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Publication #PP334

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2012–2016 On-Farm Evaluation of Fungicide Programs for Peanut Disease Control in Hamilton County, Florida1

K.W. Wynn, N.S. Dufault, and R. L Barocco2

This document summarizes the efficacy of company-based Peanut Rx programs utilizing on-farm demonstrations. These on-farm demonstrations were conducted in Hamilton County from 2012 to 2016. The peanut fungal diseases of interest included early leaf spot (Cercospora arachidicola), late leaf spot (Cercosporidium personatum), and white mold/stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii). Spray schedules were based on BASF®, Bayer®, DuPont®, Nichino®, and Syngenta® Peanut Rx prescription program recommendations. More information about Peanut Rx programs (Kemerait et al. 2017) can be found at the Georgia Peanut Commission website (http://www.gapeanuts.com/) by clicking on the UGA Peanut Update link.

Fungicide Treatments and Application Schedules

Peanut Rx fungicide prescription programs were based on individual company recommendations during each respective year as shown in Tables 1 to 5. Companies often include products in their programs that were developed by other companies that have become established as industry standard options. Prescription programs generally differ by company and often incorporate newer products developed by the respective company that are expected to be the most effective for managing primary diseases. Programs may also differ by application timing and frequency of certain products due to recommendations or product restrictions. All treatments are listed by product names, except for certain applications of products with the active ingredients (a.i.) chlorothalonil and tebuconazole. When listed by a.i., applications were one of several generic or name brand formulations as shown in Table 6. All other a.i. can also be found in Table 6.

Growing Conditions and Experimental Design

All demonstrations were conducted on a commercial producer’s farm located in Hamilton County, Florida. Each demonstration was conducted at a different field each season. Some fields were used more than once but not consecutively. The peanut demonstrations were planted either behind green beans or carrots that had been fumigated prior to vegetable planting or behind field corn. The peanut cultivar ‘Georgia-06G’ was planted on 15 May 2012, 22 May 2013, 21 Apr 2014, 25 May 2015, and 24 May 2016 at 7 seeds per foot in single rows with 30” spacing. A rhizobium inoculant was applied at planting. Plants were irrigated as needed, and standard UF/IFAS recommended practices for peanut production were used to manage weeds, insects, and fertility (see Management and Cultural Practices for Peanuts http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/aa258). Total monthly rainfall and average monthly temperatures by season were obtained from the Florida Automated Weather Network (FAWN) station at the Suwannee Valley Agricultural Extension Center (SVAEC) in Live Oak (Figures 1 and 2).

Figure 1. 

Total monthly rainfall (in) measured by the Florida Automated Weather Network (FAWN) station at the UF/IFAS Suwannee Valley Agricultural Extension Center (SVAEC) in Live Oak.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 2. 

Average monthly air temperature (2m °F) measured by the Florida Automated Weather Network (FAWN) station at the UF/IFAS Suwannee Valley Agricultural Extension Center (SVAEC) in Live Oak. Bars represent ± monthly average minimum and maximum temperature. Numbers represent the monthly means.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

The Peanut Rx fungicide programs compared each year are listed by company in Tables 1 to 5. Untreated field sections were not included because of the impact this may have on commercial production. A 400-gallon sprayer was used to apply volumes of 20 gallons per acre using a 24-row boom with a three-point hitch and TwinJet 8004VS flat fan nozzles with 30-in spacing. To integrate a replicated on-farm demonstration with the least amount of difficulty to the producer, the demonstration consisted a 24-row passe for each of four replications per program treatment. Depending on the length of rows, these four replications normally covered a total of 10 acres. With 4 programs to compare, the total for each of the demonstrations consisted of approximately 40 acres per season.

Peanuts were dug on 26 Sep 2012, 7 Oct 2013, 18 Sep 2014, 10 Oct 2015, and 13 Oct 2016 and harvested on 29 Sep 2012, 11 Oct 2013, 22 Sept 2014, 15-16 Oct 2015, and 19-20 Oct 2016 with 6-row equipment. The 12 rows in the center of each 24-row replication were harvested and weighed separately from the 12-row buffers between each plot. Each replication was harvested and collected separately in trailers provided by the local peanut buying point (Suwannee River Peanut Co., Jasper, FL). The trailers were then treated as other producer trailers and dried to 10% moisture, graded by state inspectors, and weighed to determine yield.

Summary of Results

  • Low disease levels were present throughout the demonstrations with white mold incidence <10% and general leaf spot severity <25%.

  • Peanut Rx programs did not differ significantly in their yields during the 2012, 2014 and 2016 seasons, however, the 2013 and 2014 Syngenta® programs had significantly lower yields than the 2013 Dupont®, and 2015 Bayer®/BASF® programs (Table 7).

  • Syngenta programs produced significantly higher market prices than the Bayer® and Nichino® programs in 2013, and Dupont® and Nichino® programs in 2012 (Table 8). No other market price differences were observed.

  • Expenses for the fungicide products alone did not exceed crop value per acre and therefore always resulted in a positive return on investment (Table 9).

  • In general, there were no differences in the estimated net returns except for a few treatments in 2015 and 2016 (Table 9).

Missing Figure (FIGURE 3)

Conclusion

Managing peanut diseases is a critical component of any peanut production system. These on-farm demonstrations show that despite all the factors affecting peanut diseases, they can be managed successfully with our current Peanut Rx programs. While some variation in how the programs perform from year to year exists, they all continue to provide a quality disease control with positive returns on investment. We intend to continue examining these company based programs with on-farm demonstrations to monitor their efficacy and the impacts of novel products on disease management.

Reference

Kemerait, R., A. Culbreath, E. Prostko, T. Brenneman, S. Tubbs, R. Srinivasan, M. Abney, S. Monfort, A. Rabinowitz, B. Tillman, N. Dufault, D. Rowland, M. Mulvaney, A. Hagan, J. Sarver, D. Anco, and N. Smith. 2017. Minimizing Diseases of Peanut in the Southeastern United States. 2017 UGA Peanut Update. http://www.gapeanuts.com/growerinfo/2017_ugapeanutupdate.pdf.

Tables

Table 1. 

Hamilton County on-farm trial Bayer® Peanut Rx fungicide program schedules by year and number of days after planting (DAP) that the fungicides were applied. (See table 6 for active ingredients.)

DAP

0

35 to 39

51 to 53

60 to 67

75 to 81

90 to 98

104 to 113

118 to 127

Year

In-furrow

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

2012

 

Proline

 

Provost 433

Provost 433

Provost 433

Provost 433

chlorothalonil (54%)

 

(5.7 fl oz/a)

 

(10.7 fl oz/a)

(10.7 fl oz/a)

(10.7 fl oz/a)

(10.7 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

2013

Proline

   

Provost 433

Provost 433

Provost 433

Provost 433

chlorothalonil (54%)

(5.7 fl oz/a)

   

(10.7 fl oz/a)

(10.7 fl oz/a)

(10.7 fl oz/a)

(10.7 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

2014

Proline

 

Provost 433

chlorothalonil (54%)

Provost 433

Provost 433

Provost 433

chlorothalonil (54%)

(5.7 fl oz/a)

 

(10.7 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(10.7 fl oz/a)

(10.7 fl oz/a)

(10.7 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

2015

Proline

TiltBravo

Provost 433

Provost 433

chlorothalonil (54%)

Provost

TiltBravo

chlorothalonil (54%)

(5.7 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a) +

(10.7 fl oz/a)

(10.7 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(10.7 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

 

tebuconazole (38.7%)

           
 

(7.2 fl oz/a)

           

2016

Proline

chlorothalonil (54%)

 

Provost Opti

chlorothalonil (54%)

Provost Opti

Provost Opti

chlorothalonil (54%)

(5.7 fl oz/a) +

(24 fl oz/a)

 

(10.7 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a) +

(10.7 fl oz/a)

(10.7 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

Abound

             

(18 fl oz/a)

             
Table 2. 

2013 Hamilton County on-farm trial company Peanut Rx fungicide program schedules by date and number of days after planting (DAP) that the fungicides were applied. Planting date: 22 May.

DAP

0

35 to 39

48 to 53

60 to 67

75 to 80

90 to 98

104 to 113

118 to 127

Year

In-furrow

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

2012

 

Abound

 

Abound

tebuconazole (38.7%)

Abound

Bravo WS

Bravo WS

 

(18 fl oz/a) +

 

(18 fl oz/a)

(7.2 fl oz/a)

(18 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

 

Bravo WS

           
 

(24 fl oz/a)

           

2013

Proline

 

Bravo WS

Abound

Bravo WS

Abound

Bravo WS

Bravo WS

(5.7 fl oz/a)

 

(24 fl oz/a) +

(18 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(18 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

   

Monsoon

         
   

(7.2 fl oz/a)

         

2014

Proline

 

Bravo WS

Bravo WS

Abound

Bravo WS

Abound

Bravo WS

(5.7 fl oz/a)

 

(24 fl oz/a) +

(24 fl oz/a) +

(18 fl oz/a) +

(24 fl oz/a)

(18 fl oz/a) +

(24 fl oz/a)

   

Monsoon

Monsoon

Alto

 

Alto

 
   

(7.2 fl oz/a)

(7.2 fl oz/a)

(5.5 fl oz/a)

 

(5.5 fl oz/a)

 

2015

Proline

TiltBravo

TiltBravo

Abound

Bravo WS

Abound

TiltBravo

Bravo WS

(5.7 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a) +

(24 fl oz/a)

(18 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(18 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

 

tebuconazole (38.7%)

 

Alto

 

Alto

   
 

(7.2 fl oz/a)

 

(5.5 fl oz/a)

 

(5.5 fl oz/a)

   

2016

Abound

Bravo WS

 

Elatus

Bravo WS

Elatus

Bravo WS

Bravo WS

(without Proline)

(18 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

 

(9.5 oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(9.5 oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a) +

(24 fl oz/a)

           

Alto

 
           

(5.5 fl oz/a)

 

2016

Abound +

Bravo WS

 

Elatus

Bravo WS

Elatus

Bravo WS

Bravo WS

(with Proline)

(18 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

 

(9.5 oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(9.5 oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a) +

(24 fl oz/a)

Proline

         

Alto

 

(5.7 fl oz/a)

         

(5.5 fl oz/a)

 
Table 3. 

Hamilton County on-farm trial Dupont® Peanut Rx fungicide program schedules by year and number of days after planting (DAP) that the fungicides were applied. (See table 6 for active ingredients.)

DAP

0

37 to 39

48 to 51

60 to 67

75 to 80

90 to 94

104 to 107

118 to 127

Year

In-furrow

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

2012

   

Headline

Fontelis

Fontelis

Fontelis

chlorothalonil (54%)

chlorothalonil (54%)

   

(9 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

2013

Proline

 

Headline

Fontelis

Fontelis

Fontelis

chlorothalonil (54%)

chlorothalonil (54%)

(5.7 fl oz/a)

 

(9 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

2015

Proline

TiltBravo

Fontelis

chlorothalonil (54%)

Fontelis

chlorothalonil (54%)

Fontelis

chlorothalonil (54%)

(5.7 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a) +

(18 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(18 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(12 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

 

tebuconazole (38.7%)

           
 

(7.2 fl oz/a)

           

2016

Abound +

chlorothalonil (54%) +

 

Fontelis

Fontelis

Fontelis

chlorothalonil (54%)

chlorothalonil (54%)

(18 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a) +

 

(18 fl oz/a)

(18 fl oz/a)

(18 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

Proline

tebuconazole (38.7%)

           

(5.7 fl oz/a)

(7.2 fl oz/a)

           
Table 4. 

Hamilton County on-farm trial Nichino® Peanut Rx fungicide program schedules by year and number of days after planting (DAP) that the fungicides were applied. (See table 6 for active ingredients.)

DAP

0

48 to 53

63 to 66

78 to 81

91 to 98

104 to 113

118 to 127

Year

In-furrow

2

3

4

5

6

7

2012

 

Headline

chlorothalonil (54%) +

chlorothalonil (54%) +

chlorothalonil (54%) +

chlorothalonil (54%) +

chlorothalonil (54%)

 

(9 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

   

Artisan

Artisan

Artisan

Artisan

 
   

(16 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

 

2013

Proline

Headline

chlorothalonil (54%) +

chlorothalonil (54%) +

chlorothalonil (54%) +

chlorothalonil (54%) +

chlorothalonil (54%)

(5.7 fl oz/a)

(9 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a) +

(16 fl oz/a) +

(16 fl oz/a) +

(24 fl oz/a)

   

Artisan

Artisan

Artisan

Artisan

 
   

(16 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

 

2014

Proline

Headline

chlorothalonil (54%) +

chlorothalonil (54%) +

chlorothalonil (54%) +

chlorothalonil (54%) +

chlorothalonil (54%)

(5.7 fl oz/a)

(9 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a) +

(16 fl oz/a) +

(16 fl oz/a) +

(24 fl oz/a)

   

Artisan

Artisan

Artisan

Artisan

 
   

(16 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

(16 fl oz/a)

 
Table 5. 

Hamilton County on-farm trial BASF® Peanut Rx fungicide program schedules by date and number of days after planting (DAP) that the fungicides were applied. (See table 6 for active ingredients.)

DAP

0

37

51 to 53

66 to 67

80 to 81

94 to 98

107 to 113

123 to 127

Year

In-furrow

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

2014

Proline

 

Priaxor

chlorothalonil (54%) +

Priaxor

chlorothalonil (54%) +

chlorothalonil (54%) +

chlorothalonil (54%)

(5.7 fl oz/a)

 

(6 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(6 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

     

Monsoon

 

Monsoon

Monsoon

 
     

(7.2 fl oz/a)

 

(7.2 fl oz/a)

(7.2 fl oz/a)

 

2015

Proline

TiltBravo +

Priaxor

chlorothalonil (54%) +

Priaxor

chlorothalonil (54%) +

chlorothalonil (54%) +

chlorothalonil (54%)

(5.7 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(6 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(8 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

(24 fl oz/a)

 

tebuconazole (38.7%)

 

tebuconazole (38.7%)

 

tebuconazole (38.7%)

tebuconazole (38.7%)

 
 

(7.2 fl oz/a)

 

(7.2 fl oz/a)

 

(7.2 fl oz/a)

(7.2 fl oz/a)

 
Table 6. 

List of fungicides included in the on-farm trials in Hamilton County, Florida.

FRAC Groupa

Active Ingredient

Product Name

Manufacturer

       

M5

Multi-site contact activity

chlorothalonil (54.0 %)

Bravo Weather Stik®

Syngenta® Crop Protection, LLC

chlorothalonil (54.0 %)

Generic formulations (Echo® 720, Chloronil® 720)

SipcamAdvan; Syngenta® Crop Protection, LLC

3

DMI (DeMethylation Inhibitors)

prothioconazole (41%)

Proline® 480 SC

Bayer® CropScience LP

tebuconazole (25.8%) + prothioconazole (12.9%)

Provost® 433 SC, Provost® Opti

Bayer® CropScience LP

tebuconazole (38.7%)

Generic formulations (TebuStar® 3.6 L, Monsoon® 3.6 L)

Albough, LLC; Loveland Products, Inc.

cyproconazole (8.9%)

Alto® 100 SL

Syngenta® Crop Protection, LLC

7

SDHI (Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors)

penthiopyrad (20.4%)

Fontelis®

DuPont® Crop Protection

11

QoI (Quinone outside inhibitors)

azoxystrobin (22.9%)

Abound®

Syngenta® Crop Protection, LLC

pyraclostrobin (23.6%)

Headline®

BASF®

Mixed FRAC Groups

 

3 + M5

propiconazole (2.9%) + chlorothalonil (38.5%)

Tilt Bravo™ SEb

Syngenta® Crop Protection, LLC

3 + 7

flutolanil (32%) + propiconazole (6%)

Artisan®b

Nichino America®, Inc

11 + 7

azoxystrobin (30%) + benzovindiflupyr (15%)

Elatus®

Syngenta® Crop Protection, LLC

11 + 7

pyraclastrobin (28.58%) + fluxapyroxad (14.33%)

Priaxor® Xemium®

BASF®

a FRAC is an acronym for the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee. More information can be found at www.frac.info

b Propiconazole should not be used if the peanuts will be shipped at any point to the European Union. Contact your local UF/IFAS Extension office for more information.

Table 7. 

Summary of yields (lb/A) by company Peanut Rx program.

Peanut Rx Program

2012

2013a

2014

2015a

2016

BASF

--

--

6645

6363 a

--

Bayer

4335

5295 ab

6412

6409 a

5645

DuPont

4147

5767

--

6248 ab

5767

Nichino

4052

5677 ab

6481

--

--

Syngenta A-Cb

3963

5260 b

6555

6010 b

5484

Syngenta Cc (without Proline)

--

--

--

--

5769

Mean

4124

5500

6523

6258

5666

P-value

0.276

0.087

0.910

0.097

0.205

MSE

69841

57007

219848

44478

38744

a Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) test (α=0.05). 2013: LSD = 478 lbs/A; 2015: LSD = 337 lbs/A.

b Syngenta programs varied between years where the main sprays were Abound and tebuconazole in 2012–2013 (A), Abound + Alto and tebuconazole in 2014–2015 (B), and Elatus in 2016 (C).

c Syngenta program in 2016 (C) without Proline applied in-furrow at plant.

Table 8. 

Summary of market price ($) per ton based on grade.a

Peanut Rx Program

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Grade

Price ($)b

Grade

Price ($)b

Grade

Price ($)

Grade

Price ($)

Grade

Price ($)

BASF

--

--

75/4

367.53

77/3

374.09

--

Bayer

76/5

373.91

ab

77/3

376.12

bc

75/4

367.53

75/5

368.80

76/3

368.56

DuPont

74/5

367.31

b

78/3

382.11

ab

--

76/3

368.76

75/4

367.20

Nichino

75/5

369.39

b

76/4

375.44

c

76/4

369.94

--

--

Syngenta A-Cc

78/3

383.98

a

79/3

386.50

a

75/4

368.23

76/4

370.32

75/3

366.50

Syngenta Cd (without proline)

--

--

--

--

76/3

368.56

Mean

 

373.65

   

380.04

   

368.31

 

370.49

 

367.71

P-value

 

0.099

   

0.019

   

0.880

 

0.470

 

0.899

MSE

 

78.01

   

11.05

   

23.11

 

27.37

 

21.88

a Grades are shown as rounded averages of percent total sound mature kernals (smk)/percent other kernals (ok).

b Mean market price ($) per ton followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) test (α=0.05). 2012: LSD = $14.13/ton; 2013: LSD = $6.64/ton.

c Syngenta programs varied between years where the main sprays were Abound and tebuconazole in 2012–13 (A), Abound + Alto and tebuconazole in 2014–15 (B), and Elatus in 2016 (C).

d Syngenta program in 2016 (C) without Proline.

Table 9. 

Summary of net returns ($/A) as valuea per acre minus fungicide costs.b

Peanut Rx Program

2012

2013

2014

2015c

2016b

BASF

--

--

1115.49

1071.89

a

--

Bayer

704.11

888.90

1066.20

1072.56

a

914.60

ab

DuPont

617.85

966.69

--

1034.94

ab

918.98

ab

Nichino

651.99

943.71

1076.83

--

--

Syngenta A-Cd

696.27

903.46

1069.76

990.47

b

871.69

b

Syngenta Ce

--

--

--

--

   

(without Proline)

a

 

Mean

667.56

925.69

1082.07

1042.46

 

915.14

 

P-value

0.107

0.26

0.86

0.082

 

0.095

 

MSE

2572

2231

8292

1953

 

1623

 

a Value based on yield (lbs/A) and market price ($/ton).

b The fungicide costs used to calculate net returns are only estimates and not fixed costs. Costs may be decreased from year to year and may be different depending on prices set by chemical distributors.

c Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) test (α=0.05). 2015: LSD = $70.69/A. 2016: LSD = $64.43/A.

d Syngenta programs varied between years where the main sprays were Abound and tebuconazole in 2012–2013 (A), Abound + Alto and tebuconazole in 2014–2015 (B), and Elatus in 2016 (C).

e Syngenta program in 2016 (C) without Proline.

Footnotes

1.

This document is PP334, one of a series of the Plant Pathology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date April 2017. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

K. W. Wynn, agriculture and natural resources agent, UF/IFAS Extension, Hamilton County; N. S. Dufault, assistant professor and Extension specialist, Plant Pathology Department, University of Florida; and R. L. Barocco, postdoctoral associate, Plant Pathology Department, University of Florida; Gainesville, FL 32611.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.