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Publication #CIR 1263

UF/IFAS Nutrient Management Series: Computational Tools for Field Implementation of the Florida Phosphorus Index - Alachua County Florida1

G.W. Hurt, R.S. Mylavarapu, and S.P. Boetger2

Figure 1. 

Purpose

This Circular contains tables with numerical values for each of the various factors listed in the Florida P Index to be used for computation, with examples, during field implementation.

NOTE: This Circular was developed as a source of information and guidance for preparing nutrient management plans for agricultural farms in Florida, specifically to address Phosphorus management through manure/organic by-product applications. This material is therefore intended for any and all agricultural professionals with sufficient training and background in nutrient management to be certified as a Nutrient Management Specialist. This publication is NOT intended for those individuals seeking basic information regarding agricultural nutrients and their environmental impact.

Detailed information about the Florida Phosphorus Index (P-Index) including background, developmental process, and considerations can be obtained from the NRCS Field Office Technical Guide (Florida Phosphorus Index Work Group, 2000) or by contacting any of the work group members listed below. The electronic Field Office Technical Guide (eFOTG) can be found at http://efotg.nrcs.usda.gov/treemenuFS.aspx?Fips=12001&MenuName=menuFL.zip (The Florida Phosphorus Index sheets are located in Section IV of the Table of Contents under C.Tools.) It is important that the reader has understood the concept and scope of the P index as described on the website before actual field evaluation and implementation. These fact sheets are available for each of the 67 counties in Florida as part of the Nutrient Management series, Circular 1263 and Circular 1273 through 1338, on the Internet at: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/TOPIC_SERIES_Florida_Phosphorous_Index.

Scientific Support

The following individuals are members of the Florida Phosphorus Index Work Group and were instrumental in the development of the P Index:

University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (UF/IFAS): D.A. Graetz, V.N. Nair, W.G. Harris, G. Kidder, K.L. Campbell, R.S. Mylavarapu, and R.D. Rhue.

Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS): S.P. Boetger, G.W. Hurt, W.G. Henderson, W.R. Reck, N. Watts, P.B. Deal, and W.D. Tooke.

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service (FDACS): J.C. Love and D. Smith.

Introduction

The Phosphorus Index (P Index) is a site-specific, qualitative vulnerability assessment tool. This tool allows a conservation planner to determine the sites that are potentially most vulnerable to off-site movement of phosphorus. The P Index is used to determine whether application of manure/organic by-products should be based on either a nitrogen-based budget or a phosphorus-based budget. The P Index is NOT to be used in any area designated as phosphorus-limited by legislation (e.g., Everglades, Green Swamp, and Okeechobee Basin) to determine if a nitrogen-based nutrient budget can be used. These areas are to have phosphorus-based nutrient budgets regardless of the nutrient source or soil type. The P Index should, however, be used to implement conservation practices to reduce phosphorus movement in these areas.

The purpose of the P Index is to aid planners and others in the decision-making process involved in designing conservation plans related to land application of animal wastes. The P Index is not intended to be an evaluation tool to determine compliance of water quality standards by any regulatory agency. Any attempt to use the P Index as a regulatory tool would be grossly beyond the intent of the concept and philosophy of the P Index developers.

The P Index is a science-based decision-making tool that will support conservation planning and component planning of nutrient management. Concerns regarding P management of manure/organic by-product recycling can be effectively communicated to landowners if the P Index is consistently applied.

Components of the P Index

The P Index assesses two major categories of characteristics: (1) those related to site and transport – Part A (Table 1); and (2) those related to phosphorus sources – Part B (Table 2). The P Index results are then obtained by multiplying the total for Part A by the total for Part B.

P Index = Total for Part A (Site and Transport) X Total for Part B (Source Management)

Table 1. 

Phosphorus Index Worksheet – Part A

Part A: Transport Potential Due to Site and Transport Characteristics

Site and Transport

Characteristics

Phosphorus Transport Rating

Value

Soil Erosion

No Surface Outlet

0

<5T/Aa

1

5-10 T/A

2

10-15 T/A

4

>15 T/A

8

 

Runoff Potential

Very Low

0

Low

1

Medium

2

High

4

Very High

8

Leaching Potential

Very Low

0

Low

1

Medium

2

High

4

Very High

8

 

Potential To Reach Water Body

Very Low

0

Low

1

Medium

2

High

4

 

Total for Part A: Site and Transportb

 

a T/A = tons per acre.

b If the sum for Part A is 0 (zero), then change the sum to 1 (one).

Table 2. 

Phosphorus Index Worksheet – Part B

Part B: Transport Potential Due to Phosphorus Source Management

Phosphorus Source

Management

Phosphorus Loss Rating

Value

Fertility Index Value

Soil Fertility Index x 0.025

( _____ ppm P x 2 x 0.025)c

 

P Application Source and

Rated

0.05 x ( _____ lbs P2O5) for fertilizer, manure or compost

0.015 x ( _____ lbs P2O5) for biosolids

0.10 x ( _____ lbs P2O5) for waste water

 

Application Method

No Surface Outlet or Solids incorporated immediately or injected

0

Applied via irrigation or Solids incorporated within 1 day of application

2

Solids incorporated within 5 days of applicatione

4

Solids not incorporated within 5 days of application

6

 

Waste Water Application

0.20 x _____ acre inches/year

 

Total for Part B: Phosphorus Source

 

cFrom soil test (Mehlich-3) results.

dInitial evaluation should be N-based rates.

eSolids include fertilizers, composts, biosolids, and manure, and other animal wastes.

The result of an analysis using the P Index gives the producer a vulnerability rating for each field or portion of a field analyzed – Part C (Table 3). This rating may be LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH, or VERY HIGH. As the vulnerability rating increases, so does the potential for phosphorus transport off-site, and for phosphorus to become associated with water quality impairment.

Table 3. 

Assessing the P Index Results – Part C

P Index for Site

Generalized Interpretation of P Index for Site

<75

LOW potential for P movement from the site. If current practices are maintained there is a low probability of an adverse impact to surface waters from P losses at this site. N-based nutrient management planning is satisfactory for this site. Soil P levels and P loss potential may increase in the future due to N-based nutrient management.

75-150

MEDIUM potential for P movement from this site. The chance for an adverse impact to surface waters exists. Nitrogen-based nutrient management planning is satisfactory for this site when conservation measures are taken to lessen the probability of P loss. Soil P levels and P loss potential may increase in the future due to N-based nutrient management.

151-225

HIGH potential for P movement from the site and for an adverse impact on surface waters to occur unless remedial action is taken. Soil and water conservation and P management practices are necessary (if practical) to reduce the risk of P movement and water quality degradation. If risk cannot be reduced then a P-based management budget based on soil test crop P requirements will be utilized.

>225

VERY HIGH potential for P movement from the site and for an adverse impact on surface waters. Remedial action is required to reduce the risk of P movement. All necessary soil and water conservation practices, plus a P-based management plan must be put in place to avoid the potential for water quality degradation. The P- based management plan will be based on soil test crop requirement to reduce P over a defined period (not to exceed 20 years).

Field Evaluation and Implementation for Alachua County

Phosphorus Transport Potential Due to Site and Transport Characteristics – Part A (Table 1)

Phosphorus transport potential due to site and transport characteristics is as follows:

  • Soil Erosion

  • Runoff Potential

  • Leaching Potential

  • Potential to Reach Water Body

Soil Erosion

Soil erosion by water is defined as the loss of soil along a slope or unsheltered distance and is estimated from erosion prediction models. Soil erosion is not calculated for sites that have No Surface Outlet. For all other sites soil erosion by water is predicted using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). RUSLE is used in this index to indicate an average annual long-term movement of soil, thus potential for sediment and attached P movement toward a water body. The RUSLE methodology presented here is a simplified version of that presented in Chapter 6, Florida Agronomy Field Handbook (Florida Ecological Sciences Staff. 1999, as revised) which is available from any NRCS office. Version 2 of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE2) uses factors that represent the effects of climatic erosivity, soil erodibility, topography, cover-management and support practices to compute erosion. This Circular provides values for calculating only RUSLE. However, those users that choose to use RUSLE2 may download the details from the following website: http://fargo.nserl.purdue.edu/rusle2_dataweb/RUSLE2_Index.htm.

The average annual erosion expected on fields is computed by:

A = R * K * LS * C * P

Where:

A is the average soil loss. A is a computed value expressed in tons/acre/year.

R is the rainfall factor. For Alachua County the R-factor is 440.

K is the soil erodibility factor. K-factor values are soil specific (see Table 13 for these values).

K-Factors presented in Table 13 are values to be used in conjunction with the soil survey of Alachua County (Thomas, et al. 1985) if the surface texture of a field is the same as reported in the soil survey. The soil survey is available at the local NRCS field office (352-376-7414). Since K-factors presented in the soil survey are only interpretations, they should be confirmed by on-site investigations. Where surface textures differ from those in the soil survey, the following K-factors should be used: muck = 0.2, mucky sand = 0.05, sand = 0.10, loamy sand = 0.15, sandy loam = 0.20, sandy clay loam = 0.24, and clay = 0.37.

LS is the topographic factor. Slope length (L) begins where runoff starts and ends where slope decreases and deposition begins, or it is the horizontal distance between terraces, or it includes the entire width of contoured or contour strip-cropped fields without terraces. L is expressed in feet and must be determined on-site. Average slope lengths in Alachua County range from 40 to 120 feet. Slope (S) is the ratio of horizontal distance to vertical distance. S is expressed in percent and must be determined on-site.

Table 4, Table 5, and Table 6 contain common LS-factors for Alachua County. Additional LS-factors are available in Chapter 6, Florida Agronomy Field Handbook (Florida Ecological Sciences Staff 1999).

Table 4. 

Values for topographic factor (LS) for rangeland and other land uses with cover

Slope

Horizontal slope length (ft.)

(%)

9

25

50

75

100

150

200

0.2

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.09

0.09

0.09

1.0

0.12

0.13

0.13

0.14

0.14

0.15

0.15

2.0

0.20

0.21

0.23

0.25

0.26

0.27

0.28

3.0

0.26

0.29

0.33

0.36

0.38

0.40

0.43

4.0

0.33

0.36

0.43

0.46

0.50

0.54

0.58

5.0

0.38

0.44

0.52

0.57

0.62

0.68

0.73

6.0

0.44

0.50

0.61

0.68

0.74

0.83

0.90

8.0

0.54

0.64

0.79

0.90

0.99

1.12

1.23

10.0

0.65

0.81

1.03

1.19

1.31

1.51

1.67

12.0

0.75

1.01

1.31

1.52

1.69

1.97

2.20

14.0

0.85

1.20

1.58

1.85

2.08

2.44

2.74

16.0

0.95

1.38

1.85

2.18

2.46

2.91

3.28

20.0

1.11

1.74

2.37

2.84

3.22

3.85

4.38

Table 5. 

Values for topographic factor (LS) for row-cropped agricultural and other land uses with little-to-moderate cover

Slope

Horizontal slope length (ft.)

(%)

9

25

50

75

100

150

200

0.2

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.5

0.07

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.09

0.09

0.09

1.0

0.11

0.12

0.13

0.14

0.14

0.15

0.18

2.0

0.17

0.19

0.22

0.25

0.27

0.29

0.31

3.0

0.22

0.25

0.32

0.36

0.39

0.44

0.48

4.0

0.26

0.31

0.40

0.47

0.52

0.60

0.67

5.0

0.30

0.37

0.49

0.58

0.65

0.76

0.85

6.0

0.34

0.43

0.58

0.69

0.78

0.93

1.05

8.0

0.42

0.53

0.74

0.91

1.04

1.26

1.45

10.0

0.50

0.67

0.97

1.19

1.38

1.71

1.98

12.0

0.58

0.84

1.23

1.53

1.79

2.23

2.61

14.0

0.65

1.00

1.48

1.86

2.19

2.76

3.25

16.0

0.72

1.15

1.73

2.20

2.60

3.30

3.90

20.0

0.85

1.45

2.22

2.85

3.40

4.36

5.21

Table 6. 

Values for topographic factor (LS) for freshly prepared construction and other highly disturbed soil conditions with little or no cover

Slope

Horizontal slope length (ft.)

(%)

9

25

50

75

100

150

200

0.2

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.5

0.07

0.07

0.08

0.08

0.09

0.09

0.10

1.0

0.09

0.10

0.13

0.14

0.15

0.17

0.18

2.0

0.13

0.16

0.21

0.25

0.28

0.33

0.37

3.0

0.17

0.21

0.30

0.36

0.41

0.50

0.57

4.0

0.20

0.26

0.38

0.47

0.55

0.68

0.79

5.0

0.23

0.31

0.46

0.58

0.68

0.86

1.02

6.0

0.26

0.36

0.54

0.69

0.82

1.05

1.25

8.0

0.32

0.45

0.70

0.91

1.10

1.43

1.72

10.0

0.37

0.57

0.91

1.20

1.46

1.92

2.34

12.0

0.45

0.71

1.15

1.54

1.88

2.51

3.07

14.0

0.45

0.85

1.40

1.87

2.31

3.09

3.81

16.0

0.56

0.98

1.64

2.21

2.73

3.68

4.56

20.0

0.67

1.24

2.10

2.86

3.57

4.85

6.04

C is the cover management factor. C is defined as the ratio of soil loss from an area with specified cover and management to soil loss from an identical area in tilled continuous fallow. C-factors for most crop management systems have been computed and are listed in two tables. Table 7 contains C-factors for cultivated fields and pasture land, and Table 8 contains C-factors for other agronomic land uses. The higher the number the higher the potential soil loss.

Table 7. 

C-Factor - Cover Management Factor (Cultivated Fields and Pasture Land)

Cover/Management

Remarks

C-Factor

Bahiagrass/Bermuda grass

Established with no grazing and no haying

0.006

Bahiagrass/Bermuda grass

From planting to 4 years, grazed

0.067

Bahiagrass/Bermuda grass

From planting to 4 years, hayed

0.057

Bahiagrass/Bermuda grass

From planting to 5 years, grazed

0.055

Bahiagrass/Bermuda grass

From planting to 6 years, grazed

0.047

Corn Conventional Tilled

Average yield 80 bushels/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.348

Corn Conventional Tilled

Average yield 112 bushels/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.253

Corn Conventional Tilled

Average yield 125 bushels/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.229

Corn Conventional Tilled

Average yield 150 bushels/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.198

Corn Conservation Tillage

Average yield 80 bushels/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.282

Corn Conservation Tillage

Average yield 112 bushels/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.187

Corn Conservation Tillage

Average yield 125 bushels/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.180

Corn Conservation Tillage

Average yield 150 bushels/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.136

Corn No Till

Average yield 80 bushels/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.140

Corn No Till

Average yield 112 bushels/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.082

Corn No Till

Average yield 125 bushels/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.068

Corn No Till

Average yield 150 bushels/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.051

Cotton Conventional Tilled

Average yield 500 lbs/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.375

Cotton Conventional Tilled

Average yield 500 lbs/acre/year - 38 inch rows

0.436

Cotton Conventional Tilled

Average yield 750 lbs/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.310

Cotton Conventional Tilled

Average yield 750 lbs/acre/year - 38 inch rows

0.381

Cotton Conventional Tilled

Average yield 1000 lbs/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.271

Cotton Conventional Tilled

Average yield 1000 lbs/acre/year - 38 inch rows

0.298

Cotton Conservation Tillage

Residue Not Removed

Planted in Rye

Average yield 500 lbs/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.079

Cotton Conservation Tillage

Residue Not Removed

Planted in Rye

Average yield 500 lbs/acre/year - 38 inch rows

0.094

Cotton Conservation Tillage

Residue Not Removed

Planted in Rye

Average yield 750 lbs/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.062

Cotton Conservation Tillage

Residue Not Removed

Planted in Rye

Average yield 750 lbs/acre/year - 38 inch rows

0.081

Cotton Conservation Tillage Residue Not Removed

Planted in Rye

Average yield 1000 lbs/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.050

Cotton No Till, Planted in last year's cotton residue

Average yield 500 lbs/acre/year - 30 inch rows

0.143

Cotton No Till, Planted in last year's cotton residue

Average yield 500 lbs/acre/year - 38 inch rows

0.177

Cotton No Till, Planted in last year's cotton residue

Average yield 750 lbs/acre/year - 38 inch rows

0.100

Cotton No Till, Planted in last year's

cotton residue

Average yield 750 lbs/acre/year - 38 inch rows

0.137

Peanut Conventional Till Residue Not Removed

Average yield 2000 lbs/acre/year - 36 inch rows

0.371

Peanut Conventional Till Residue Not Removed

Average yield 3000 lbs/acre/year - 36 inch rows

0.281

Peanut Conventional Till Residue Not Removed

Average yield 4000 lbs/acre/year - 36 inch rows

0.230

Peanut Conventional Till Residue Removed

Average yield 2000 lbs/acre/year

0.534

Peanut Conventional Till Residue Removed

Average yield 3000 lbs/acre/year

0.449

Peanut Conservation Tillage Planted in Rye

Average yield 4000 lbs/acre/year

0.436

Peanut Conservation Tillage Planted in Rye

Average yield 2000 lbs/acre/year - Residue Removed

0.479

Peanut Conservation Tillage Planted in Rye

Average yield 3000 lbs/acre/year - Residue Removed

0.362

Peanut Conservation Tillage Planted in Rye

Average yield 4000 lbs/acre/year - Residue Removed

0.269

Peanut No Till, Residue Not Removed

Average yield 3000 lbs/acre/year

0.084

Peanut No Till

Average yield 3000 lbs/acre/year - Residue Removed

0.154

Peanut No Till Planted in Rye

Average yield 3000 lbs/acre/year - Residue Removed

0.089

Ryegrass, grazed

 

0.273

Rye, grazed

2800lbs/acre Residue Remaining

0.113

Rye, not grazed

4200lbs/acre Residue Remaining

0.080

Soybeans

Average yield 35 bushels/acre/year

0.355

Watermelon

 

0.320

Watermelon

With good summer weed or grass cover

0.173

Watermelon

Followed by rye, not grazed

0.269

Weed/Grass, idle

With good summer weed/grass cover

0.079

Weed/Grass, idle

With good summer and winter weed/grass cover

0.035

Weed/Grass, idle

With good winter weed/grass cover

0.245

Table 8. 

C-Factor - Cover Management Factor for Groves/Orchards (citrus, blueberries, etc.) Rangeland, Disturbed Forest Land , and Long-Term Hay Land, and Idle Land

Vegetation Canopy Type

Percentage Surface Contact of Ground Cover

Type and Height of Canopy

Canopy

Covera

Typeb

0

20

40

60

80

>95

No appreciable canopy

 

G

.450

.200

.100

.013

.013

.003

   

W

.450

.240

.150

.090

.043

.011

Tall weeds/short brushc

25

G

.360

.170

.090

.038

.012

.003

   

W

.360

.200

.130

.082

.041

.011

 

50

G

.260

.130

.070

.035

.012

.003

   

W

.260

.160

.110

.075

.039

.011

 

75

G

.170

.100

.060

.031

.011

.003

   

W

.170

.120

.090

.067

.038

.011

Brush or bushesd

25

G

.400

.180

.090

.040

.013

.003

   

W

.400

.220

.140

.085

.042

.011

 

50

G

.340

.160

.085

.038

.012

.003

   

W

.340

.190

.130

.081

.041

.011

 

75

G

.280

.140

.080

.036

.012

.003

   

W

.280

.170

.120

.077

.040

.011

Treese

25

G

.420

.190

.100

.041

.03

.003

   

W

.420

.230

.140

.087

.042

.011

 

50

G

.390

.180

.090

.040

.013

.003

   

W

.390

.210

.140

.085

.042

.011

 

75

G

.360

.170

.090

.039

.012

.003

   

W

.360

.200

.130

.083

.041

.011

aPercent of total surface area hidden from view by canopy.

bG = Surface cover is grass, grasslike plants, and/or decaying litter at least 2 inches thick.

W = Surface cover is broadleaf herbaceous plants and/or decaying litter less than 2 inches thick.

cAverage height that water drops from canopy in autumn is less than 3 feet.

dAverage height that water drops from canopy in autumn is 3 to 12 feet.

eAverage height that water drops from canopy in autumn is more than 12 feet.

C-Factors for Dual Cropping Systems

The C-factor for dual cropping systems is determined by averaging the individual C-Factors. For example, bahiagrass (6 years, grazed) followed by ryegrass, grazed would have a C-Factor calculated as follows:

C-Factor for bahiagrass, 6 years grazed 0.047 (from Table 7) plus C-Factor for ryegrass, grazed 0.273 (from Table 7) divided by 2 equals a C-Factor of 0.160 .

P is the support practice factor. P is the ratio of soil loss with a conservation support practice (contour cropping, contour strip cropping, or terracing) to soil loss with straight-row farming up and down the slope. P-factors for these conservation support practices have been computed and are listed in Table 9, Table 10, and Table 11).

The methodology provided herein to calculate P-Factor is a simplified version. A more thorough methodology is explained in Chapter 6, Florida Agronomy Field Handbook, NRCS.

Table 9. 

P-Factors for Up and Down Hill Cropping and Contour Cropping

Land Slope Percent

Up and Down Hill Farming

P-Factor

Contour Farming

P-Factor

1.1 to 2

1.0

0.60

2.1 to 7

1.0

0.50

7.1 to 12

1.0

0.60

12.1 to 18

1.0

0.80

18.1 to 24

1.0

0.90

Table 10. 

P-Factors for Contour Strip Cropping

Land Slope

Percent

P-Factora

P-Factorb

P-Factorc

Contour Strip Width

(feet)d

Maximum Slope Length

(feet)e

1.0 to 2.5

0.30

0.45

0.60

130

800

2.6 to 5.5

0.25

0.38

0.50

100

600

5.6 to 8.5

0.25

0.38

0.50

100

400

8.6 to 12.5

0.30

0.45

0.60

80

240

12.6 to 16.5

0.35

0.52

0.70

80

160

16.5 to 20.5

0.40

0.60

0.80

60

120

21.5 to 25

0.45

0.68

0.90

50

100

aFor 4-year rotation of row crop, small grain with grass seeding, and 2 years of grass. A second row crop can replace the

small grain if grass is established following harvest.

bFor 4-year rotation of 2 years of row crops, 1 year of winter grain with grass seeding, and 1 year of grass.

cFor alternative strips of row crop and small grain.

dAdjust strip width limits, generally downward, to accommodate widths of equipment.

eLength limits may be increased by 10 percent if residue cover after crop planting will regularly exceed 50 percent.

Table 11. 

P-Factors for Terraces

Horizontal

Interval (feet)

Closed

Outleta

Open Outlets with Percent Channel Grade Indicatedb

 

P-Factor

P-Factor for 0.1-0.3

P-Factor for 0.4-0.7

P-Factor for >0.7

<110

0.50

0.60

0.70

1.0

111-140

0.60

0.70

0.80

1.0

141-180

0.70

0.80

0.90

1.0

181-225

0.80

0.80

0.90

1.0

226-300

0.90

0.90

1.0

1.0

>300

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

aP-Factors for closed outlet terraces also apply to terraces with underground outlets and to level terraces with open outlets.

bThe channel grade is measured on the 300 feet of terrace or the 1/3 of total terrace length closest to the outlet,

whichever is less.

Possible phosphorus transport rating values for soil erosion are (Part A - Table 1):

0 for fields with no surface outlet (such as for karst areas in the Suwannee River watershed).

1 for fields with a calculated soil loss (A) of less than 5 tons/acre/year.

2 for fields with a calculated soil loss (A) of between 5 and 10 tons/acre/year.

4 for fields with a calculated soil loss (A) of between 10 and 15 tons/acre/year.

8 for fields with a calculated soil loss (A) of more than 15 tons/acre/year.

Soil Erosion Calculation Example

Situation: An area in the southeastern portion of the county has the following conditions:

Soil: From soil survey the soil is map unit 29B (Lochloosa find sand, 2-5 percent slopes). The soil was verified on-site as being Lochloosa fine sand, on a 2 percent slope with a slope length of 75 feet.

Crop: The field is a bahiagrass pasture planted every 6 years.

A = R * K * LS * C * P

R = 440 (for all of Alachua County)

K = 0.10 (from Table 13)

LS = 0.25 (from Table 4)

C = 0.047 (from Table 7)

P = 1.0 (from Table 9; field is not contour cropped, contour strip cropped, or terraced)

A = 440 * 0.10 * 0.25 * 0.047 * 1.0

A = 0.5 tons/acre/year

The resulting Soil Erosion value assigned to the Phosphorus Transport Rating – Part A (Table 1) would be 1 (<5T/A), the most common result obtained in Alachua County.

Runoff Potential

Usage of the following runoff potential criteria is based on a minimum of 10 observations (soil borings) per spray field/application area unless the number of borings identify the site as a problem area or a uniform area. At least one observation is to be made in each of the landforms present. Examples of landforms are flats, flatwoods, depressions, terraces, rises, knolls, hills, hillsides, sideslopes, toeslopes, footslopes, etc. If there is no surface outlet for the field in consideration, the rating is Very Low (0) for Runoff Potential.

The NRCS Hydrologic Soil Groups, slope, and the presence or absence of artificial drainage are used to evaluate runoff potentials.

Runoff Potential Rating Criteria - Part A (see Table 1)

Very Low (0):

Soils in Hydrologic Soil Group A with ≥75% ground cover and slopes of 8% or less.

or:

any Hydrologic Soil Group with no surface outlet.

Low (1):

Soils in Hydrologic Soil Groups A with < 75% ground cover with surface outlet and A/D (with effective drainage depth of greater than 48”) and slopes of 8% or less (Effective drainage is water control that is designed and maintained according to NRCS standards that will perform the desired water control.)

Medium (2):

Soils in Hydrologic Group A and A/D (with effective drainage depth of 37” to 48”) and slopes of more than 8%.

or:

Soils in Hydrologic Groups B and A/D or B/D (with effective drainage depth of 37” to 48”) and slopes of 5% or less.

High (4):

Soils in Hydrologic Group B and B/D (with effective drainage depth of 20” to 36”) and slopes of more than 5% up to and including 8%.

or:

Soils in Hydrologic Groups C and A/D, B/D or C/D (with effective drainage depth of 20” to 36”) and slopes of 5% or less.

Very High (8):

Soils in Hydrologic Group B and B/D (with effective drainage depth of 37” to 48”) and slopes of more than 8%.

or:

Soils in Hydrologic Groups C and C/D (with effective drainage depth of 20” to 36”) and slopes of more than 5%.

or:

Soils in Hydrologic Groups D and A/D, B/D, and C/D in undrained condition.

Runoff Potentials are presented in Table 13 based on the above criteria and the definitions of the four hydrologic soil groups below. These are potentials to be used in conjunction with the soil survey of Alachua County (Thomas, et al. 1985). Potentials presented are interpretations and are not factual data. As with all interpretations, runoff potentials should be confirmed by on-site investigations. Slope and hydrologic group should be determined on-site.

Group A: Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of deep, well-drained to excessively-drained sands or gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water transmission.

Group B: Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep or deep, moderately well-drained or well-drained soils that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water transmission.

Group C: Soils having a slow infiltration rate when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a layer that impedes the downward movement of water or soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These soils have a slow rate of water transmission.

Group D: Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of clays that have a high shrink/swell potential, soils that have a high water table, soils that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.

Artificial Drainage

Presence of artificial drainage can change the runoff potential of a soil. Drained Runoff Potentials in Table 13 have been assigned to those soils deemed drainable by NRCS. Drained Runoff Potentials presented are based on NRCS “Technical Release No. 55-Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds, Amendment FL3” (Table 12).

Table 12. 

Reclassification of Runoff Potential and Hydrologic Group Based on Drainage

Effective Drainage Depth (Inches)a

Drained Runoff Potential

Drained Hydrologic Group

Less than 20

Very High

D

20-36

High

C

37-48

Medium

B

Greater than 48

Low

A

aEffective drainage is defined as having good surface drainage with a designed subsurface drainage system properly installed and maintained with a water removal rate of at least 0.5 inches/day. Rarely have agricultural fields in Alachua County been effectively drained to a depth of more than 24 inches.

Drained Runoff Potentials in Table 13 are based on the maximum effective drainage depth expected for each soil. Actual effective drainage may be less than the maximum. For example, Pomona (Table 13--map unit 14) has a drained runoff potential of Medium. This rating is based on a maximum effective drainage depth of 37 to 48 inches. If field conditions indicate a site had been effectively drained to a depth of only 24 inches, then the on-site runoff potential would be High (Table 12) and the resulting Phosphorus Transport Rating – Part A value for runoff would be 4 (Table 1).

Leaching Potential

Usage of the following leaching potential criteria is based on a minimum of 5 observations (e.g., soil borings) per 40 acres of application area unless the number of borings identify the site as a problem area or a uniform area. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) should be used for the assessment of all Karst areas. At least one observation is to be made in each landform present.

Presence or absence of a loamy/clayey layer and thicknesses of sandy layers, and presence or absence of coated sand are used to evaluate leaching potentials.

Leaching Potential Rating Criteria – Part A (see Table 1)

Very Low (0):

At least 80 percent of observations have a loamy or clayey layer at least 25 cm (10 inches) thick starting within 50 cm (20 inches). Typically, these soils are Typic Paleudults.

Low (1):

At least 80 percent of observations have a loamy or clayey layer at least 25 cm (10 inches) thick starting within 200 cm (80 inches). Typically, these soils are Arenic and Grossarenic Paleudults.

Medium (2):

At least 80 percent of observations have a loamy or clayey layer at least 25 cm (10 inches) thick starting at a depth below 200 cm (80 inches) but above seasonal high saturation and sand grains in the E and Bw horizons have coatings (chroma ≥ 3) to a depth of at least 100 cm (40 inches); or at least 80 percent of observations have no loamy or clayey layer at least 25 cm (10”) thick, but have a layer at least 200 cm (80”) thick with coated sand grains (chroma equal to or greater than 3). The entire 200 cm (80”) layer must be above seasonal high saturation.

High (4):

At least 20 percent of observations have no loamy or clayey layer, (or the loamy or clayey layer is less than 25 cm (10 inches) thick) and the combined thickness of layers with coated sand grains (chroma ≥ 3 in the E, Bw, and C horizons and any chroma in the Bh horizons) is more than 50 cm (20 inches) and less than 200 cm (80 inches).

Very High (8):

At least 20 percent of observations have no loamy or clayey layer (or the layer is less than 25 cm (10 inches) thick and the combined thickness of layers with coated sand grains (chroma ≥ 3 in the E, Bw, and C horizons and any chroma in the Bh horizons) is equal to or less than 50 cm (20 inches).

Leaching Potentials are presented in Table 13 based on the above criteria. These are potentials to be used in conjunction with the soil survey of Alachua County (Thomas, et al. 1985). Potentials presented are interpretations, and are not factual data. As with all interpretations, leaching potentials should be confirmed by on-site investigations.

The rating of Medium Leaching Potential may be unique to Florida. This rating is based on deeper observation of soils that would normally be rated as having a High or Very High Leaching Potential. The rating of Medium Leaching Potential is given to soils with a significant loamy/clayey layer below the normal (2m or 80 inches) soil classification depth. Use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and/or geological investigations is needed to rate a site as having a Medium Leaching Potential and the depth to the loamy/clayey layer must be above the seasonal high saturation (water table).

Sinkholes occur where calcareous limestone below the land surface has been naturally dissolved by circulating ground water. A sinkhole forms when soil or weakened rock falls into underlying cavernous limestone. The sinkhole depth to width ratio tends to relate to soil slope stability–typically the width is 5 times the depth. Alachua County has areas considered to be high risk for sinkhole development. In these areas the GPR will be used to determine the leaching potential.

Phosphorus Runoff and Leaching Potentials Ratings for Florida Soil Survey Map Units

The runoff and leaching potentials (Table 13) were created by comparing estimated soil properties found in the soil survey of Alachua County (Thomas, et al. 1985) with the above criteria. The potentials presented herein are interpretations, and not factual data. As with all interpretations based on information in a published soil survey or other sources of estimated soil properties, phosphorus runoff and leaching potentials should be confirmed by on-site investigations. However, a soil survey is an excellent place to initiate off-site investigation before making on-site determinations. For information on how to use a soil survey, see Circular 959 Soil Ratings for Crop Production and Water Quality Protection (Brown, Hornsby, and Hurt, 1991). However, note that phosphorus runoff and leaching potentials were derived from criteria that are different from the criteria used to derive the pesticide runoff and leaching potentials.

Table 13. 

Runoff, Leaching Potentials and K-Factors for Alachua County Soils

Map

Unit

Seq.

No.a

Soil Name

Undrained

Runoff Potential

Undrained and Drained

Leaching

Potential

Drained

Runoff

Potential

K Factor

002

1

Candler

Lowb

High

 

0.10

003

1

Arrendondo

Lowb

Low

 

0.10

004

1

Arrendondo

Lowb

Low

 

0.10

004

2

Urban Land

Very High

Variable

 

Variable

005

1

Fort Meade

Lowb

High

 

0.15

006

1

Apopka

Lowb

Low

 

0.10

007

1

Kanapaha

Very High

Low

Medium

0.10

008

1

Millhopper

Lowb

Low

 

0.10

009

1

Millhopper

Lowb

Low

 

0.10

009

2

Urban Land

Very High

Variable

 

Variable

011

1

Riviera

Very High

Low

High

0.10

013

1

Pelham

Very High

Low

High

0.10

014

1

Pomona

Very High

Low

Medium

0.10

015

1

Pompano

Very High

Very High

Lowb

0.10

016

1

Surrency

Very High

Low

 

0.10

017

1

Wauchula

Very High

Low

High

0.10

018

1

Wauchula

Very High

Low

High

0.10

018

2

Urban Land

Very High

Variable

 

Variable

019

1

Monteocha

Very High

Low

Medium

0.15

020

1

Tavares

Lowb

High

 

0.10

021

1

Newnan

High

High

 

0.10

022

1

Floridana

Very High

Low

High

0.10

023

1

Mulat

Very High

Low

High

0.10

025

1

Pomona

Very High

Low

Medium

0.10

026

1

Samsula

Very High

Very High

Medium

No Value

027

1

Urban Land

Very High

Variable

 

Variable

028

1

Chipley

High

High

 

0.10

029

1

Lochloosa

High

Low

 

0.10

030

1

Kendrick

Lowb

Low

 

0.10

031

1

Blichton

Very High

Low

High

0.15

032

1

Bivans

Very High

Very Low

Very High

0.10

033

1

Norfolk

Medium

Very Low

 

0.17

034

1

Placid

Very High

Very High

Lowb

0.10

035

1

Gainesville

Lowb

High

 

0.15

036

1

Arents

Variable

Variable

 

0.17

037

1

Zolfo

High

High

 

0.10

038

1

Pits

Variable

Variable

 

Variable

038

2

Dumps

Variable

Variable

 

Variable

039

1

Bonneau

Medium

Low

 

0.15

041

1

Pedro

High

Very Highd

 

0.10

042

1

Pedro

High

Very Highd

 

0.10

042

2

Jonesville

Medium

Very Highe

 

0.10

044

1

Blichton

Very High

Low

High

0.15

044

2

Urban Land

Very High

Variable

 

Variablef

045

1

Urban Land

Very High

Variable

 

Variablef

045

2

Millhopper

Low*

Low

 

0.10

046

1

Jonesville

Medium

Very Highe

 

0.10

046

2

Cadillac

Lowb

Low

 

0.10

046

3

Bonneau

Lowb

Low

 

0.10

047

1

Candler

Lowb

High

 

0.10

047

2

Apopka

Lowb

Low

 

0.10

048

1

Myakka

Very High

Highe

Medium

0.10

050

1

Sparr

High

Low

 

0.10

051

1

Plummer

Very High

Low

Medium

0.10

052

1

Ledwith

Very High

Very Low

Medium

No Value

053

1

Shenks

Very High

Low

High

No Value

054

1

Emeralda

Very High

Very Low

Very High

0.15

055

1

Lake

Lowb

High

 

0.10

056

1

Wauberg

Very High

Low

High

0.15

057

1

Micanopy

High

Very Low

 

0.15

058

1

Lake

Lowb

High

 

0.10

059

1

Pottsburg

Very High

High

Medium

0.10

060

1

Udorthents

Variable

Variable

 

0.32

061

1

Oleno

Very High

Very Low

 

0.37

062

1

Boardman

Very High

Low

Very High

0.15

063

1

Terra Ceia

Very High

Very High

Medium

No Value

064

1

Okeechobee

Very High

Very High

Medium

No Value

065

1

Martel

Very High

Very Low

 

0.32

067

1

Wacahoota

Very High

Very Low

Very High

0.15

068

1

Candler

Lowb

High

 

0.10

069

1

Arrendondo

Lowb

Low

 

0.10

070

1

Apopka

Lowb

Low

 

0.10

071

1

Millhopper

Lowb

Low

 

0.10

072

1

Lochloosa

Very High

Low

 

0.10

073

1

Kendrick

Lowb

Low

 

0.10

074

1

Blichton

Very High

Low

High

0.15

075

1

Blichton

Very High

Low

Very High

0.15

076

1

Bivans

Very High

Low

Very High

0.10

077

1

Bivans

Very High

Low

Very High

0.10

078

1

Norfolk

High

Low

 

0.17

079

1

Gainesville

Lowb

High

 

0.15

080

1

Mascotte

Very High

Low

 

0.10

080

2

Wesconnett

Very High

High

 

0.10

080

3

Surrency

Very High

Low

 

0.10

081

1

Stake

Very High

Low

Medium

0.10

082

1

Plummer

Very High

Low

 

0.10

082

2

Mascotte

Very High

Low

 

0.10

083

1

Pickney

Very High

Very High

 

0.10

084

1

Ocilla

High

Low

 

0.10

084

2

Alapaha

Very High

Low

 

0.10

084

3

Mandarin

High

Highe

 

0.10

085

1

Pamlico

Very High

Very High

 

0.10

a Seq. No. indicates a particular soil series name among one or more names constituting a map unit name.

b Rate Very Low where percent ground cover is greater than 75%.

d Rate Very High if combined thickness of layers with chroma 3 or more and Bh horizons is less than 20 inches.

e Rate Low if thickness of loamy/clayey layers is more than 10 inches.

f K-factors to be used: muck = 0.02, mucky sand = 0.05, sand = 0.10, loamy sand = 0.15, sandy loam = 0.20,

sandy clay loam = 0.24, and clay = 0.37

Potential to Reach Water Body

This parameter is used to address the potential for runoff to reach a water body. If there is no direct discharge from the edge of a field, the potential to affect a water body is considered to be “very low.” If the P concentration of the runoff can be attenuated by flow through a wetland, buffer strip or overland treatment area, the potential is considered “low.” If there is ditch drainage or direct discharge to a water body, the index value is increased to “medium.” When there is potential for direct discharge to a lake, sinkhole, or natural stream the potential for water quality degradation by P is enhanced and the index rating is increased to “high.”

Potential to Reach Water Body Rating Criteria (see Table 1)

Very Low (0):

No direct discharge from the edge of the field.

Low (1):

Discharge through wetlands, buffer area (refer to table below for buffer width), storm water

detention, or overland treatment.

Medium (2):

No buffer, ditch drainage to or direct discharge to a water body.

High (4):

Direct discharges to a lake, sinkhole, or natural stream.

Non-Application Buffer Widths1. 

Object, Site

Situation

Base Buffer Width from

Object, Site (ft.)

Well, potable

Located up-slope of application site

150

Well, potable

Located down-slope of application site provided conditions warrant application

300

Water body, stream2, sinkhole or wetland

Good vegetation 3/. Add 2 feet for each 1% slope for slopes up to 8%.

50 (+)

Water body, stream2, sinkhole or wetland

Poor vegetative cover or Predominant slope > 8%3

100

Public road – roadside ditch

Irrigated wastewater or solids applied with spreader

30

1Research has shown that forested or forest/grass buffers are more effective at removing phosphorus. Grass buffers are more effective at removing nitrogen. Every effort should be made to reduce phosphorus inputs at their sources. If phosphorus is managed responsibly on-site, buffers can store significant amounts of the excess; but if phosphorus is uncontrolled buffers can quickly become saturated and overwhelmed. Even with their limits, buffers still perform a valuable service by displacing phosphorus-producing activities away from streams and regulating the flow of phosphorus. Taken in part from “A Review Of The Scientific Literature On Riparian Buffer Width, Extent And Vegetation”, Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia.

2Water body includes pond, lake, or open sinkhole. Open sinks include paleo sinks without a confining layer within 80 inches of the surface. Stream includes both perennial and intermittent streams and canals.

3Good vegetation refers to a well-managed, dense stand that is not overgrazed.

Phosphorus Transport Potential Due to Phosphorus Source Management - Part B (Table 2)

Phosphorus transport potential due to phosphorus source management is as follows:

  • Fertility Index Value

  • P Application Source and Rate

  • Application Method

  • Waste Water Application

Criteria

Fertility Index Value

Existing soil P levels are included in the P Index and identified as the “fertility index”. The “fertility index” is defined as Mehlich-3 extractable P, of a 0-15 cm (0-6 inches) depth soil sample, in ppm (parts per million) multiplied by 2 to convert to pounds per acre. The 0.025 multiplication factor was selected to provide a value range similar to those used for other parameters in the P Index.

Obtain soil samples by taking 15 to 20 small cores (for areas up to 40 acres) at random over the entire area to a depth of about 6 inches. Place the 15 to 20 plugs in a container, mix them thoroughly, and send approximately one pint of the mixed sample to the UF/IFAS Extension Soil Testing Laboratory (ESTL) or other qualified laboratory for analysis.

P Application Source and Rate

The multiplication factors for the application of P vary based on the source (fertilizer, manure, compost, biosolids, or waste water). Fertilizer, manure, and compost have the multiplier 0.05. For biosolids the multiplier is lower (0.015) because of evidence that the Fe and Al content of biosolids will decrease the P availability in biosolids-amended soils. In contrast, P in water from municipal and lagoon effluents is mostly in a soluble form and therefore the multiplier is higher (0.10).

Application Method

The application method is not a consideration for sites that have No Surface Outlet or where solids are incorporated immediately after application or injected (value 0). For all other sites, effluent applied via irrigation are typically applied frequently (weekly, bi-weekly) and in small amounts or where solids are incorporated within one day of application; therefore, the potential for P loss is low (value 2). In contrast, solids (fertilizers, compost, biosolids, manures) surface-applied and not incorporated would have a higher potential for loss, particularly through surface runoff (value 6). Incorporated solids within 5 days of application have a medium potential for loss (value 4).

Waste Water Application Volume

Excessive volumes of water may exacerbate movement of P via downward or lateral leaching, depending on the landscape. The 0.20 multiplication factor was selected to provide a value range similar to those used for other parameters in the P Index.

Resulting P Index

The P Index is obtained by multiplying the site and transport characteristics totals – Part A (Table 1) by the phosphorus source totals – Part B (Table 2). The results are interpreted according to guidelines in Table 3.

On sites with a LOW or MEDIUM vulnerability rating, it is possible to use a nitrogen-based budget to determine application rates. On sites with a HIGH or VERY HIGH vulnerability rating, it is necessary to use a phosphorus-based budget to determine application rates.

Assessing the P Index Results

The numerical result of the P Index has no absolute value, but is immediately translated into a qualitative rating (LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH, or VERY HIGH). For each qualitative rating a description is given for the level of concern that each specifically assessed field has for P loss potential (Table 3). Some general guidance is given for each qualitative level as to the intensity and type of remedial action or mitigation that would be necessary to reduce P loss risk.

Conservation Planning Notes

Since output from the P Index includes information that is specific to each of the site and transport characteristics – Part A (Table 1) and phosphorus source management – Part B (Table 2), the conservation planner can identify which characteristics/management have the greatest influence in determining the final vulnerability rating and may be targeted for remedial action. Table 14 may be used to record notes to explain, clarify, and/or define site characteristics and source management used to evaluate a site. Each factor can be revisited and planning changes made, thereby changing the resulting P Index. For example, terraces can be installed, thereby lowering soil erosion and the final P Index. Similarly, the P Index can be lowered by reducing the planned P application rate.

Table 14. 

Conservation Planning Notes

Client Name:

County:

Date:

Planner:

Field(s):

Crop:

Site and Transport Characteristics

Remarks

Soil Erosion

 

Runoff Potential

 

Leaching Potential

 

Potential to Reach Water Body

 

Phosphorus Source Management

 

Fertility Index Value

 

P Application Source and Rate

 

P Application Method

 

Waste Water Application

 

Glossary

(as used in the P Index the following definitions apply)

No Surface Outlet – The combination of slope and permeability of the application site that will not discharge surface flow from that site in a 2 year – 24 hour rainfall event.

(This level of evaluating runoff is not intended to require calculation for the rainfall events but is intended to evaluate those sites that do not have external surface flows during most years. Where these sites occur, additional comments may need to be recorded on the back of form FL-CPA-41)

Compost – Animal wastes and plant debris that have gone through the composting process.

Biosolids – Residuals, domestic wastewater residuals and/or septage as defined in Chapter 62-640 Florida Administrative Code. Biosolids include co-compost with a minimum of 50% biosolids.

Landform – Any physical, recognizable form or feature of the earth's surface, having a characteristic shape and produced by natural causes.

Examples of individual landforms and their definitions are:

Karst – Topography with sinkholes, caves, and underground drainage that is formed in limestone, gypsum, or other rocks by dissolution, and that is characterized by sinkholes, caves, and underground drainage.

Knoll – A small, low, rounded hill rising above adjacent landforms.

Subsurface Drainage – Lowering of the water table in order to improve vegetative growth, remove surface runoff from wet areas, or relieve artesian pressure. Subsurface drainage can be achieved by either using drainage tile or drainage ditches, typically spaced at regular intervals.

References

Brown, R.B., A.G. Hornsby, and G.W. Hurt. 1991. Soil ratings for crop production and water quality protection. Circular 959. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Florida Ecological Sciences Staff. 1999. Florida Agronomy Field Handbook, Chapter 6. USDA, NRCS, Gainesville, FL.

Florida Phosphorus Index Work Group. 2000. The Florida phosphorus index. http://efotg.nrcs.usda.gov/treemenuFS.aspx?Fips=12001&MenuName=menuFL.zip (The Florida Phosphorus Index sheets are located in Section IV of the Table of Contents under C.Tools.)

Thomas, B.P., E. Cummins, and W.H. Wittstruck. 1985. Soil Survey of Alachua County, Florida. USDA/SCS in cooperation with the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experimental Stations and Soil Science Department; Alachua County Board of County Commissioners; and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

Footnotes

1.

This document is CIR 1263, one of a series of the Soil and Water Science Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date September 2001. Revised August 2013. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

G.W. Hurt, national leader for hydric soils, USDA-NRCS; R.S. Mylavarapu, nutrient management specialist and director of UF/IFAS ARL/ESTL, Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611; and S.P. Boetger, agronomist, NRCS, Gainesville, FL, 32611.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.