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Publication #ENH1131

Annual Bluegrass Biology and Management in Turf1

Darcy E. P. Telenko, Ramon G. Leon, and J. Bryan Unruh2

Annual bluegrass (Poa annua) is a small, tufted to clumped winter annual grass. Leaf blades are smooth on both surfaces, with two distinct, clear lines, one on each side of the midrib. Leaf tips are keeled or boat shaped. The ligule is membranous. Spikelets are light green to whitish without cottony hairs. They are arranged on branches, one to two per node. Flowers form in dense to open clusters. Reproduction of annual bluegrass occurs by seed.

Figure 1. 

Figure 2. 

Herbicide Options for Controlling Annual Bluegrass in Florida Turfgrass

Annual bluegrass is considered a winter annual. Therefore, it starts to emerge late in the fall when soil temperatures are consistently between 60°F and 70°F. It is at this time that having preemergence (PRE) herbicides on the ground will help to minimize annual bluegrass populations. Due to a prolonged emergence period, postemergence (POST) herbicides should be used as a complement to PRE herbicides and not as a unique control tool. In this way, POST herbicides will control annual bluegrass individuals that escape PRE control. (Always refer to the label for specific uses, application rates, turfgrass tolerance, and application timing.)

Bermudagrass

  • Preemergence: benefin, benefin+oryzalin, benefin+trifluralin, bensulate+oxadiazon, DCPA, dimethenamid-P, dithiopyr, ethofumesate (only dormant overseeded), fenarimol, indaziflam, metolachlor, napropamide, oryzalin, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, prodiamine, prodiamine+isoxaben, prodiamine+sulfentrazone, proamide, simazine

  • Postemergence: amicarbazone, bispyribac-sodium (only dormant overseeded), foramsulfuron, metribuzin, pronamide, rimsulfuron, simazine, sulfometuron, sulfosulfuron, trifloxysufluron

St. Augustinegrass

  • Preemergence: atrazine, benefin, benefin+oryzalin, benefin+trifluralin, DCPA, dimethenamid-P, dithiopyr, ethofumesate, indaziflam, metolachlor, napropamide, oryzalin, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, prodiamine, prodiamine+isoxaben, simazine

  • Postemergence: amicarbazone, atrazine, ethofumesate, simazine, sulfosulfuron

Centipedegrass

  • Preemergence: atrazine, benefin, benefin+oryzalin, benefin+trifluralin, DCPA, dimethenamid-P, dithiopyr, indaziflam, metolachlor, napropamide, oryzalin, pendimethalin, prodiamine, prodiamine+isoxaben, prodiamine+sulfentrazone, simazine

  • Postemergence: amicarbazone, atrazine, clethodim, simazine, sulfosulfuron

Bahiagrass

  • Preemergence: benefin, benefin+oryzalin, benefin+trifluralin, DCPA, dimethenamid-P, dithiopyr, indaziflam, metolachlor, napropamide, oryzalin, pendimethalin, prodiamine, prodiamine+isoxaben, prodiamine+sulfentrazone

  • Postemergence: sulfometuron

Seashore Paspalum

  • Preemergence: dimethenamid-P, dithiopyr, indaziflam, oryzalin, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, prodiamine, prodiamine+isoxaben, prodiamine+sulfentrazone

  • Postemergence: amicarbazone,

Zoysiagrass

  • Preemergence: atrazine, benefin, benefin+oryzalin, benefin+trifluralin, bensulate+oxadiazon, DCPA, dimethenamid-P, dithiopyr, indaziflam, metolachlor, oryzalin, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, prodiamine, prodiamine+isoxaben, prodiamine+sulfentrazone, simazine

  • Postemergence: amicarbazone, atrazine, formasulfuron, simazine, sulfosulfuron, trifloxysulfuron

Perennial Ryegrass

  • Preemergence: dimethenamid-P, dithiopyr, ethofumesate (dormant overseeded bermudagrass), fenarimol, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, prodiamine, prodiamine+isoxaben, prodiamine+sulfentrazone

  • Postemergence: bispyribac-sodium (dormant overseeded bermudagrass)

Refer to the publication Pest Control Guide for Turfgrass Managers at http://turf.ufl.edu/pdf/2012_UF_Pest_Control_Guide.pdf for brand names associated with chemical names listed.

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENH1131, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date June 2009. Revised February 2013 and April 2016. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Darcy E. P. Telenko, former postdoctoral research associate; Ramon G. Leon, assistant professor, Agronomy Department; and J. Bryan Unruh, professor, Environmental Horticulture Department; UF/IFAS West Florida Research and Education Center, Jay FL 32565.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.