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Publication #PI-36

Restricted Use Pesticides1

Frederick M. Fishel2

Restricted use pesticides (RUP) are for retail sale to, and use by, only certified applicators or persons under their direct supervision and only for those purposes covered by the applicator's certification. When a pesticide is classified as restricted, the label will state "Restricted Use Pesticide" at the top of the front panel. Below this heading may be a statement describing the reason for the restricted classification (Figure 1). There are various reasons determined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) why a particular pesticide is classified as restricted. These criteria involve the EPAs determination that the pesticide may be hazardous to human health or to the environment even when used according to the label.

Figure 1. 

Examples of criteria for restricted use classification as seen on labels.


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Figure 1. 

Examples of criteria for restricted use classification as seen on labels.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]
Figure 1. 

Examples of criteria for restricted use classification as seen on labels.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Some states, including Florida, adhere to the EPAs Federal listing for determining those pesticide active ingredients that are classified as “restricted.” Other states may require that certain other active ingredients not listed on the Federal list be classified as “restricted” in their states due to local conditions, generally related to environmental concerns. Although some restricted use active ingredients may be federally registered, they may not have a Florida registration.

Reasons for RUP classification that are given in this guide may include terminology such as:

Fetotoxicity – adverse effects on the fetus;

Mutagenicity – causes genetic changes in the organism that may or may not be passed on to its next generation;

Oncogenicity – causes tumors, but not necessarily malignant, and

Teratogenicity – causes birth defects.

The pesticide's label is the last word on use, regardless of its classification as a general use or a restricted use pesticide.

This guide provides a listing of common names of pesticides determined to be classified as restricted use by the EPA and registered for use in Florida (Table 1). With each entry, formulations that are regarded as restricted, their uses and the reason(s), if given, for their restricted classification are cited. Common names of pesticides that have had their registrations cancelled or those whose restricted status is no longer in effect are shown in Table 2. Be aware that the listing is slightly modified, generally on an annual basis. For updated listings of Federal restricted use pesticides, see: http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/rup/.

Table 1. 

Federally-restricted pesticides registered in Florida.

Pesticide common name

Specific formulations

Specific uses

Criteria for RUP

Abamectin

Emulsifiable

concentrate

Agricultural

Toxic to fish, mannals. and aquatic organisms

Acetochlor

Emulsifiable concentrate

Field corn, popcorn, forage/feeder corn

Ground and surface water concerns

Acrolein

As sole active ingredient

All uses

Human inhalation hazard, adverse effects on avian and aquatic organisms

Alachlor

All formulations

All uses

Oncogenic potential

Aldicarb

As sole active ingredient and in combination with other actives; all granular formulations

All uses

Accident history

Aluminum phosphide

As sole active ingredient

All uses

Human inhalation hazard

Amitraz

All formulations

Pears

Possible oncogenicity

Amitrole

All formulations

All uses except homeowner

Oncogenic potential

Arsenic acide

All formulations except brush-on

All dessicant uses; all wood preservative uses

Oncogenicity, mutagenicity and repro/fetotoxicity

Arsenic pentoxide

All formulations

Wood preservative uses

Potential oncogenicity, mutagenicity, repro/fetotoxicity

Atrazine

All manufacturing and end use

Agricultural and industrial uses

Ground water contamination potential; worker exposure concerns

Avermectin

Emulsifiable concentrate

Cotton and citrus

Toxic to fish, mammals and aquatic organisms

Avitrol

All formulations

All uses

Hazard to fish and non-target birds

Azinphos-methyl

All liquids with greater than 13.5% concentration; others on a case-by-case basis

All uses

Human inhalation hazard, acute toxicity, hazard to avian, aquatic and mammalian species

Bendiocarb

Granular and wettable powder

Turf

Toxicity to aquatic and avian species

Bifenthrin

All agricultural use formulations

Agricutural uses

Toxic to fish and aquatic organisms

Bis(tributyltin)oxide

Solution – ready to use

Antifouling paint

Toxic to aquatic organisms including shellfish

Carbofuran

All formulations except pellets and tablets

All uses

Acute inhalation toxicity; avian toxicity (granular)

Chlorophacinone

Tracking powder, dust and ready to use 0.2% (EPA Reg. Nos. 7173-113 and 7173-172)

Inside buildings

Human hazard, potential for food contamination, possible inhalation hazard

Chloropicrin

All formulations greater than 2% and all formulations (rodent control)

All uses (greater than 2% including rodent control)

Acute inhalation toxicity, hazard to non-target organisms

Chlorpyrifos

Emulsifiable concentrate

Agricultural uses

Avian and aquatic toxicity

Chromic acid

All formulations except brush-on

All wood preservative

Oncogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity and fetotoxic effects

Clofentezine

All formulations

All uses

Additional data required to remove the restriction

Coal tar

Solution – ready to use

Wood preservative

Oncogenicity and mutagenicity

Coal tar creosote

All formulations

Wood preservative

Possible oncogenic and mutagenic effects

Coumaphos

Flowable concentrate

Indoor food and indoor nonfood

Acute oral toxicity hazards

Cube resins other than rotenone

Emulsifiable concentrate

Small fruits, currants, certain berries

Chronic eye and inhalation effects

Cyfluthrin

25% Emulsifiable concentrate

Agricultural

Acute toxicity to applicators, fish and other aquatic organisms

Cyhalothrin

Emulsifiable concentrate

Cotton

Environmental data requirements

Cypermethrin

All formulations

All agricultural crops

Oncogenicity, hazard to non-target organisms

Dazomet

Granule

Turfgrass and Ornamentals

Acute inhalation toxicity

Deltamethrin

Emulsifiable concentrate

Cotton

High toxicity to aquatic organisms

Diazinon

Granular, emulsifiable concentrate and wettable powders

Small fruits and certain berries

Avian and aquatic toxicity

Dichlobenil

2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile

Terrestrial

Conditional

Dichloropropene

All formulations (94% liquid concentrate is the only formulation)

All uses

Probable human carcinogen, oncogenic, acutely toxic by oral and inhalation routes

Diclofop methyl

All formulations

All uses

Oncogenicity

Dicrotophos

All liquid formulations 8% and greater

All uses

Acute dermal toxicity, residue effects on avian species

Diflubenzuron

Wettable powders

All uses

Hazard to wildlife

Disulfoton

All ECs 65% and greater, all ECs and concentrate solutions 21% and greater with fensulfothion 43% and greater, all ECs 32% and greater in combination with 32% fensulfothion and greater

All uses, commercial seed treatment (non-aqueous solution 95% and greater).

Acute dermal toxicity, inhalation hazard

Emamectin benzoate

4-epimethlyamino-4-deoxykavermectin BLA and B1b benzoates

Insecticide, miticide

Toxicity to fish

Esfenvalerate

66% emulsible concentrate

Insecticide

Toxicity to fish and aquatic organisms

Ethoprop

Emulsifiable concentrates 40% and greater (aquatic uses); all uses (granular and fertilizer formulations

Aquatic uses (ECs 40% or greater); all uses (granular and fertilizer formulations)

Acute dermal toxicity

Fenamiphos

Emulsifiable concentrates 35% and greater

All uses

Acute dermal toxicity, avian acute oral toxicity, acute inhalation toxicity

Fenbutatin-oxide

Wettable powder

Agricultural uses

Acute human toxicity and very high toxicity to aquatic organisms

Fenpropathrin

2.4 emulsifiable concentrate spray

Agricultural uses

Environmental concerns: toxic to fish and aquatic organisms

Fenthion

Emulsifiable concentrate

Mosquitocide

Very high acute toxicity to birds, fish and aquatic invertebrates

Fipronil

All formulations

Insecticide/miticide

Conditional amended

Gamma-cyhalothrin

Agricultural formulations

insecticide

Toxicity to fish and aquatic organisms

Hydrogen cyanamide

50% active ingredient

Tree fruits

Corrosive effects to skin and eyes

Lambda-cyhalothrin

All formulations

All uses

Toxicity to fish and aquatic invertebrates

Magnesium phosphide

All formulations

All uses

Inhalation hazard

Metam-potassium

All formulations

All uses

Acute inhalation toxicity

Metam-sodium

All formulations

All uses

Acute inhalation toxicity

Methamidophos

Liquid formulations 40% and greater, dust formulations 2.5% and greater

All uses

Acute dermal toxicity, residue effects on avian species

Methidathion

All formulations

All uses except nursery stock, safflower and sunflower

Residue effects on avian species

Methiocarb

All formulations

Outdoor commercial and agricultural uses

Possible hazard to avian, fish and other aquatic organisms

Methomyl

As sole active ingredient in 1 to 2.5% baits (except 1% fly bait), all concentrate solution formulations and 90% wettable powder formulations (not in water soluble bags)

Nondomestic outdoor and all other registered uses (agricultural crops, ornamentals and turf)

Residue effects on mammalian species, other hazards – accident history

Methyl bromide

All formulations

All uses

Acute toxicity and accident history

Methyl isothiocyanate

Solution – ready to use

Fungicide for wood, wood preservative

Exceeds classification criteria of 40 CFR 152.170

Methyl parathion

All formulations

All uses

Residue effects on mammalian and avian species, hazard to bees, acute dermal toxicity

Milbemectin

Emulsifiable concentrate

All uses

Toxic to fish and aquatic organisms

Naled

Emulsifiable concentrate

Agricultural, commercial pest control, and public health

Eye and skin corrosivity hazard

Nicarbazin

Granule

Bait applications (geese)

Potential risks to non-target wildlife species

Niclosamide

All wettable powders 70% and greater

All uses

Acute inhalation toxicity, effects on aquatic organisms

Nicotine

Liquid and dry formulations 14% and greater (greenhouse); all formulations (cranberries)

Greenhouse applications, all applications to cranberries

Acute inhalation toxicity, effects on aquatic organisms

Nitrogen, liquid

Solution – ready to use

Termiticide

Highly corrosive upon contact with skin or eyes

Oxamyl

Liquid formulations, granular on a case-by-case basis

All uses

Acute oral toxicity, acute inhalation toxicity, avian oral toxicity

Oxydemeton methyl

All products

All uses

Reproductive effects

Paraquat

All formulations and concentrations except certain mixtures – see label

All uses

Human toxicological data, other hazards – use and accident history

Pentachlorophenol

All formulations

Wood preservative uses

Possible oncogenic, teratogenic and fetoxic effects

Pentachlorophenol, Sodium S

All formulations

Wood preservative uses

Possible oncogenic, mutagenic and/or fetotoxic effects

Permethrin

All formulations

Agricultural crop uses

Highly toxic to aquatic organisms, oncogenicity

Phorate

Liquid formulations 65% and greater (all uses); all granular formulations (rice)

All uses (65% and greater); granular formulations (rice)

Acute oral and dermal toxicity for granulars, residue effects on avian and mammalian species (foliar application of liquid formulation only), effects on aquatic organisms

Picloram

Soluble concentrate

All uses

May injure susceptible, non-target plants

Piperonyl butoxide

Emulsifiable concentrate

Small fruits, certain berries, currants

Not specified

Profenofos

Emulsifiable concentrate 59.4%, EPA Reg. Nos. 100-599 and 100-669

Cotton

Corrosive to eyes

Pronamide

All 50% wettable powders

All uses

Oncogenicity

Propanoic acid

Emulsifiable concentrate

Wheat, rice, edible chrysanthemum, cotton, clover, alfalfa, wheat-grass, sideoats grama, little bluestem

Not specified

Pyrethrins

Emulsifiable concentrate

No uses listed

Chronic eye effects

Resmethrin

All formulations

Mosquito abatement and pest control treatments at nonagricultural sites

Acute fish toxicity

Rotenone

2.5/5.0 EC, 5.0% +20.0% wettable powder

Fish toxicant

Chronic eye and inhalation effects

Simazine

Emulsifiable concentrate

Grapes and certain berries

Not specified

Sodium cyanide

All capsules and ball formulations

All uses

Human inhalation hazard, hazard to non-target species

Sodium dichromate

All wood preservative formulations except brush-on

Wood preservative uses

Oncogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity and fetotoxocity

Sodium fluoroacetate

All solutions and dry baits

All uses

Acute oral toxicity, hazard to non-target organisms, use and accident history

Sodium hydroxide

Ready to use solution

Control tree roots in sewage systems

Acute toxicity; eye, inhalation and dermal hazard

Sodium methyldithiocarbamate

32.7% anhydrous

Soil fumigant to control soilborne pests of ornamental, food and fiber crops and for root control in sewage systems

Dermal toxicity and teratogenicity. Acute toxicity of metam sodium and its intended use in controlling sewer root growth

Strychnine

Dry baits, pellets and powder formulations – see specific labels

Formulations greater than 0.5%: all uses. All formulations: all uses calling for burrow builders. Formulations less than 0.5%: all uses except below-ground hand application.

Acute oral toxicity hazard to non-target avian species; use and accident history

Sulfotepp

Sprays and smoke generators

All uses

Inhalation hazard to humans

Sulfuric acid

Solution – ready to use

Potato vine desiccant

Extremely corrosive – acute toxicity to humans

Sulfuryl fluoride

All formulations

All uses

Acute inhalation hazard and possible acute toxicity hazard in humans

Tefluthrin

Granular formulations

Corn grown for seed

Environmental concerns Toxicity to fish and aquatic organisms

Terbufos

Granular formulations 15% and greater

All uses

Residue effects on avian species; acute oral and dermal toxicity and risks to aquatic organisms and other wildlife from runoff

TFM

Impregnated material

Aquatic pest control

Complexity in use- requires specialized training, equipment and clothing

Thiodicarb

All formulations

Seed treatment and ovicide

Avian, aquatic, and small mammal toxicity

Tralomethrin

All formulations

All agricultural crop uses

Toxicity to aquatic organisms

Tributyltin fluoride

Solution – ready to use

Antifouling paint

Toxicity to aquatic organisms including shellfish

Tributyltin methacrylate

Solution – ready to use

Antifouling paint

Toxicity to aquatic organisms

Triisopropranolamine

Emulsifiable concentrate

All uses

Hazard to non-target organisms, specifically plants both crop and noncrop

Triphenyltin hydroxide

All formulations

All uses

Possible mutagenic effects

Zeta-cypermethrin

All formulations

Agricultural

Toxic to fish and aquatic organisms

Zinc phosphide

All dry formulations 60% and greater; all bait formulations; all dry formulations 10% and greater

All uses – non-domestic outdoor uses (other than 1-2% formulation in/around buildings); domestic uses

Hazard to non-target organisms, acute oral toxicity, acute inhalation toxicity

Tables

Table 2. 

Pesticides deleted from the restricted use list because of cancellation.

Pesticide common name

Trade name

Pesticide type

Acrylonitrile

Acritet 34-66

Fumigant, insecticide

Allyl alcohol

Weed Seed Killer

Herbicide

Alpha-chlorohydrin

Epibloc

Rodenticide

Brodifacoum

Talon G

Rodenticide

Butylate

Sutazine

Herbicide

Cadmium chloride

Caddy

Fungicide

Calcium cyanide

A-Dust, G-Fumigant

Insecticide

Carbon dioxide

Makr carbon dioxide

Fumigant

Carbon tetrachloride

Dowfume 75, Vulcan Formula 72

Fumigant

Chlordane

Chlordane

Termiticide

Chlordimeform

Galecron, Fundal

Insecticide, miticide

Chlorfenvinphos

Poultry Premise Larvicide

Insecticide

Chlorobenzilate

Acaraben, Benz-o-chlor, Benzilan

Insecticide

Chlorothalonil

Dacobre

Fungicide

Copper oxychloride

Dacobre DG

Fungicide, bactericide

Creosote

BL Coal tar creosote (non-pressure)

Wood preservative

Cupric oxide

Chapman CCA-50

Fungicide

Cyanazine

Bladex

Herbicide

Cycloheximide

Acti-Aid

Fumigant, insecticide

DBCP

Nematocide EM or Solution

Fumigant

Demeton

Systox 2, Systox 6, Demox, Stemite

Insecticide

Diallate

Avadex

Herbicide

Diphacinone

Gold Crest Tracking Powder

Rodenticide

Dodemorph

Milban

Fungicide

E-mevinphos

Duraphos, Phosdrin

Insecticide

Endrin

Endrin

Insecticide

EPN

EPN, Barricade, Powertox, MEPN, Budmor, Raider, Veto, others

Insecticide

Ethylene dibromide

TRI-X Garment Fumigant, Infuco Dibrome

Fumigant

Fensulfothion

Dasanit, BIG-D Granules

Insecticide

Flucythrinate

Pay Off, AASTAR

Insecticide

Fluoroacetamide

Fluoroacetamide/1080

Rodenticide

Fluvalinate

Mavrik, Spur

Insecticide

Fonofos

Dyfonate

Insecticide

Hydrocyanic acid

HCN

Fumigant

Isazofos

Triumph 4E

Insecticide

Isofenphos

Pryfon 6, Amaze 6

Termiticide

Monocrotophos

Azodrin, DPHMC 5, Chiles Go-Better

Insecticide

Phosacetim

Gophacide, Gopher-Trol, others

Rodenticide

Phosalone

Zolone

Insecticide

Phosphamidon

Phosphamidon 8

Insecticide

Potassium pentachlorophenate

Permatox 180 or 182

Wood preservative

Sodium arsenate

Sodium arsenate, Osmosalts

Wood preservative

Sodium pyroarsenate

Wolmans Salts CCA-Type B

Wood preservative

TEPP

Miller Kilmite-40

Insecticide

Tergitrol

Compound PA-14

Bird control

Toxaphene

Toxaphene

Insecticide

Z-mevinphos

Phosdrin, Duraphos

Insecticide

Footnotes

1.

This document is PI-36, one of a series of the Pesticide Information Office, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Published March 2005. Revised July 2006. Reviewed August 2012. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Frederick M. Fishel, associate professor, Agronomy Department, and Director, Pesticide Information Office; Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication does not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.