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Publication #PI235

Agricultural Pesticide Use in Florida: A Summary, 2007-20091

Bonnie Wells and F.M. Fishel2

Introduction

Commercial farms in Florida span over nine million acres and earn annual profits of more than $7.5 billion. High temperatures and heavy rainfall create heavy pest pressure that leads the majority of Florida farmers to rely upon pesticides for high-yielding, cost-effective crop production (FDACS 2010). Statewide pesticide usage data from 2007 to 2009 for 14 crops and 169 active ingredients (66 insecticides, 46 fungicides, 36 herbicides, and 21 other) were recently released by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS 2010). Table 1 lists the top ten pesticides used in Florida based on the number of pounds applied and the crops associated with each use. Tables 2, 3, 4, and 5 specifically list the most common fungicides, insecticides, herbicides, and other pesticides applied by total pounds of applied active ingredient, respectively. The annual use rates and crop usage are also included in each table. "Other" pesticides refer to active ingredients that are characterized as other than herbicides, insecticides, or fungicides; these include chemicals such as fumigants, miticides, and postharvest sanitizers.

The top ten applied pesticides by total pounds of active ingredient in Florida include (1) petroleum distillate, (2) methyl bromide, (3) chloropicrin, (4) glyphosate, (5) copper hydroxide, (6) aldicarb, (7) chlorothalonil, (8) mancozeb, (9) diuron, and (10) carbaryl (Table 1). Copper hydroxide was the most applied fungicide in pounds of active ingredient, followed by chlorothalonil, mancozeb, maneb, captan, thiram, mono-potassium salt, thiophanate methyl, fenbuconazole, and azoxystrobin (Table 2). The most applied insecticide in pounds of active ingredient was petroleum distillate, followed by aldicarb, carbaryl, endosulfan, sulfur, methomyl, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, fenpropathrin, and imidacloprid (Table 3). Glyphosate ranked number one for the most applied herbicide in pounds of active ingredient, followed by diuron, simazine, sulfosate, bromacil, triclopyr, pendimethalin, atrazine, paraquat, and 2,4-D iso. salt (Table 4). The fumigant methyl bromide was the leading "other" pesticide applied, followed by the fumigants chloropicrin and dichloropicrin, the sanitizer hydrogen peroxide, and the miticide spirodiclofen (Table 5).

Reference

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Summary of Agricultural Pesticide Use in Florida: 2007-2009, October 2010. Accessed May 25, 2011. http://www.flaes.org/pdf/PUI_narrative_2010.pdf.

Tables

Table 1. 

Table 1. Top Ten Pesticides Applied in Florida, 2007–20091

Active Ingredient

Total lbs a.i Applied

Crop Usage

Petroleum Distillate

25,647,600

Snap beans, sweet corn, cucumber-fresh, bell pepper, squash, tomato, watermelon

Methyl Bromide

5,940,200

Bell pepper, squash, strawberry, watermelon

Chloropicrin

2,117,900

Cabbage, bell pepper, squash, strawberry, tomato, watermelon

Glyphosate, iso. salt

1,532,800

Snap beans, sweet corn, cucumber-fresh, cucumber-pickle, grapefruit, orange, bell pepper, squash, strawberry, tangelo, tangerine, tomato, watermelon

Copper hydroxide

1,176,500

Snap beans, cabbage, cucumber-fresh, cucumber-pickle, grapefruit, orange, bell pepper, squash, strawberry, tangelo, tangerine, tomato, watermelon

Aldicarb

869,100

Snap beans, grapefruit, orange, tangelo, tangerine

Chlorothalonil

800,900

Snap beans, cabbage, sweet corn, cucumber-fresh, cucumber-pickle, orange, bell pepper, squash, strawberry, tomato, watermelon

Mancozeb

639,500

Snap beans, cabbage, sweet corn, cucumber-fresh, orange, squash, tomato, watermelon

Diuron

512,300

Grapefruit, orange, tangelo, tangerine

Carbaryl

372,700

Snap beans, sweet corn, cucumber-fresh, cucumber-pickle, grapefruit, orange, bell pepper, squash, strawberry, tangelo, tangerine, tomato, watermelon

1Crops surveyed: beans (snap), cabbage, corn (sweet), cucumber (fresh), cucumber (pickles), grapefruit, orange, pepper (sweet-bell), squash, strawberry, tangelo, tangerine, tomato, and watermelon.

Table 2. 

Table 2. Top Ten Fungicides Applied in Florida, 2007-20091

Active Ingredient

Total lbs a.i Applied

Crop Usage

Copper hydroxide

1,176,500

Snap beans, cabbage, cucumber-fresh, cucumber-pickle, grapefruit, orange, bell pepper, squash, strawberry, tangelo, tangerine, tomato, watermelon

Chlorothalonil

800,900

Snap beans, cabbage, sweet corn, cucumber-fresh, cucumber-pickle, orange, bell pepper, squash, strawberry, tomato, watermelon

Mancozeb

639,500

Snap beans, cabbage, sweet corn, cucumber-fresh, orange, squash, tomato, watermelon

Maneb

256,700

Cabbage, sweet corn, cucumber-fresh, cucumber-pickle, bell pepper, squash, strawberry, watermelon

Captan

221,400

Strawberry, cucumber-fresh, grapefruit, orange, tangelo, tangerine

Thiram

92,800

Strawberry

Mono-potassium salt

45,800

Grapefruit, orange, tangelo, tangerine

Thiophanate methyl

27,500

Snap beans, cucumber-fresh, cucumber-pickle, orange, squash, strawberry, tangerine, tomato, watermelon

Fenbuconazole

15,400

Grapefruit, orange, tangelo, tangerine

Azoxystrobin

10,700

Snap beans, cabbage, sweet corn, cucumber-fresh, grapefruit, orange, bell pepper, squash, strawberry, tangelo, tangerine, tomato, watermelon

1Crops surveyed: beans (snap), cabbage, corn (sweet), cucumber (fresh), cucumber (pickles), grapefruit, orange, pepper (sweet-bell), squash, strawberry, tangelo, tangerine, tomato, and watermelon.

Table 3. 

Table 3. Top Ten Insecticides Applied in Florida, 2007-20091

Active Ingredient

Total lbs a.i Applied

Crop Usage

Petroleum distillate

25,647,600

Snap beans, sweet corn, cucumber-fresh, bell pepper, squash, tomato, watermelon

Aldicarb

869,100

Snap beans, grapefruit, orange, tangelo, tangerine

Carbaryl

372,700

Snap beans, sweet corn, cucumber-fresh, cucumber-pickle, grapefruit, orange, bell pepper, squash, strawberry, tangelo, tangerine, tomato, watermelon

Endosulfan

171,300

Snap beans, cabbage, sweet corn, cucumber-fresh, bell pepper, squash, strawberry, tomato, watermelon

Sulfur

126,100

Snap beans, cabbage, cucumber-fresh, squash, strawberry, watermelon

Methomyl

127,200

Snap beans, cabbage, sweet corn, cucumber-fresh, bell pepper, squash, strawberry, tomato, watermelon

Chlorpyrifos

118,600

Cabbage, sweet corn, grapefruit, orange, bell pepper, tangelo, tangerine, squash, strawberry

Dimethoate

118,300

Snap beans, cucumber-fresh, grapefruit, orange, tangelo, tangerine, tomato, watermelon

Fenpropathrin

52,400

Grapefruit, orange, strawberry, tangelo, tangerine, tomato

Imidacloprid

48,900

Snap beans, cabbage, cucumber-fresh, grapefruit, orange, squash, tangelo, tangerine, tomato

1Crops surveyed: beans (snap), cabbage, corn (sweet), cucumber (fresh), cucumber (pickles), grapefruit, orange, pepper (sweet-bell), squash, strawberry, tangelo, tangerine, tomato, and watermelon.

Table 4. 

Table 4. Top Ten Herbicides Applied in Florida, 2007-20091

Active Ingredient

Total lbs a.i Applied

Crop Usage

Glyphosate, iso. salt

1,532,800

Snap beans, sweet corn, cucumber-fresh, cucumber-pickle, grapefruit, orange, bell pepper, squash, strawberry, tangelo, tangerine, tomato, watermelon

Diuron

512,300

Grapefruit, orange, tangelo, tangerine

Simazine

313,400

Grapefruit, orange, tangelo, tangerine

Sulfosate

166,200

Grapefruit, orange, tangelo, tangerine

Bromacil

73,700

Grapefruit, orange, tangelo, tangerine

Triclopyr

71,300

Grapefruit, orange, tangerine

Pendimethalin

49,700

Snap beans, cabbage, sweet corn, grapefruit, orange, bell pepper, squash, tangelo, tangerine, tomato, watermelon

Atrazine

36,400

Sweet corn, orange

Paraquat

29,900

Cabbage, grapefruit, orange, bell pepper, squash, strawberry, tangelo, tangerine, tomato, watermelon

2, 4-D, iso. salt

25,400

Grapefruit, orange, tangelo, tangerine

1Crops surveyed: beans (snap), cabbage, corn (sweet), cucumber (fresh), cucumber (pickles), grapefruit, orange, pepper (sweet-bell), squash, strawberry, tangelo, tangerine, tomato, and watermelon.

Table 5. 

Table 5. Top Five Other Pesticides Applied in Florida, 2007-20091

Active Ingredient

Total lbs a.i Applied

Crop Usage

Methyl Bromide

5,940,200

Bell pepper, squash, strawberry, watermelon

Chloropicrin

2,117,900

Cabbage, bell pepper, squash, strawberry, tomato, watermelon

Dichloropicrin

60,700

Cabbage, bell pepper, strawberry, tomato, watermelon

Hydrogen peroxide

43,000

Cucumber-fresh, grapefruit, orange, bell pepper, tangelo, tangerine, strawberry

Spirodiclofen

11,000

Grapefruit, orange, tangelo, tangerine

1Crops surveyed: beans (snap), cabbage, corn (sweet), cucumber (fresh), cucumber (pickles), grapefruit, orange, pepper (sweet-bell), squash, strawberry, tangelo, tangerine, tomato, and watermelon.

Footnotes

1.

This document is PI235, one of a series of the Agronomy Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date June 2011. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Bonnie Wells, graduate assistant, and F.M. Fishel, associate professor, Agronomy Department, and director, Pesticide Information Office, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.