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Publication #ENH1331

Florida’s Urban Forest: A Valuation of Benefits1

Drew C. McLean, Andrew K. Koeser, Deborah R. Hilbert, Shawn Landry, Amr Abd-Elrahman, Katie Britt, Mary Lusk, Michael G. Andreu, and Robert J. Northrop2

What is an urban forest?

An urban forest is a collection of trees and other woody vegetation found in and around human developments. An urban forest can be thought of as a gradient of trees extending from the street trees of densely packed urban cores, past the landscaped suburban plots, and all the way out to the remnant forests of exurban (or edges of urban) lands. It includes all the woody vegetation found in urban parks, industrial landscapes, residential properties, wetlands, riparian corridors, coastal ecosystems, greenways, and nature preserves, regardless of ownership (Figure 1).

Figure 1. 

Urban forest gradient; from left to right and top to bottom: urban street trees, park trees, residential trees, and trees along a trail in a nature preserve.


Credit:

Drew C. McLean, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Tree Canopy Coverage

Urban forest managers use a range of measurements to describe and value the urban forest and its benefits. One measurement that can be made over large areas of land with relative ease is the quantification of tree canopy coverage. Tree canopy cover is the percent of a given land area (e.g., city, national forest, etc.) covered by leaves and branches when viewed from above. Canopy coverage assessments are important tools that allow a community to estimate current canopy coverage, understand the extent of the urban forest, and track potential changes over time. Canopy coverage can be measured in the field with specialized equipment or by analysis of aerial and satellite imagery.

Florida has 29 metropolitan and micropolitan census-designated areas, representing 51 of the 67 counties and over 98% of the state’s population (US Census Bureau 2019). These census-designated areas represent geographical regions with at least one densely populated urban area and related economic ties. Metropolitan areas must have one city or town with at least 50,000 people, while micropolitan areas must have a city or town with a population between 10,000 and 50,000 people (US Census Bureau 2019).

To assess the urban forest throughout the state, we analyzed canopy coverage and its associated benefits in each of these census-designated areas. Tree canopy coverage was estimated using a point-based sampling approach. This method generates random points within a designated boundary on high-resolution aerial imagery. The random points are then assessed by a photo interpreter and classified as “Tree/Shrub” or “No-Tree.” The classified points are tallied and divided by the total number of points to reach an overall canopy coverage percentage.

Tree canopy coverage ranged from 18.6% in the Okeechobee micropolitan area to 74.4% in the Crestview-Fort Walton-Destin metropolitan area (Table 1). In general, canopy coverage tended to decrease from north to south and west to east across the state (Figure 2).

Figure 2. 

Locations of the 29 metropolitan and micropolitan areas in Florida. The different colors represent the percent of canopy coverage. Numbers correspond to the metropolitan and micropolitan area names in the legend on left side of the figure.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Urban Forest Benefits

Urban forest ecosystems provide a variety of economic and environmental benefits (Livesley et al. 2016), including shading homes to create energy savings, intercepting rain to reduce stormwater, improving air quality by filtering pollutants, and sequestering carbon to offset emissions associated with climate change. Many urban forest benefits are influenced by the combined surface area of all the leaves in a tree’s canopy (Peper and McPherson 2003). Researchers use leaf area measurements to estimate the benefits provided by individual trees in an urban forest (Figure 3).

Figure 3. 

Sign displaying some of the estimated benefits produced from a tree in Pinellas County, FL.


Credit:

Drew C. McLean, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Researchers have developed ecosystem services models that use urban forest data to calculate the total economic value of all trees in a designated area, typically at the city or county level. Prior urban forest ecosystem service assessments for Gainesville and Tampa, Florida can be found at https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr265 (Tampa) and https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr414 (Gainesville). Evaluation of these benefits allows city managers and citizens to gauge the importance of the urban forest compared to other key infrastructure elements and to budget for the appropriate management of this natural resource.

Currently these models are able to estimate only some of the more tangible benefits of the urban forest, like the ones mentioned above. There are many other important benefits, such as wildlife habitat, recreational value, and human psychological effects. Researchers are working to apply economic values to these less tangible but important services. While all of these models are based on the best available science at the time, the data they produce are still just estimations.

For this study, the total acreage of each metropolitan and micropolitan area was calculated in a geographic information system (ArcGIS v10.5, ESRI). Acreage of tree canopy was estimated by multiplying the total area of each census-designated boundary by the canopy coverage percentage obtained during the aerial imagery interpretation process. We used the estimation of “canopy area” (Table 1) in each metropolitan and micropolitan area to calculate the value of benefits received from their corresponding urban forest. Benefit production rates (e.g., tons of air pollution removed per acre) and the monetary values for air pollution, avoided runoff, carbon sequestration, and carbon storage were based on data obtained from the i-Tree Canopy software v7.0 (https://canopy.itreetools.org/benefits/).

Air Pollution Removal

Toxic air pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ground level ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) can cause adverse effects to human health, disrupt ecosystem processes, and reduce visibility in cities (EPA 2019). Carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide gas are released into the atmosphere mainly through the burning of fossil fuels in power plants, industrial facilities, and automobiles. Ground-level ozone is created by chemical reactions between air pollutants and sunlight (EPA 2019). Particulate matter can be released directly from a source, such as unpaved roads, fields, and smokestacks, or created in the atmosphere through complex chemical reactions.

Air pollutants have been shown to affect cardiovascular and respiratory health, with long-term exposure potentially leading to the development of serious diseases (Stieb et al. 2009). In addition to the human health effects, air pollutants negatively affect the environment by contributing to pollution of coastal waters, smog production, and the formation of acid rain (Manisalidis et al. 2020).

Tree leaves primarily remove air pollutants by directly absorbing them or indirectly capturing them on their surfaces (Grote et al. 2016; Nowak et al. 2006). Altogether, the trees in Florida’s 29 census-designated areas remove over 600,000 tons of combined air pollution each year, saving Florida residents an estimated $605 million in annual air-pollution-related health care costs (Figure 4; Table 2). Estimated removal amounts for each air pollutant are listed by micropolitan and metropolitan area in Table 3.

Figure 4. 

Tree leaves remove an estimated 600,000 tons of air pollutants each year, saving Floridians $605 million in air-pollution-related health care costs annually.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Stormwater Runoff

Stormwater runoff is the rainwater that flows over the ground after a rain event. Impervious surfaces, such as roads, parking lots, and rooftops, do not allow water to infiltrate into the soil. Instead, these impervious surfaces swiftly direct large volumes of water into nearby stormwater drains that typically discharge into neighboring waterbodies. In urban areas with increased impervious surfaces, stormwater runoff can be a significant source of pollution to local waterbodies. As water flows over impervious surfaces, it can pick up many different pollutants (e.g., antifreeze, grease, pesticides, bacteria, etc.) that are present on these paved surfaces.

Trees help combat the negative effects of stormwater runoff by capturing rainfall on their leaves and bark, thereby reducing the amount of water hitting impervious surfaces. In addition, tree roots and old fallen leaves can promote soil conditions that allow more water to enter the soil during a rain event. Collectively, the urban forests in the 29 metropolitan and micropolitan areas intercept an estimated 50 billion gallons of water a year, resulting in savings of over $451 million in avoided annual stormwater treatment costs (Table 4). To put this volume of water in context, that is enough to fill approximately 75,000 Olympic-sized swimming pools each year (Figure 5).

Figure 5. 

The amount of water Florida’s urban forest reduce stormwater volumes by each year is enough to fill 75,000 Olympic swimming pools.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Carbon Sequestration and Storage

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a major greenhouse gas that plays a significant role in global climate change. Carbon dioxide is mainly released to the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels (EPA 2019). Trees can help combat climate change by taking in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. During photosynthesis, trees take in atmospheric carbon dioxide and store it as carbon in their trunks, branches, and roots. A tree will continue to sequester and store carbon until it dies.

Carbon sequestration and storage rates are often presented as “carbon dioxide equivalents” as a way of measuring carbon footprints. Carbon dioxide equivalents report a single number to represent the amount of carbon dioxide that would create the same impact as all of the greenhouse gases combined (e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone). For example, because methane is a more powerful greenhouse gas, one ton of methane is equivalent to 25 tons of carbon dioxide (EPA 2019).

Equivalent calculators can be used to express these extremely large emission values in terms that are easier to digest and understand (Figure 6). Florida’s urban forests sequester (i.e., capture through active growth) 65 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent a year, which translates to an estimated $3 billion in annual benefits (Table 5). Florida’s urban forests store (in their wood) a total of one billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, worth an estimated $76 billion in services (Table 6).

Figure 6. 

Carbon dioxide emission equivalent infographics.


Credit:

US EPA greenhouse gas equivalencies calculator


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Box 1. 

Carbon Pricing

Carbon pricing is a financial-based strategy that assigns monetary value to carbon emissions to help combat climate change. The price assigned to carbon can vary depending on the source and valuation method. In addition, carbon prices are influenced by regulatory, economic, and social factors and therefore may not always reflect current market prices. Even though carbon prices are not standardized and can fluctuate over time, they can be useful tools for portraying the economic value of carbon emissions. When assigning a value to carbon, it is important not only to list the price used in the valuation but also the amount of carbon the value relates to. This will allow for comparisons of carbon valuations across different markets using different carbon prices.

Valuable Natural Resource

Florida’s urban forests are an extremely valuable natural resource that provides an estimated $4.1 billion in annual benefits for the state's citizens and visitors (Table 7). In addition, these urban forests will provide an estimated $76 billion in climate change benefits over their lifespan as trees continue to grow, storing more carbon in their tissues. It is important to remember that the benefit numbers and monetary values presented in this report are estimations obtained from scientific models. While these numbers may not be absolute, they are based on the best available science and are important for estimating the value of urban forests and the services they provide. In addition, this valuation of Florida’s urban forest only includes some of the more tangible benefits, and we did not assess every county in the state. Many of the benefits presented in this report are influenced by the health and size of an individual tree’s canopy. Preservation and management of the urban forest is critical to ensure that citizens receive the maximum benefits that urban trees can provide.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the following people for their indispensable help conducting the canopy assessments: Brooke Anderson, Saige Middleton, and Hunter Thorn.

Literature Cited

Grote, R., R. Samson, R. Alonso, J. Amorim, P. Cariñanos, G. Churkina, S. Fares, D. Le Thiec, Ü. Niinemets, T. N. Mikkelsen, E. Paoletti, A. Tiwary, and C. Calfapietra. 2016. “Functional Traits of Urban Trees: Air Pollution Mitigation Potential.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 14 (10): 543–550.

Livesley, S. J., E. G. McPherson, and C. Calfapietra. 2016. “The Urban Forest and Ecosystem Services: Impacts on Urban Water, Heat, and Pollution Cycles at the Tree, Street, and City Scale.” Journal of Environmental Quality 45:119–124.

Manisalidis, I, E. Stavropoulou, A. Stravropoulos, and E. Bezirtzoglou. 2020. “Environmental and Health Impacts of Air Pollution: A Review.” Frontiers in Public Health 8:14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00014.

Nowak, D. J., D. E. Crane, and J. C. Stevens. 2006. “Air Pollution Removal by Urban Trees and Shrubs in the United States.” Urban Forest & Urban Greening 4 (3–4): 115–123.

Peper, P. J., and E. G. McPherson. 2003. “Evaluation of Four Methods for Estimating Leaf Area of Isolated Trees.” 2 (1): 19–29.

Stieb, D. M., M. Szyszkowicz, B. H. Rowe, and J. A. Leech. 2009. “Air Pollution and Emergency Department Visits for Cardiac and Respiratory Conditions: A Multi-city Time-Series Analysis.” Environmental Health 8 (25).

United States Census Bureau. 2019. Florida Counties by Population. Florida Demographics by Cubit. Accessed May 2019. https://www.florida-demographics.com/counties_by_population

United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2019. “Criteria Air Pollutants.” Accessed May 2019. https://www.epa.gov/criteria-air-pollutants

Resources

Greenhouse Gases Equivalencies Calculator. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Web. Accessed 5/20. https://www.epa.gov/energy/greenhouse-gas-equivalencies-calculator

i-Tree Canopy. i-Tree Software Suite v7.0. Web. Accessed 4/20. https://canopy.itreetools.org/

NAIP imagery. United States Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Services. Web. Accessed 3/20. https://datagateway.nrcs.usda.gov/GDGHome_DirectDownLoad.aspx

Tables

Table 1. 

Population, percent tree canopy cover with 95% confidence interval, and estimated acres of tree canopy with associated standard error of the 29 metropolitan and micropolitan areas in Florida, sorted from highest to lowest canopy cover.

Overview of Canopy Cover

Area

2019 Populationz

Percent Canopy Cover

with 95% Confidence Intervaly

Canopy Areax

(ac)

Canopy Area SEw

(ac)

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

284,809

74.4% ± 1.9%

946,304

12,771

Tallahassee

387,227

73.9% ± 1.9%

1,149,077

15,605

Jacksonville

1,559,514

67.8% ± 2.0%

1,367,161

22,678

Lake City

71,686

62.1% ± 2.1%

316,357

5,555

Gainesville

329,128

57.8% ± 2.2%

887,380

17,263

Pensacola-Ferrypass-Brent

502,629

57.2% ± 2.2%

616,384

12,012

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

770,577

56.7% ± 2.2%

279,271

5,770

Key West

74,228

56.6% ± 2.2%

350,308

7,406

Ocala

365,579

56.4% ± 2.2%

583,500

11,672

Homosassa Springs

149,657

55.3% ± 2.2%

212,249

4,380

The Villages

132,420

54.8% ± 2.2%

198,293

4,086

Naples-Marco Island

384,902

51.9% ± 2.2%

659,038

14,379

Panama City

174,705

51.5% ± 2.2%

252,326

5,542

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

3,194,831

46.2% ± 2.2%

733,931

18,052

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

2,608,147

45.5% ± 2.2%

1,046,163

26,673

Lakeland-Winter Haven

724,777

40.1% ± 2.1%

480,751

13,433

Sebastian-Vero Beach

159,923

40.0% ± 2.1%

121,779

3,418

Punta Gorda

188,910

38.6% ± 2.1%

168,267

4,841

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

601,942

37.3% ± 2.1%

236,040

6,968

North Port-Bradenton-Sarasota

836,995

35.9% ± 2.1%

296,465

8,950

Palatka

74,521

34.7% ± 2.1%

164,918

5,186

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

668,365

34.0% ± 2.1%

349,023

11,093

Wauchula

26,937

33.5% ± 2.1%

133,914

4,244

Port St. Lucie

489,297

29.6% ± 2.0%

207,150

7,325

Arcadia

38,001

28.7% ± 2.0%

116,039

4,099

Clewiston

42,022

26.4% ± 1.9%

195,215

7,325

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach

6,166,488

25.6% ± 1.9%

820,294

31,686

Sebring-Avon Park

106,221

25.2% ± 1.9%

166,551

6,481

Okeechobee

42,168

18.6% ± 1.7%

92,500

4,384

z 2019 population based on US Census Bureau estimations for 2019.

xCanopy cover estimations based on dot-based analysis of on 2019 leaf-on aerial imagery from National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP; USDA 2019).

y Canopy area is percent canopy cover multiplied by total acres of the metropolitan/micropolitan area.

w SE is an abbreviation for standard error, a measure of statistical accuracy for an estimated mean.

Table 2. 

Total estimated annual air pollution removal (in US tons) and total estimated air pollution removal values (in USD) with associated standard error (SE) calculations for the 29 metropolitan and micropolitan areas in Florida. Air pollution removal amounts and monetary values are based on county-level multipliers listed in the i-Tree canopy v7.0 software.

Total Air Pollution Removal (US tons)

Metropolitan / Micropolitan

Area

Total Air Pollution Removalz (T)

Total Air Pollution Removal SE

(T)

Annual Value

Annual Value

SE

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

49,447

667

$19,876,367

$268,241

Tallahassee

48,107

653

$18,569,840

$252,193

Jacksonville

72,238

1,198

$67,597,085

$1,121,265

Lake City

16,837

296

$3,292,058

$57,811

Gainesville

42,082

819

$11,249,273

$218,836

Pensacola-Ferrypass-Brent

33,697

657

$35,387,009

$689,590

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

12,950

268

$21,513,273

$444,485

Key West

15,502

328

$2,198,593

$46,478

Ocala

28,501

570

$16,410,528

$328,269

Homosassa Springs

9,137

189

$13,143,399

$271,220

The Villages

8,437

174

$5,445,000

$112,199

Naples-Marco Island

31,777

693

$12,965,969

$282,902

Panama City

14,364

315

$11,079,671

$243,341

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

35,392

870

$108,067,269

$2,657,995

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

46,676

1,190

$66,711,108

$1,700,894

Lakeland-Winter Haven

22,330

624

$20,695,248

$578,240

Sebastian-Vero Beach

5,052

142

$5,800,433

$162,793

Punta Gorda

8,068

232

$8,014,045

$230,570

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

11,885

351

$13,505,954

$398,698

North Port-Bradenton-Sarasota

15,239

460

$24,949,673

$753,172

Palatka

9,482

298

$3,645,056

$114,617

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

16,234

516

$18,988,661

$603,524

Wauchula

6,127

194

$743,110

$23,550

Port St. Lucie

9,642

341

$13,133,556

$464,407

Arcadia

5,645

199

$866,638

$30,611

Clewiston

8,422

316

$1,019,992

$38,274

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach

36,871

1,424

$77,315,778

$2,986,515

Sebring-Avon Park

7,605

296

$2,695,689

$104,897

Okeechobee

3,797

180

$760,870

$36,061

Total

631,544

14,461

$605,641,144

$15,221,645

z Total air pollution is sum of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ground level ozone (O3), particulate matter between 10 and 2.5 microns (PM10), particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), and sulfur dioxide (SO2).

Table 3. 

Annual estimated removal rates and associated standard errors (SE) in US tons of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ground-level ozone (O3), particulate matter between 10 and 2.5 microns (PM10), particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) for the 29 metropolitan and micropolitan areas in Florida. Removal rates are based on county-level multipliers listed in the i-Tree canopy v7.0 software.

Air Pollution Removal (US tons)

Metropolitan / Micropolitan Area

CO

(T)

CO

SE (T)

NO2

(T)

NO2

SE (T)

O3

(T)

O3

SE (T)

PM10

(T)

PM10

SE (T)

PM2.5

(T)

PM2.5

SE (T)

SO2

(T)

SO2

SE (T)

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

856

12

2,477

33

29,770

402

12,283

166

2,291

31

1,770

24

Tallahassee

675

9

4,065

55

29,053

395

11,682

159

2,068

28

564

8

Jacksonville

791

13

6,366

106

44,824

744

16,272

270

1,596

26

2,389

40

Lake City

229

4

1,455

26

10,174

179

4,632

81

151

3

196

3

Gainesville

608

12

3,458

67

27,633

538

8,900

173

774

15

709

14

Pensacola-Ferrypass-Brent

663

13

1,624

32

19,761

385

9,207

179

1,287

25

1,155

23

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

220

5

564

12

8,840

183

2,600

54

316

7

410

8

Key West

436

9

1,612

34

9,866

209

3,280

69

308

7

1

0.1

Ocala

646

13

1,486

30

18,166

363

6,773

135

806

16

624

12

Homosassa Springs

138

3

652

13

6,138

127

1,803

37

279

6

128

3

The Villages

220

5

506

10

5,895

121

1,480

30

293

6

43

1

Naples-Marco Island

839

18

1,968

43

21,427

468

6,692

146

849

19

2

0.1

Panama City

160

4

728

16

9,951

219

2,168

48

805

18

552

12

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

483

12

2,243

55

23,882

587

6,926

170

975

24

883

22

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,155

29

2,668

68

32,575

831

8,521

217

1,451

37

306

8

Lakeland-Winter Haven

306

9

1,219

34

15,387

430

4,232

118

698

19

488

14

Sebastian-Vero Beach

145

4

320

9

3,436

96

905

25

186

5

58

2

Punta Gorda

113

3

355

10

5,539

159

1,587

46

217

6

257

7

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

284

8

639

19

8,688

256

1,891

56

264

8

119

4

North Port-Bradenton-Sarasota

237

7

648

20

10,168

307

3,310

100

400

12

477

14

Palatka

141

4

830

26

6,237

196

1,791

56

259

8

224

7

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

381

12

948

30

11,176

355

3,013

96

515

16

202

6

Wauchula

85

3

289

9

4,277

136

1,129

36

200

6

147

5

Port St. Lucie

269

10

439

16

6,875

243

1,619

57

255

9

185

7

Arcadia

74

3

251

9

3,845

136

1,139

40

158

6

180

6

Clewiston

225

8

539

20

5,545

208

1,752

66

360

14

0.5

0.1

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach

981

38

2,168

84

23,376

903

8,614

333

1,363

53

369

14

Sebring-Avon Park

107

4

351

14

5,308

207

1,440

56

228

9

171

7

Okeechobee

111

5

226

11

2,413

114

901

43

104

5

42

2

Total

11,576

278

41,096

910

410,226

9,495

136,541

3,063

19,455

443

12,650

272

Table 4. 

Annual estimated avoided stormwater runoff volumes in gallons and estimated values of annual avoided runoff (in USD) with associated standard error (SE) calculations for the 29 metropolitan and micropolitan areas in Florida. Avoided runoff rates and monetary values are based on county-level multipliers listed in the i-Tree canopy v7.0 software.

Avoided Stormwater Runoff (gallons)

Metropolitan / Micropolitan

Area

Avoided Runoff

(gal)

Avoided Runoff SE

(gal)

Annual Value

Annual Value

SE

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

1,781,662,371

24,044,406

$15,878,139

$214,283

Tallahassee

1,562,790,401

21,223,893

$13,927,557

$189,147

Jacksonville

4,612,091,727

76,502,935

$41,102,869

$681,793

Lake City

76,558,303

1,344,426

$682,286

$11,981

Gainesville

618,468,676

12,031,305

$5,511,780

$107,223

Pensacola-Ferrypass-Brent

2,365,755,149

46,101,687

$21,083,563

$410,857

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

3,677,903,463

75,989,008

$32,777,402

$677,213

Key West

249,237,204

5,268,886

$2,221,197

$46,956

Ocala

1,290,632,073

25,817,272

$11,502,087

$230,083

Homosassa Springs

745,808,766

15,390,079

$6,646,633

$137,156

The Villages

351,263,494

7,238,107

$3,130,453

$64,506

Naples-Marco Island

1,387,538,412

30,274,477

$12,365,715

$269,806

Panama City

699,781,063

15,369,159

$6,236,435

$136,970

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

6,283,890,090

154,556,937

$56,001,903

$1,377,408

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

5,979,910,594

152,466,290

$53,292,844

$1,358,777

Lakeland-Winter Haven

1,656,706,879

46,289,537

$14,764,539

$412,531

Sebastian-Vero Beach

446,771,488

12,538,920

$3,981,619

$111,747

Punta Gorda

791,610,291

22,775,189

$7,054,815

$202,972

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

1,848,459,929

54,566,818

$16,473,438

$486,298

North Port-Bradenton-Sarasota

1,754,871,592

52,975,445

$15,639,381

$472,116

Palatka

205,138,758

6,450,474

$1,828,193

$57,486

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

1,113,230,764

35,382,234

$9,921,090

$315,326

Wauchula

64,814,450

2,054,047

$577,625

$18,306

Port St. Lucie

975,534,147

34,495,185

$8,693,941

$307,420

Arcadia

80,874,822

2,856,611

$720,755

$25,458

Clewiston

105,822,330

3,970,849

$943,086

$35,388

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach

9,655,586,366

372,971,087

$86,050,393

$3,323,911

Sebring-Avon Park

228,933,869

8,908,484

$2,040,254

$79,392

Okeechobee

53,723,799

2,546,181

$478,785

$22,692

Total

50,665,371,271

1,322,399,929

$451,528,775

$11,785,202

Table 5. 

Annual estimated carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) sequestration amounts in US tons and annual estimated value of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) sequestration (in USD) with associated standard error (SE) calculations for the 29 metropolitan and micropolitan areas in Florida.

Carbon Sequestration (US tons)

 

Sequestered CO2ez (T)

Sequestered CO2ez

SE (T)

Annual Valuey

Annual Valuex

SE

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

4,736,249

63,918

$220,282,941

$2,972,826

Tallahassee

5,751,129

78,105

$267,485,026

$3,632,652

Jacksonville

6,842,643

113,502

$318,251,323

$5,278,984

Lake City

1,583,365

27,805

$73,642,301

$1,293,218

Gainesville

4,441,339

86,399

$206,566,683

$4,018,420

Pensacola-Ferrypass-Brent

3,085,001

60,118

$143,483,402

$2,796,074

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

1,397,753

28,879

$65,009,503

$1,343,159

Key West

1,753,292

37,065

$81,545,612

$1,723,878

Ocala

2,920,418

58,419

$135,828,628

$2,717,060

Homosassa Springs

1,062,306

21,921

$49,407,846

$1,019,552

The Villages

992,455

20,450

$46,159,064

$951,150

Naples-Marco Island

3,298,485

71,969

$153,412,525

$3,347,283

Panama City

1,262,892

27,737

$58,737,117

$1,290,032

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

3,673,326

90,348

$170,846,390

$4,202,094

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

5,236,047

133,500

$243,528,533

$6,209,105

Lakeland-Winter Haven

2,406,159

67,230

$111,910,476

$3,126,856

Sebastian-Vero Beach

609,502

17,106

$28,347,927

$795,602

Punta Gorda

842,178

24,230

$39,169,698

$1,126,940

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

1,181,382

34,875

$54,946,063

$1,622,016

North Port-Bradenton-Sarasota

1,483,808

44,793

$69,011,894

$2,083,307

Palatka

825,417

25,955

$38,390,137

$1,207,156

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

1,746,862

55,521

$81,246,534

$2,582,289

Wauchula

670,240

21,241

$31,172,878

$987,906

Port St. Lucie

1,036,784

36,661

$48,220,832

$1,705,103

Arcadia

580,777

20,514

$27,011,948

$954,100

Clewiston

977,053

36,663

$45,442,724

$1,705,181

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach

4,105,573

158,588

$190,950,211

$7,375,928

Sebring-Avon Park

833,586

32,437

$38,770,086

$1,508,657

Okeechobee

462,961

21,942

$21,532,305

$1,020,500

Total

65,798,981

1,517,889

$3,060,310,607

$70,597,028

z CO2e sequestration rate was 5.005 T/ac. Based on US-level rate listed in i-Tree canopy v7.0 software.

y CO2e sequestration was valued at $46.51/T. Based on US-level value listed in i-Tree canopy v7.0 software.

x SE is an abbreviation for standard error, a measure of statistical accuracy for an estimated mean.

Table 6. 

Estimated carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) storage amounts in US tons and estimated value of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) storage (in USD) with associated standard error (SE) calculations for the 29 metropolitan and micropolitan areas in Florida.

Carbon Storage (US tons)

Metropolitan / Micropolitan Area

CO2e Storagez

(T)

CO2e Storage

SEy (T)

CO2e Storage

Valuex

CO2e Storage

Value SEy

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

118,947,511

1,605,255

$5,532,248,717

$138,266,145

Tallahassee

144,435,506

1,961,545

$6,717,695,366

$168,954,640

Jacksonville

171,848,090

2,850,525

$7,992,654,654

$245,525,566

Lake City

39,765,078

698,307

$1,849,473,796

$60,147,587

Gainesville

111,541,060

2,169,850

$5,187,774,704

$186,896,707

Pensacola-Ferrypass-Brent

77,477,600

1,509,813

$3,603,483,163

$130,045,410

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

35,103,574

725,273

$1,632,667,224

$62,470,306

Key West

44,032,677

930,853

$2,047,959,797

$80,177,568

Ocala

73,344,205

1,467,147

$3,411,238,966

$126,370,455

Homosassa Springs

26,679,053

550,534

$1,240,842,767

$47,419,355

The Villages

24,924,789

513,598

$1,159,251,914

$44,237,983

Naples-Marco Island

82,839,088

1,807,453

$3,852,845,981

$155,682,140

Panama City

31,716,636

696,586

$1,475,140,730

$59,999,395

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

92,252,958

2,269,030

$4,290,685,057

$195,439,376

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

131,499,573

3,352,768

$6,116,045,162

$288,785,468

Lakeland-Winter Haven

60,428,976

1,688,427

$2,810,551,659

$145,430,081

Sebastian-Vero Beach

15,307,201

429,606

$711,937,935

$37,003,459

Punta Gorda

21,150,699

608,521

$983,718,994

$52,413,978

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

29,669,558

875,850

$1,379,931,134

$75,439,971

North Port-Bradenton-Sarasota

37,264,769

1,124,936

$1,733,184,422

$96,894,596

Palatka

20,729,754

651,836

$964,140,861

$56,144,845

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

43,871,182

1,394,374

$2,040,448,675

$120,102,274

Wauchula

16,832,607

533,445

$782,884,568

$45,947,498

Port St. Lucie

26,038,094

920,715

$1,211,031,741

$79,304,355

Arcadia

14,585,805

515,191

$678,385,784

$44,375,168

Clewiston

24,537,982

920,757

$1,141,261,557

$79,307,959

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach

103,108,539

3,982,824

$4,795,578,148

$343,054,401

Sebring-Avon Park

20,934,918

814,639

$973,683,022

$70,167,636

Okeechobee

11,626,929

551,046

$540,768,464

$47,463,462

Total

1,652,494,409

38,120,704

$76,857,514,962

$3,283,467,783

z CO2e storage rate was 125.697 T/ac. Based on US-level rate listed in i-Tree canopy v7.0 software.

y SE is an abbreviation for standard error, a measure of statistical accuracy for an estimated mean.

x CO2e storage was valued at $46.51/T. Based on US-level value listed in i-Tree canopy v7.0 software.

Table 7. 

Estimated value of total annual benefits (air pollution removal, avoided stormwater runoff, and carbon dioxide equivalent [CO2e] sequestration; in USD) and associated standard error (SE) calculations for the 29 metropolitan and micropolitan areas in Florida. Monetary values are based on county-level values listed in the i-Tree canopy v7.0 software.

Total Annual Benefits

Metropolitan / Micropolitan Area

Air Pollution

Air Pollution SE

Avoided Runoff

Avoided

Runoff SE

CO2e Sequesteredz

CO2e Sequestered SEy

Total Benefitsx

Total Benefits

SEy

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

$19,876,367

$268,241

$15,878,139

$214,283

$220,282,941

$2,972,826

$256,037,447

$3,455,351

Tallahassee

$18,569,840

$252,193

$13,927,557

$189,147

$267,485,026

$3,632,652

$299,982,422

$4,073,991

Jacksonville

$67,597,085

$1,121,265

$41,102,869

$681,793

$318,251,323

$5,278,984

$426,951,277

$7,082,042

Lake City

$3,292,058

$57,811

$682,286

$11,981

$73,642,301

$1,293,218

$77,616,645

$1,363,011

Gainesville

$11,249,273

$218,836

$5,511,780

$107,223

$206,566,683

$4,018,420

$223,327,737

$4,344,479

Pensacola-Ferrypass-Brent

$35,387,009

$689,590

$21,083,563

$410,857

$143,483,402

$2,796,074

$199,953,974

$3,896,521

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

$21,513,273

$444,485

$32,777,402

$677,213

$65,009,503

$1,343,159

$119,300,178

$2,464,856

Key West

$2,198,593

$46,478

$2,221,197

$46,956

$81,545,612

$1,723,878

$85,965,402

$1,817,313

Ocala

$16,410,528

$328,269

$11,502,087

$230,083

$135,828,628

$2,717,060

$163,741,243

$3,275,412

Homosassa Springs

$13,143,399

$271,220

$6,646,633

$137,156

$49,407,846

$1,019,552

$69,197,878

$1,427,927

The Villages

$5,445,000

$112,199

$3,130,453

$64,506

$46,159,064

$951,150

$54,734,517

$1,127,855

Naples-Marco Island

$12,965,969

$282,902

$12,365,715

$269,806

$153,412,525

$3,347,283

$178,744,208

$3,899,991

Panama City

$11,079,671

$243,341

$6,236,435

$136,970

$58,737,117

$1,290,032

$76,053,222

$1,670,342

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

$108,067,269

$2,657,995

$56,001,903

$1,377,408

$170,846,390

$4,202,094

$334,915,562

$8,237,497

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

$66,711,108

$1,700,894

$53,292,844

$1,358,777

$243,528,533

$6,209,105

$363,532,485

$9,268,776

Lakeland-Winter Haven

$20,695,248

$578,240

$14,764,539

$412,531

$111,910,476

$3,126,856

$147,370,263

$4,117,627

Sebastian-Vero Beach

$5,800,433

$162,793

$3,981,619

$111,747

$28,347,927

$795,602

$38,129,978

$1,070,142

Punta Gorda

$8,014,045

$230,570

$7,054,815

$202,972

$39,169,698

$1,126,940

$54,238,558

$1,560,482

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

$13,505,954

$398,698

$16,473,438

$486,298

$54,946,063

$1,622,016

$84,925,455

$2,507,012

North Port-Bradenton-Sarasota

$24,949,673

$753,172

$15,639,381

$472,116

$69,011,894

$2,083,307

$109,600,947

$3,308,595

Palatka

$3,645,056

$114,617

$1,828,193

$57,486

$38,390,137

$1,207,156

$43,863,385

$1,379,260

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

$18,988,661

$603,524

$9,921,090

$315,326

$81,246,534

$2,582,289

$110,156,285

$3,501,139

Wauchula

$743,110

$23,550

$577,625

$18,306

$31,172,878

$987,906

$32,493,613

$1,029,761

Port St. Lucie

$13,133,556

$464,407

$8,693,941

$307,420

$48,220,832

$1,705,103

$70,048,328

$2,476,930

Arcadia

$866,638

$30,611

$720,755

$25,458

$27,011,948

$954,100

$28,599,341

$1,010,168

Clewiston

$1,019,992

$38,274

$943,086

$35,388

$45,442,724

$1,705,181

$47,405,803

$1,778,843

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach

$77,315,778

$2,986,515

$86,050,393

$3,323,911

$190,950,211

$7,375,928

$354,316,381

$13,686,353

Sebring-Avon Park

$2,695,689

$104,897

$2,040,254

$79,392

$38,770,086

$1,508,657

$43,506,029

$1,692,946

Okeechobee

$760,870

$36,061

$478,785

$22,692

$21,532,305

$1,020,500

$22,771,961

$1,079,252

Total

$605,641,144

$15,221,645

$451,528,775

$11,785,202

$3,060,310,607

$70,597,028

$4,117,480,527

$97,603,875

z CO2e sequestration was valued at $46.51/T. Based on US-level value listed in i-Tree canopy v7.0 software.

y SE is an abbreviation for standard error, a measure of statistical accuracy for an estimated mean.

x Total Benefits = the sum of air pollution, avoided stormwater runoff, and CO2 equivalent sequestration benefit values.

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENH1331, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date November 2020. Visit the EDIS website at https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu for the currently supported version of this publication.

2.

Drew C. McLean, biological scientist; Andrew K. Koeser, assistant professor; Deborah R. Hilbert, biological scientist, Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center; Shawn Landry, associate professor, USF Water Institute, University of South Florida; Amr Abd-Elrahman, associate professor; Katie Britt, geomatics program specialist, Geomatics Department, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center–Plant City Campus; Mary Lusk, assistant professor, Department of Soil and Water Sciences, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center; Michael G. Andreu, associate professor, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL; and Robert J. Northrop, Extension forester, UF/IFAS Extension Hillsborough County, Seffner, FL.


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U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.