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Publication #PI-36

Restricted Use Pesticides for Use in Florida1

Frederick M. Fishel2

Background

All pesticides are classified according to their toxicity, use pattern, and environmental effects. The two main classifications set out by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are unclassified use and restricted use, though unclassified pesticides are commonly referred to as general use pesticides. A restricted use pesticide is one that is for retail sale to and use by only certified applicators or persons under their direct supervision and only for those purposes covered by the applicator’s certification. This document provides a listing of pesticide active ingredients registered in Florida that are classified as restricted use and the reason(s) for their restricted use classification.

Use Classification

The EPA classifies a pesticide as restricted use if use of the pesticide might result in an adverse effect on human health and/or the environment if used incorrectly. However, application by trained persons following label directions would protect against such an effect. The EPA evaluates the risk of using the pesticide in this decision, with risk considered to be the chance of harmful effects to human health or to ecological systems resulting from exposure to an environmental stressor. A similar term, but with a different meaning, is “hazard.” A hazard is a situation that poses a level of threat to life, health, property, or environment. Most hazards are potential, with only a theoretical risk of harm; however, once a hazard becomes “active,” it can create an emergency. Hazard and possibility interact together to create risk. In classifying a pesticide, the EPA considers:

  • the toxicity of the pesticide;

  • the way in which the pesticide will be used; and

  • the effect of the pesticide on the environment.

When a pesticide is classified as restricted, the label will state “Restricted Use Pesticide” at the top of the front panel. Below this heading may be a justification for the restricted use classification (Figure 1).

Figure 1. 

Restricted use product, labeled as such because of its risk of acute toxicity to the applicator or nontarget organisms.


Credit:

Frederick M. Fishel, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Although there is a federal list of restricted use active ingredients determined by the EPA, some states have their own lists of restricted products. Florida follows the federal guidelines for determining if a product is restricted. To purchase and apply restricted use pesticides, a person must be certified and licensed in the state of Florida. Table 1 provides a listing of active ingredients registered in Florida that have some or all formulations/products classified as restricted use, the pesticide type, and the reason for restriction. Keep in mind that although some active ingredients are formulated into products that are classified as restricted use, other formulations containing the same active ingredient are not classified as such. Thus, some products containing these active ingredients are available to the general public, including homeowners. To search all pesticide active ingredients registered in Florida, go to the public National Pesticide Information Retrieval Site (NPIRS) site at http://npirspublic.ceris.purdue.edu/state/state_menu.aspx?state=FL.

Tables

Table 1. 

Federally listed restricted use pesticide active ingredients that have some or all formulations/products registered in Florida by pesticide type, and the reason for restriction.

Pesticide type

Active ingredient

Reason(s) for restriction

Avicide

4-aminopyridine

Inhalation toxicity to humans

Fumigants

Aluminum phosphide

Inhalation toxicity to humans

Chloropicrin

Dazomet

1,3-Dichloropropene

Dimethyl disulfide

Magnesium phosphide

Metam-sodium

Metam-potassium

Methyl bromide

Sulfuryl fluoride

Fungicides

Fentin hydroxide

Carcinogenicity, potential for affecting fetal development, and high acute toxicity to humans

Herbicides

Acrolein

High acute toxicity

Atrazine

Groundwater and surface water contamination concerns

Dicamba

Registration condition1

Diclofop-methyl

Carcinogenicity in laboratory mice, and eye irritation

Paraquat dichloride

Acute toxicity to humans

Picloram

May injure susceptible nontarget plants

Propyzamide

Production of tumors in laboratory animals

Insecticides/miticides/nematicides

Abamectin

Toxic to fish, mammals, and aquatic organisms

Aldicarb

Acute oral toxicity and groundwater contamination

Bifenthrin

Toxic to fish and aquatic organisms

Chlorpyrifos

Toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, small mammals, and birds

Chlorethoxyfos

Acute human, avian, and aquatic invertebrate toxicity

Cyfluthrin

Toxicity to fish and aquatic organisms

Cypermethrin and zeta-cypermethrin

Toxicity to fish and aquatic organisms

Deltamethrin

Acute toxicity and toxicity to fish and aquatic organisms

Dicrotophos

Acute oral, dermal, and inhalation toxicity and risks to wildlife

Diflubenzuron

Toxicity to aquatic invertebrate animals

Disulfoton

Acute toxicity

Emamectin-benzoate

Toxic to fish, mammals, and aquatic organisms

Endosulfan

Acute toxicity to humans, aquatic organisms, and avian species

Esfenvalerate

Toxicity to fish and aquatic organisms

Ethoprop

Acute dermal, primary dermal, and primary eye toxicity

Fenbutatin-oxide

Acute human toxicity and very high toxicity to aquatic organisms

Fenpropathrin

Toxicity to fish and aquatic organisms

Fipronil

Toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Gamma-cyhalothrin

Toxicity to fish and aquatic organisms

Lambda-cyhalothrin

Toxicity to fish and aquatic organisms

Methamidophos

Acute dermal toxicity and residue effects on avian species

Methiocarb

Toxicity to fish, birds, and aquatic organisms

Methomyl

High acute toxicity to humans

Naled

Eye and skin corrosivity hazard

Oxamyl

Acute toxicity and toxicity to birds and mammals

Permethrin

Toxicity to fish and aquatic organisms

Phorate

Acute oral, dermal, and inhalation toxicity and avian hazards

Resmethrin

Acute fish toxicity

Tefluthrin

Toxicity to fish and aquatic organisms

Terbufos

Acute oral, dermal, and inhalation toxicity and risks to aquatic organisms and wildlife

Rodenticides

Chlorophacinone

High acute toxicity

Diphacinone

Dermal toxicity

Zinc phosphide

Acute oral, acute dermal, and primary dermal irritation toxicity

Wood preservative

Arsenic acid anhydride

Acute toxicity and because this product contains arsenic and chromium compounds, which may be associated with tumor development in humans and are considered to have an acute toxicity level

Piscicide

Rotenone

Acute inhalation, acute oral and aquatic toxicity

Molluscicide

Niclosamide

Aquatic organism toxicity, need for specialized equipment and highly specialized applicator training

1 Applicator must complete dicamba- or auxin-specific training.

Footnotes

1.

This document is PI-36, one of a series of the Pesticide Information Office, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date March 2005. Revised September 2019. Visit the EDIS website at https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu for the currently supported version of this publication.

2.

Frederick M. Fishel, professor, Agronomy Department, and director, Pesticide Information Office; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication does not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow directions on the manufacturer's label.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.