of abdominal prolegs. Also, unlike the other defoliators, looper larvae will pupate on the foliage of their host.

Rednecked Peanutworm

The rednecked peanutworm, Stegasta bosquella, usually causes only minor losses to peanut. However, due to its feeding habits, damage is readily evident. Moths lay their eggs singly, and larvae feed exclusively in the growing tip or bud of the plant. As the small leaves unfold, the damage is pronounced, and the infested area takes on a ragged appearance. If damage occurs early in the season, plant stunting may result.

The larvae are pale green to cream-colored with a dark brown head and a reddish colored band just behind the head. Full grown larvae are approximately 1/2 inch in length. Larvae are very active when disturbed.

Figure 13. 

Rednecked peanutworm in terminal of peanut.


Credit: R. K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Peg and Pod Feeding Pests

Lesser Cornstalk Borer

The lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus, is one of the most important economic pests of peanut in the southeastern United States. This pest's association with hot, dry weather is well known by nearly everyone who has grown peanuts. It also tends to be more of a serious pest on sandy soils when compared with heavier soils.

The lesser cornstalk borer is a very active larva with alternating brown and purple bands on its body. When fully grown, it is up to 3/4 inch in length. Its presence and feeding damage in a field are inconspicuous.

Figure 14. 

Lesser cornstalk borer larva.


Credit: R. K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

It lies just beneath the soil surface in a tube-shaped web that is attached to peanut pegs, pods, and limbs that are touching the soil. When gently lifted from the soil, these silken tubes usually have soil particles stuck to them. Their feeding on the pegs and pods causes most of the economic losses. In addition to the feeding damage, disease is also introduced at the feeding site.The female moth is about 1/2 inch in length and is charcoal gray with brown markings just behind the head. The male is similar in size to the female and is a light tan color with a charcoal gray line down the back and along the rear border of the wings.

Figure 15. 

Lesser cornstalk borer adult (male left, female right).


Credit: R. K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Southern Corn Rootworm

On heavier soils in the southeast, the southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata, has increased in importance as an economic pest of peanut. The damage is caused by the larvae. The adults, known as the spotted cucumber beetles, are general feeders on a number of hosts and do very little damage to peanut. The adult is a greenish-yellow beetle with 12 irregular black spots on its back.

Figure 16. 

Spotted cucumber beetle (southern Corn Rootworm adult) on peanut leaf.


Credit: R. K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Feeding by the larval stage can be difficult to detect as there is no webbing similar to that of the lesser cornstalk borer. Feeding is largely confined to the pods and tends to be more severe in wet weather. On the surfaces, damaged pods will have one or more nearly circular holes that appear to be made with a small drill. In some cases, the larvae may be found inside of the damaged pods. Many times, however, the larva is away from the feeding site in the soil. Under these circumstances, the larvae can be very difficult to find.

The larva is white to cream-colored and, when fully grown, is nearly 3/4 inch in length. It has a soft and very fragile body with three pairs of inconspicuous legs just behind the head. The head and last segment of the body are dark brown.

Figure 17. 

Southern corn rootworm on peg.


Credit: R. K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

When the larva completes feeding, it pupates in the soil. The life cycle requires approximately 30 days to complete during the warmer months.

Wireworms

There are numerous species of wireworms (Coleoptera, Elateridae) capable of damaging peanuts. Wireworms are the larval stage of click beetles and, unlike the southern corn rootworm, are dark, shiny, and hard to the touch.

Figure 18. 

Wireworm larva on soil.


Credit: R. K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Like the southern corn rootworm, they have three pairs of legs just behind the head. Damage to peanut pods is similar to that caused by the southern corn rootworm. However, the holes in the pods are generally larger and have more ragged edges. Due to their dark color, larvae are very difficult to find in the soil.

Most species require two years to complete their development. This means that larvae may already be in the soil when a peanut crop is planted. Problems with wireworms tend to be more severe following a sod crop.

Whitefringed Beetles

There are several species of whitefringed beetles, Naupactus spp., present in Florida. Although the adult stage is most frequently encountered, it is the larval or grub stage that causes economic losses to peanut. Feeding damage is seen most frequently where the larva chews a large irregular hole in the tap root. This feeding may cut the tap root below ground, or in less severe cases may damage the plant, which reduces its vigor for the remainder of the season. The larvae are difficult to detect and sifting the soil in the vicinity of a damaged root is usually necessary to locate the grub. The grubs are cream-colored, legless, and up to 3/8 inch in length. The grub has a small brown head and is usually curled in a C-shape.

Figure 19. 

Whitefringed beetle grub on soil.


Credit: R. K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

The life cycle requires up to two years to complete and most of this time is spent in the larval stage. The larvae pupate in the soil and emerge into 1/2 inch long adults that vary from an ash gray to a dark gray with a light-colored margin on the lower edge of the wings. Adults will feed on peanut foliage but damage is minor, appearing as notching on the edges of the leaflets. Both the grub and adult stages have a very wide host range that includes grasses, sedges, and broadleaf plants.

Studies have shown that all adults are female with the development of the egg taking place without fertilization. In addition, the females are unable to fly. Therefore, spread of the whitefringed beetle is slow, but once a field is infested, there is always the potential for damage.

Burrowing Stink Bug

There are several species of small (approximately 1/4 inch in length) black, shiny stink bugs (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) that are sporadic pests of peanut. They are capable of burrowing short distances into the soil where they feed on pegs and developing pods. Damage appears as pale yellow areas, and peanut kernels that have been damaged, have an off-flavor. This is an occasional pest of peanut and infestations are difficult to detect.

Figure 20. 

Stink bug egg mass on peanut leaf.


Credit: R.K. Sprenkel, University of Florida
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Sampling Peanuts for Insect Pests

There are several methods that may be used to sample for foliage-feeding pests of peanut. However, the shake-cloth method appears to give the most consistent results for both someone learning to sample peanuts as well as someone who has considerable experience. The shake-cloth or beat-cloth method uses the standard 36" x 36" cloth that is fastened to two dowel rods.

Samples (generally 5-10 random samples covering the field) should be taken weekly during the growing season. Each sample consists of placing the shake-cloth on the ground between the rows of peanuts and vigorously shaking all of the foliage along a 36" section of one row over the cloth. Late in the growing season when foliage from adjoining rows is touching in the middle, it may be necessary to shake the insects from a 36" row onto the ground. If this is done, be sure to look carefully for small larvae which were shaken from the foliage. After the insects shaken from the foliage are identified, counted, and recorded and all samples in the field taken, the numbers need to be summarized to show the average number per foot of row for each pest.

To sample for the root-peg-pod feeding pests, select 5 plants in the vicinity of each foliage insect sample. For each plant, use a hand trowel to gently loosen and remove the soil beneath the pegs and pods. Examine the pegs, pods, and roots for evidence of insects and damage that is characteristic of the southern corn rootworm, the wireworm and the lesser cornstalk borer. Also, look for the presence of the silken webs of the lesser cornstalk borer. Record the number of plants with one or more peg and pod feeding insects present. After all samples in a field have been taken, calculate the percent of plants having lesser cornstalk borers, southern corn rootworm, or wireworm larvae.

Treatment Thresholds

If the average number of foliage feeding pests and/or the peg-pod-root feeding pests in a field exceeds the thresholds given below, then chemical treatment is usually justified.

Foliage Feeders (Fall armyworms, corn earworms, other armyworms and loopers):

Early season: 3-4/foot of row (before the plants meet in the middle)
Late season: 5-6/foot of row (after the plants have completely covered the middle)

Leafhoppers: A threshold of 30% of the leaflets showing yellowing have been used as a threshold in the past. However, recent studies have shown that treatment at this level of damage will reduce subsequent yellowing but will not improve yields over untreated checks. The 30% threshold is still being suggested with the understanding that this may represent a very conservative threshold.

Peg-Pod Feeders (Lesser cornstalk borer, southern corn rootworm and wireworms):

Before pegging: 10% of the plants with larvae
After pegging: 15% of the plants with larvae

Cutworms: Treatment is usually justified if cutworm feeding has resulted in 20% or more foliage loss.

Additional Information

Beet Armyworm. Capinera, J.L. http://edis. ifas.ufl.edu/IN262.

Cabbage Looper. Capinera, J.L. http://edis. ifas.ufl.edu/IN273.

Corn Earworm. Capinera, J.L. http://edis. ifas.ufl.edu/IN302.

Fall Armyworm. Capinera, J.L. http://edis. ifas.ufl.edu/IN255.

Insect management in Peanuts. Sprenkel, R.K. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IG062.

Leafhoppers. Hudson, R. and Adams, D. http://wiki.bugwood.org/Leafhoppers.

Lesser Cornstalk Borer. Capinera, J.L. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN312.

Lesser Cornstalk Borer. Brown, S.L. and Hudson, W. http://wiki.bugwood.org/Lesser_cornstalk_borer .

Pests of Peanut. http://ipm.ncsu.edu/AG271/ peanuts/peanuts.html

Southern Armyworm. Capinera, J.L. http://edis. ifas.ufl.edu/IN263.

Southern Corn Rootworm. Brown, S.L. and Hudson, W. http://wiki.bugwood.org/Archive:GATop50/Southern_Corn_Rootworm%2C_Western_Corn_Rootworm%2C_and_other_Chrysomelid.

Threecornered Alfalfa Hopper. Hudson, R. and Adams, D. http://wiki.bugwood.org/Threecornered_alfalfa_hopper.

Thrips. Hudson, R. and Adams, D. http://wiki.bugwood.org/Archive:GATop50/Thrips.

Twospotted Spider Mite. Fasulo, T.R. and Denmark, H. A. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN307.

Velvetbean Caterpillar. Barbara, K.A. http://edis. ifas.ufl.edu/IN308.

Whitefringed Beetle. Dixon, W.N. http://edis. ifas.ufl.edu/IN572.

Wireworms. Brown, S.L. and Hudson, W. http://wiki.bugwood.org/Wireworms.

Yellowstriped Armyworm. Capinera, J.L. http:// edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN373.

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENY-668, one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date June 2002. Revised February 2006. Reviewed by Joseph Funderburk, October 2012. Please visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Richard K. Sprenkel, former professor, Department of Entomology, North Florida Research and Education Center--Quincy; Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.