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Publication #ENY-064

Fumigant Nematicides Registered for Vegetable Crop Use in Florida1

J. W. Noling2

Multispectrum fumigant nematicides currently registered for use on different Florida crops are listed in Table 1. The maximum use rates and specific details for field application for each of these fumigants are presented in Table 2. Of these fumigants, many have been evaluated in Florida field trials to characterize pest control efficacy across a spectrum of soil pests and crop yield response (Table 3). The results of these research trials have provided the basis for overall generalization of pesticidal activity for each of the different fumigant chemicals. As a standard for comparison, this research has repeatedly demonstrated methyl bromide to be very effective against a wide range of soilborne pests including nematodes, diseases, and weeds. Chloropicrin has proved very effective against diseases but seldom against nematodes or weeds. Telone (1, 3-dichloropropene) is an excellent nematicide but generally performs poorly against weeds and diseases. Bacterial pathogens have not been satisfactorily controlled by any of the fumigants. Metam sodium and metam potassium can provide good control of weeds, nematodes, and disease when placed properly in the bed, however research to evaluate modification of rate, placement, and improved application technology have not resolved all problems of inconsistent pest control. Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) has demonstrated good to excellent control of nematodes, disease, and weeds when coapplied with chloropicrin. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) (Dominus), the newest fumigant entry to be registered in Florida, has shown some promise for broadspectrum control of nematode, disease, and weeds, but is still in comprehensive assessment to evaluate its relative pesticidal activity.

Tables

Table 1. 

List of multispectrum fumigant nematicides currently registered for use on different Florida crops.

Crop / Use

Allyl

Isothiocyanate

(AITC)

Dominus

Telone II

Telone EC

Telone C17

Telone C35

Telone Inline

Dimethyl

Dibromide

(DMDS)

DMDS EC

Pic Clor 60

Pic Clor 60 EC

Metam Sodium

Metam potassium

Asparagus

X

X

 

X

X

Broccoli

X

X

 

X

X

Cabbage

X

X

 

X

X

Cantaloupe

X

X

 

X

X

Cauliflower

X

X

 

X

X

Corn

X

X

 

X

X

Cucumber

X

X

 

X

X

Eggplant

X

X

X

X

X

Melon

X

X

X

X

X

Onions

X

X

 

X

X

Peppers

X

X

X

X

X

Tomato

X

X

X

X

X

Sweet corn

X

X

 

X

X

Sweet potato

X

X

 

X

X

Squash

X

X

X

X

X

Strawberry

X

X

X

X

X

Vegetable

X

X

 

X

 

Plant bed

X

       

Seed bed

X

       

Crop land

(all crops)

X

X

 

X

 

Fruit nut vine

X

X

 

X

 

Field crops

X

X

 

X

 

Nursery crops

X

X

 

X

 

Food crops

X

     

X

Fiber crops

X

     

X

Ornamentals

X

     

X

Turf

X

       

Floral crops

X

       

Non food crops

X

       

Non-Feed Crops

X

       

This information was compiled as a quick reference for the commercial Florida vegetable grower as of December 2015. The mention of a chemical or proprietary product in this publication does not constitute a written recommendation or an endorsement for its use by the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products or practices that may be suitable. Products mentioned in this publication are subject to changing state and federal rules, regulations, and restrictions. Additional products may become available or approved for use. Growers have the final responsibility to guarantee that each product is used in a manner consistent with its label. All soil fumigation products containing methyl bromide are being reduced in supply and availability, with an expected complete phase-out for soil fumigation use in 2015.

Table 2. 

List of multispectrum fumigant nematicides currently registered for use in Florida including maximum rates and specific details for field application.

Nematicide

Broadcast Application 1

In-the-row applications

Gallons or lbs

per acre

Fl oz /1000 ft / chisel spaced 12" apart

Telone II 2,3

9 to 12 gal

26 to 35

For any row spacing, application rates given may be concentrated in the row but shall never exceed the labeled maximum for broadcast applications. Consult the product label for additional detail.

Telone EC 2,3

9 to 12 gal

26 to 35

For any row spacing, application rates given may be concentrated in the row but shall never exceed the labeled maximum for broadcast applications. Consult the product label for additional detail and chemigation equipment requirement.

Telone C-17 2,3

10.8 to 17.1 gal

31.8 to 50.2

For any row spacing, application rates given may be concentrated in the row but shall never exceed the labeled maximum for broadcast applications. Consult the product label for additional detail.

Telone C-35 2,3

13 to 20.5 gal

38 to 60

For any row spacing, application rates given may be concentrated in the row but shall never exceed labeled maximum for broadcast applications. Consult the product label for additional detail.

Telone InLine 2,3

13 to 20.5 gal

-

For drip fumigation, consult the product label for overall rate, drip concentration, and flow modifying application directions.

Pic Clor 60 2,3

19.5 to 31.5 gal

57 to 90

Consult product label for overall rate and chisel flow modifying application directions.

Pic Clor 60 EC 2,3

19.5 to 31.5 gal

-

For drip fumigation, consult product label for proportionately reduced overall rates, drip concentration, and drip flow modifying directions and procedures.

Vapam HL

75 gal

-

For drip or in-row fumigation and crop termination, consult product label for proportionately reduced overall rates, drip concentration, and flow modifying directions and procedures.

KPam HL

60 gal

-

For drip or in-row fumigation and crop termination, consult product label for proportionately reduced overall rates, drip concentration and flow modifying directions.

Dimethyl2 Disulfide (DMDS)

51.3 gal

-

Compared to broadcast application, apply proportionately less for in-the-row applications based on the ratio of bed width to row spacing. Consult the product label for additional detail and rate modifying recommendation.

Dimethyl2 Disulfide (DMDS) Plus PIC 79:21

30-40 gal

-

Compared to broadcast application, apply proportionately less for in-the-row applications based on the ratio of bed width to row spacing. Consult the product label for additional detail and rate modifying recommendation.

Allyl Isothiocyanate (AITC) Dominus

40 gal

-

For drip or in-row fumigation and crop termination, consult product label for overall rates, drip concentration and flow-modifying directions

1Gallons/acre and fl oz/1000 feet provided only for mineral soils. Higher rates may be possible for heavier textured (loam, silt, clay) or highly organic soils.

2All of the fumigants mentioned are for retail sale and use only by state-certified applicators or persons under their direct supervision. New supplemental labeling for the Telone products must be in the hands of the user at the time of application. See label details for additional use restrictions based on soil characteristics, buffer zones, requirements for Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), mandatory good agricultural practices (GAPs), product and applicator training certification, and rate-modifying recommendations with use of highly retentive mulch films.

3Higher application rates are possible in the presence of cyst-forming nematodes.

This information was compiled as a quick reference for the commercial Florida vegetable grower as of December 2015. The mention of a chemical or proprietary product in this table does not constitute a written recommendation or an endorsement for its use by the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products or practices that may be suitable. Products mentioned in this publication are subject to changing state and federal rules, regulations, and restrictions. Additional products may become available or approved for use. Rates are believed to be correct for products named, and similar products of other brand names, when applied to mineral soils. Higher rates are required for muck (organic) soils. However, the grower has the final responsibility to see that each product is used in a manner consistent with its label; read the label of the product to be sure that you are using it properly.

Table 3. 

Generalized summary of maximum use rate and relative effectiveness of various soil fumigants for nematode, soilborne disease, and weed control in Florida.

FUMIGANT CHEMICAL1

Maximum

Use

Rate / A

Relative Pesticidal Activity

Nematode

Disease

Weed

1) Chloropicrin2

300 lb

None to Poor

Excellent

Poor

2) Metam Sodium

75 gal

Good to Poor

Good to Poor

Good to Poor

3) Telone II

18 gal

Good to Excellent

None to Poor

Poor

4) Telone C17

26 gal

Good to Excellent

Good

Poor

5) Telone C35

35 gal

Good to Excellent

Good to Excellent

Poor to Fair

6) Pic-Clor 60

300 lb

Good to Excellent

Good to Excellent

Poor to Fair

7) Metam Potassium

60 gal

Good to Poor

Good to Poor

Good to Poor

8) Dimethyl Disulfide2

53 gal

Good to Excellent

Good to Excellent

Poor to Excellent

9) AITC (Dominus)

40 gal

Still in

Assessment

Still in

Assessment

Still in

Assessment

1Use of soil fumigants in Florida now requires new fumigant product and applicator training certifications, personal protective equipment, buffer zones, mandatory good application practices (GAPs), impermeable plastic mulch coverings, and other new restrictions and requirements that may be subject to change.

2 Broad spectrum pest control achieved when coapplied with chloropicrin (21% wt/wt). Provides excellent control of nutsedge but poor to fair control of annual grasses and requires the use of a herbicide for adequate control.

Rates are believed to be correct for products named and similar products of other brand names when applied to mineral soils. Higher rates are required for muck (organic) soils. However, the grower has the final responsibility to see that each product is used legally; read the label of the product to be sure that you are using it properly.

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENY-064, one of a series of the Department of Entomology and Nematology, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date January 2013. Revised December 2015. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

J. W. Noling, professor; Department of Entomology and Nematology, UF/IFAS Citrus Research and Education Center in Lake Alfred, FL 33850.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.