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Publication #FCS9089

Developing Skills for Youthful Leaders: Module 2: Knowing and Accepting Yourself1

Elizabeth B. Bolton, John R. Rutledge, Linda Bowman and Linda Barber2

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Teaching Instructions

Preparing to Teach

  1. Prepare for teaching this lesson by reading and familiarizing yourself with the objectives, materials, handouts and exercises.

  2. Begin your preparation several days in advance so that you will be able to secure whatever additional resources you need to make the lesson a "local" learning experience.

  3. Plan your learning environment with care so that the surroundings contribute to the achievement of the objectives.

  4. Begin on time and end on time. Schedule a break at about midpoint of the lesson.

  5. With all lessons after the first, ask participants what they did as a result of last week's lesson. Record these!

  6. Introduce each lesson with an overview of how it fits with leadership development program for youth.

  7. End each lesson with a summary and restatement of objectives. Tell participants what you expect them to do with the lesson after they leave.

  8. Heighten their anticipation for the next lesson without sharing too much.

  9. Each lesson is designed for approximately two hours. Use your judgement on shortening or expanding various parts according to the needs of your participants.

  10. The two hour lesson is divided into sections that are described in the "Teaching Guide." Each section starts with a title, description of the activity, purpose, time needed to complete it, materials needed, and directions for students or teacher. Use the notes portion of each section to record suggestions for the next time the lesson is used.

  11. Each lesson contains a combination of brief lectures and student activities designed for the objectives of each lesson. The lectures are short and the student activities are designed for students to experience the point or topic of the lecture. Both the lectures and the student activities may be modified as appropriate for a specific student group or topic.

  12. Student handouts are included for selected sections of each lesson. When these are included, duplications for each student should be prepared prior to the class. Masters for overhead transparencies are also included for selected sections.

  13. After each lesson, students are asked to share the experiences they have had with their parents. A letter to the parents or a parent teen exercise is included with each lesson. Prepare the appropriate number of copies in advance and tell students this is part of the leadership experience. Solicit feedback from parents and record this in the notes for each lesson.

  14. "Homework" as an after class assignment to enable students to use the topics in a situation outside the classroom is included in each lesson. Assign this at the end of the class and ask for reports, verbal or written, of the "homework" assignment prior to beginning a new lesson.

  15. These materials, lectures, activities, and handouts come from many sources and care is taken to document the original source when it is known. If the original source or author is not known, a secondary source is given.

Objectives

  1. To increase self awareness.

  2. To recognize that each person is unique.

  3. To establish respect for names.

  4. To develop a more positive attitude about oneself.

Lesson Outline

Table 1. 

Section and Topic

Page

Time

1. It's Up to You

Lecture

Objectives

8

10 mins.

2. Accepting Yourself Student Activity

9

15 mins.

3. Tuning Into Yourself

Questionnaire

Dyads for Discussion

or

20 Things I Love to Do

Student Activity

Class Discussion

10

30 mins.

Break

5 mins.

4. Know Yourself

Lecture

13

10 mins.

5. Important People to Me

Class Activity

14

15 mins.

6. Your Coat of Arms

Class Activity

Discussion

15

20 mins.

7. My Declaration of Self Esteem

Reading

17

10 mins.

8. Homework

Handouts

Parent's Letter

18

5 mins.

Teaching Guide

Section 1 - It's Up to You

Title: It's Up to You

Description: Lecture material for opening remarks

Purpose: To introduce the importance of self concept and the long term implications for a good self concept

Time: About 10 minutes

Materials Needed: See "It's Up To Me" in Lecture Section, Transparency of objectives.

Directions: Start the class with this brief presentation. After the presentation, show the objectives from a transparency. Read these and explain that this class session will be devoted to these.

Notes:

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Section 2 - Accepting Yourself Puzzle

Title: Accepting Yourself Puzzle

Description: This is a hidden word puzzle that involves some of the concepts used in studying self concept. After the exercise, a short lecture is presented.

Purpose: To develop understanding of abstract concept

TIme: About 15 minutes

Materials Needed: Copy Hide A Word puzzle (Handout #1) and answer sheet (Handout # 2) for each student. These are found in Student Handouts section.

Directions: Ask students to complete puzzle. When finished give each a copy of the solutions page. When all are finished, discuss the words they have circled. Now show the transparency with the picture of a face (Overhead B). Discuss the picture. Use the narrative in lecture section, "Every Human being...".

Notes:

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Section 3 - Tuning Into Yourself or - 20 Things I Love to Do

Title: Tuning Into Yourself

Description: This is a questionnaire that is to be completed by each participant. There are no right or wrong answers.

Purpose: To develop self knowledge and understanding; to share yourself with others.

Time: About 30 minutes

Materials Needed: Copy "Tuning Into Yourself" (Handout #3) for each student.

Directions: Ask each student to fill in his/her questionnaire. After each person has finished, form groups of two people each and ask them to share their responses with the other person. Make sure that each one gets to talk about himself or herself.

Notes:

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Alternate Activity

Title: "20 Things I Love To Do"

Description: This is a questionnaire that is to be completed by each participant. There are no right or wrong answers.

Purpose of Exercise: To help the youth evaluate the things and types of things they are doing.

Time: About 30 minutes

Materials Needed: Pen and pencil, 20 Things I Love To Do Form (Handout #4), butcher paper or poster board marker, masking tape

Directions: Each youth completes the 20 THINGS I LOVE TO DO form.

Ask these questions:

How do you feel about the 20 things that you are doing?

Can you now see other things you would like to spend more time doing?

Are you doing important things for yourself?

Make a list to hang on the wall of the things that each youth listed as his/her most favorite thing to do.

Using the suggested code below, code the 20 items listed on the 20 THINGS I LOVE TO DO form.

_____ Place an A by any item you do alone.

_____ Place an O by any item you do with others.

_____ Place the $ by any item that costs more that $5 to do.

_____ Place an * by your five favorite ones.

_____ Rank those five favorites in order (1, 2, 3, 4, 5).

_____ Place a W by those things you have done this week.

_____ Place an X by those things you want someone you love to love doing.

_____ Place a P by those things you have been praised for doing.

_____ Place a 52 by any item you want to do every week for the rest of your life.

_____ Place an M or F by any item your parents did when they were your age.

_____ Write 100 by those items you will still enjoy doing when you are 100 years old.

Notes:

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Section 4 - Know Yourself

Title: Know Yourself

Description: This is a brief lecture.

Purpose: To develop self awareness

Time: About 10 minutes

Materials Needed: None

Directions: Make a presentation from "Know Yourself" found in Lecture section.

Notes:

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Section 5 - Important People

Title: "Important People"

Description: Student exercise

Purpose: To identify people in your life that are important to how you feel about yourself

Time: About 15 minutes

Materials Needed: One copy of questionnaire "Important People: People I Like Who Like Me" for each student (Handout #5)

Directions: Hand out questionnaire and ask each student to fill it out. Use the responses for a class discussion. Call on people who do not volunteer to participate. Make sure everyone has a chance to share in the discussion.

Notes:

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Section 6 - Your Coat of Arms

Title: "Your Coat of Arms"

Description: Group members take a personal and private look at some of the things they choose, prize, and value by designing a personal coat of arms.

Purpose: To help students focus on the significant parts of their self identity and self concept

Time: About 30 minutes

Materials Needed: One sheet of writing paper per group member, some writing utensils (crayons or magic markers), Overhead C

Directions:

1. Comment on how symbols on the coat of arms used by families in the past were coded as to what a family stood for and what significant things family members had done in the family's history.

2. Ask each group member to draw a coat of arms like the one on the diagram (or you may wish to provide these to the group).

3. Group members should be asked to express their ideas through symbols--drawing pictures or signs whenever possible. Written words may be used but encourage drawing first. Stress that one's ability to draw is not important in this exercise.

4. Ask group members to depict their ideas in the four sections in the following way:

a. Something you are proud of (this could be something you've done, something you have, or anything about yourself that you're proud of).

b. What you would like to be doing in 10 years? (Where would you like to be? With whom? What about your career, your family, or your physical self in 10 years?)

c. Describe your family. (How do you define family? What do you like about your family? What don't you like? How does it feel to be in your family?).

d. What would you like to change about yourself? (This could be something physical or it may be a habit or a personality trait).

e. Motto.

5. Encourage group members to work alone on this activity. Allow 10 to 15 minutes for members to complete their shields.

6. Ask each group member to share his/her shield with the group, talking about the different sections. Other group members may ask questions, but the person who is sharing is not obliged to reveal information they may feel uncomfortable about sharing.

Conclusion: Ask the group the following questions:

1. What was the hardest part of this exercise for you? Why was it hard?

2. What part was easiest? Why?

3. How did it feel to share some personal information with the group?

4. What was it like to listen to others share information about themselves?

Notes:

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Section 7 - My Declaration of Self-Esteem

Title: My Declaration of Self Esteem

Description: This is an oral reading between the teacher and the students followed by comments that will bring closure to the lesson.

Purpose: To develop positive self esteem

Time: About 10 minutes

Materials Needed: One copy of My Building Your Self Esteem (Handout #7) for each student & Overhead B showing that every individual is unique

Directions: The teachers read the sections labeled "leader" and the students read the sections labeled "group."

Follow the reading with the following comments:

Our lesson on "Accepting Yourself" was planned to make you feel good about yourself. Young people who feel good about themselves have fewer problems, are happier and make better grades. They grow up to be the best citizens, have the best jobs and make more money. They do more to help others. They are successful!

If you don't have a good feeling about yourself now, I hope that what we have done today will help you to realize just how very unique you are. Remember, "Every human being is born on this planet with only the potential to become the most capable creature on earth." Show Overhead B again to reinforce individual importance.

Notes:

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Section 8 - Homework

Title: Homework

Description: Student Homework Activity

Purpose: To conclude lesson

Time: About 5 minutes

Materials Needed: Student Handouts, Coat of Arms for homework assignment, letter to Parents

Directions: Assign homework, give handouts and letter to parents.

Notes:

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Lecture Materials

It's Up to You

One of man's unique abilities is to estimate in our mind what will happen before we speak or act. We deliberately select our behavior to achieve certain results and to avoid negative consequences. A primary reference point in selecting our behavior is what we think of ourselves or our self-concept.

When our self-concept is positive, we are more apt to try difficult or risky things. When we feel unsure about ourselves or have a negative self-concept, we play it safe. Being creative, exerting leadership, striving for excellence, and willingness to cope with difficulty are direct reflections of self-concept. The power of self-concept is to limit or to stretch what we attempt to do.

"It's not what you are that holds you back; it's what you think you are not." -Denis Waitley

In a democratic society with an economy based on free enterprise, high regard for self is essential. Without it the society settles for mediocrity, low production and withholds personal participation for fear of failure or rebuff. The opposite kind of behavior is needed to fuel private enterprise and to safeguard democracy. Based on this premise, it is to our collective good to promote positive self-concept.

When the influence of self-concept is overlaid on current statistics about the major problems youth are having, it is immediately evident that a large sector of today's youth population suffers from poor self-concept.

Teen suicide takes 5,000 young lives a year. Another 500,000 attempt suicide. Runaways between the ages of 11 and 17 number over one million. We have 50,000 juveniles in detention because they have nowhere else to go.

Alcohol and marijuana are the illegal drugs most widely used by young people. Emergency rooms will treat 8,000 youth with drug and alcohol related problems. Fifty thousand youth will be hospitalized with valium overdoses. Sixty-three percent of our high school seniors indicate that they have tried an illicit drug. Forty percent of them reported a drug other than marijuana.

Teens say parents know they drink but don't know they use drugs. Fifty percent lie to parents about drugs and 55 percent say parents never ask.

So, what do our youth think of themselves? Seven out of ten youth dislike their own personality. Those that do not like their physical selves think they are too fat, too short, or underdeveloped. Poor self-concept is most closely related to use of drugs, alcohol abuse, dropping out of school, teen pregnancy and suicide. Many youth problems stem from or are in some way related to poor self-concept.

It is clear that before they enter their teenage years, children/youth need to develop self-confidence so they can make healthy decisions and resist negative peer pressure. Beyond that, they need to gain more effective skills for coping so that they are not tempted to turn to alcohol and other drugs as a way of managing stress.

A favorable self-image, or positive self-concept, is probably the most important key to success and happiness in life. Self-concept is made up of the feelings, ideas, and thoughts that a person has about himself. It is the value that children place upon themselves and their behaviors. Children rate themselves as being "good" or "bad." These judgments, while not always accurate, are the result of what the child has learned about himself from others.

Self-concept develops out of the way one is treated by others, how one treats others, and how well one copes with life. In one way or another, almost everything an individual does is directly related to his feelings about himself. The friends he chooses, how he gets along with others, the type of person he marries, and his success in life are all affected by the way he feels about himself.

Families, schools and community groups must work together to provide a healthy, nurturing environment that will help children develop skills for growing and for lifelong success.

Excerpted from: Couch, M. et al, Why Study Self-Concept or the Power of Self-Concept (N.D.) Texas A&M University in It's Up to Me.

Every Human Being is Unique

Look at this picture. See what it says. It says "Every human being is born on this planet to become the most capable creature on earth." Think about that. See what it says. Do you believe that? I think that you do, but sometimes when we are not feeling well, or we are somewhat depressed, we forget that we are important. I am glad that you are here today because this lesson is on "Accepting Yourself." It is designed to make you feel good about yourself. Knowing yourself inside and out helps you to become the person you are capable of being.

Each person is very unique. Nowhere is there another person just like you. Each of you is special. You look different, act different, and feel different from anyone else. Why? (comments) Sometimes you like yourself. Sometimes you don't. You may feel good because you make good grades, but bad because you cannot run fast. Each of us has unique feelings about ourselves. All that is uniquely you is the result of all the experiences you have had since birth. How do you feel about yourself now?

Know Yourself

Having someone call us by our name makes us feel good and increases our self-concept. The most important word in the world to each of us is our own name. Names are passed down through history and from one generation to another. First names have meaning. For example, Philip means "lover of horses" and Margaret means "a pearl."

Last names had a meaning. A "Cooper" was a man who made barrels. A "Smith" was a blacksmith who worked with metal. It is really a good habit to learn to remember names and call people by their names, because when we make someone else feel good, we feel good, too. It's contagious.

Your parents gave you your names, but the way you live, and what you become makes you and your name important. Those accomplishments are what make you feel good. When you feel good about yourself you can accomplish even more. Sometimes we don't feel as good about ourselves as we would like. We wonder what other people think of us. Being liked by other people is very important and helps us to feel better about ourselves.

Overhead Transparency Masters

Overhead A - Objectives

OBJECTIVES

In this lesson you will:

  • Increase your self awareness

  • Recognize that each person is unique

  • Establish a respect for names

  • Develop a more positive attitude about yourself

Overhead B - Every Human Being is Unique

"Every human being is born on this planet with only the potential to become the most capable creature on the earth."

Overhead C - Your Coat of Arms

Figure 1. 

Student Handouts

Handout #1 - Accepting Yourself Puzzle

Figure 2. 
Self-Image
Honest
Love
Ability
Born-to-Win
Smile
Believe
Super-Good
Positive
I-Can

Handout #2 - Accepting Yourself Puzzle (Answers)

Figure 3. 
Self-Image
Honest
Love
Ability
Born-to-Win
Smile
Believe
Super-Good
Positive
I-Can

Handout #3 - Tuning into Yourself

Please write down the first thing that comes to your mind when you read the following phrases. Think about each phrase and write down your real feelings as closely as possible. You will not have to share your feelings with the entire group. After you have finished, you and your partner can talk about how each of you completed these phrases and what your feelings are, if you wish.

1. The best way to describe myself is by saying____________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

2. The thing I like best about myself is ___________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

3. The thing I like least about myself is ___________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

4. One of the persons who has made me feel important and self-confident was ___________ _______________________________________________________________________

5. When I enter a new group I feel ______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

6. The hardest thing for me to discuss with others is ________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

7. The person who best understands me is ________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

8. It is hard for me to tell another person how I really feel inside because ______________________________________________________________________________________

9. I would feel better, or more okay, about myself if ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Any comments?

Handout #4 - 20 Things I Love to Do

  1. ____________________________________________________________________

  2. ____________________________________________________________________

  3. ____________________________________________________________________

  4. ____________________________________________________________________

  5. ____________________________________________________________________

  6. ____________________________________________________________________

  7. ____________________________________________________________________

  8. ____________________________________________________________________

  9. ____________________________________________________________________

  10. ____________________________________________________________________

  11. ____________________________________________________________________

  12. ____________________________________________________________________

  13. ____________________________________________________________________

  14. ____________________________________________________________________

  15. ____________________________________________________________________

  16. ____________________________________________________________________

  17. ____________________________________________________________________

  18. ____________________________________________________________________

  19. ____________________________________________________________________

  20. ____________________________________________________________________

As quickly as you can, list 20 things in life which you really, really love to do. There are no right or wrong answers about what you SHOULD like.

Handout #5 - Important People

IMPORTANT PEOPLE:

PEOPLE I LIKE WHO LIKE ME

(fill in with names and what each expects of you)

Parents

__________________________________

Expectations:

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

Favorite Teacher

__________________________________

Expectations:

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

Me

__________________________________

Expectations:

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

Best Friends

__________________________________

Expectations

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

Other Important Persons

__________________________________

Expectations

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

Handout #6 - Your Coat of Arms

Activity: Your Coat of Arms

Leadership Skill: Understanding Self

What to do: Complete your coat of arms.

This activity will help you decide what you are doing and what is important to you. On this coat of arms below, draw pictures, designs, or symbols in the different sections to show the ideas listed on them.

Figure 4. 

Looking back:

Think about your answers. You may wish to share them. What do your answers tell you about yourself and the things that are important to you? How have the things that you put on your coat of arms changed your life?

Handout #7 - Building Your Self-Esteem

There's a lot you can do to boost your own self-esteem.

  • Recognize your "right to be" - you don't need any justification, like achievements, for your existence. You are a unique combination of feelings and moods, strengths and weaknesses. Accepting all of these and changing only those that you choose to change is the best strategy. Bear in mind that people who like themselves are attractive to others. Accept who you are and others will, too.

  • Take a long look at your strengths and weaknesses. Think about how they can affect your long-term goals and what is realistic for you. For instance, if you're clumsy, aiming for a career as a pro athlete may not be realistic, even if you love sports. However, playing games can be fun and might improve your coordination.

  • When you get to know your strong points, you will discover abilities you never knew you had. Everyone has a variety of personal talents; qualities you may take for granted do matter. Hard work makes the difference for most achievers, not inborn talent. Personal traits like patience and compassion can make you a treasured friend. It's important not to let yourself get sidetracked by focusing on your limitations. You can ease some of the painful emotions associated with low self-esteem if you work at it.

  • Work on developing a more positive attitude to overcome feelings of inferiority, loneliness and boredom.

  • Think of everything that's right with your life.

  • Consider that if people aren't warm to you, it may be because you're not warm to them.

  • Learn to appreciate time alone without dreading it - and you can, if you become more active and that time is solitude you've chosen.

  • Share your feelings with others and show a genuine interest in them.

  • Don't be afraid to take risks - when you make contact with others, you will experience both acceptance and rejection. Learn to accept both as part of living a full life.

If you suffer from jealousy often, try this mental exercise: think about what sparks your envy. If you wish you were a star athlete or a straight-A student, do you really want to make the commitment to the necessary practice or study time? This exercise can help you stop idealizing other people's lives and see that nobody has an easy, carefree life. It can also help you identify the ones you may wish to cultivate in yourself. Seeing what you lack in yourself can motivate you to make some positive changes in your life and build a healthier sense of self.

If you learn to give yourself credit for your positive qualities and learn to live with or change what you don't like, you will begin to feel good about yourself most of the time. Keep in mind that self-discovery is a lifelong process.

Excerpted from:
National Mental Health Association (1988). Feeling Good About Yourself: Teens and Self-Esteem. Alexandria, Virginia: NMHA. pp. 5-6.

Homework Assignment

1. Complete the Family Coat of Arms with your parents.

FAMILY COAT OF ARMS

Figure 1. 

Family Coat of Arms

Description: Family members take a personal and private look at some of the things they choose, prize, and value by designing a personal coat of arms.

Materials: One sheet of writing paper per family member, some writing utensils (crayons or magic markers)

Procedure:

1. Symbols on the coat of arms used by families in the past were coded as to what a family stood for and what significant things family members had done in the family's history.

2. Each family member should draw a coat of arms like the one on the diagram.

3. Family members should express their ideas through symbols--drawing pictures or signs whenever possible. Written words may be used but try to draw first. One's ability to draw is not important in this exercise.

4. Family members should depict their ideas in the four sections in the following way:

a. Something you are proud of (this could be something you've done, something you have, or anything about yourself that you're proud of).

b. What you would like to be doing in 10 years? (Where would you like to be? With whom? What about your career, your family, or your physical self in 10 years?)

c. Describe your family. (How do you define family? What do you like about your family? What don't you like? How does it feel to be in your family?).

d. What would you like to change about yourself? (This could be something physical or it may be a habit or a personality trait).

e. Motto.

5. Encourage family members to work alone on this activity. Allow 10 to 15 minutes for members to complete their shields.

6. Each family member should share his/her shield with the group, talking about the different sections. Members may ask questions, but the person who is sharing is not obliged to reveal information they may feel uncomfortable about sharing.

Letter to Parents

Knowing and Accepting Yourself

Dear Parent,

Some of the most critical life skills are related to effective decision-making and problem-solving. Many individuals reach adulthood and find themselves in difficulty when important decisions must be made. The lesson on decision-making helps your child become aware of the importance of decision-making in his/her life.

Research indicates that understanding one's values and goals is a critical first step. A value involves a harmonious and consistent relationship between a person's thoughts, feelings and actions on a particular belief or issue. Values help the individual decide what is important to them, where they stand on an issue and what they should do. A person's goals are determined by their values. A goal is a dream upon which an individual acts. Goals may be short term or long range. Short term goals, linked together one by one over a period of time, result in the accomplishment of a long range goal.

The decision-making, problem-solving process becomes logical when values and goals are clearly in focus. Logically speaking, there are four steps that are helpful in making decisions that help individuals reach their goals and/or manage their problems. The first step is to state the decision to be made or the problem to be solved. Step two involves finding and listing possible alternatives or choices. The next step is to gather information that can be helpful in evaluating the consequences of each alternative or choice. The last step involves considering the odd or probably outcomes and choosing the action which seems most appropriate/acceptable.

While this process does not guarantee success, it does produce the desired results more frequently than just "guessing" or letting someone else make the decisions. Making decisions starts in infancy and continues throughout life. Parents and other significant adults help youth develop the skills for effective decision-making and problem-solving.

Sincerely,

University of Florida Extension County Faculty

References

1. National Mental Health Association. (1988). Feeling Good About Yourself: Teens and Self-Esteem. Alexandria, VA: National Mental Health Association.

2. Couch, M., Flynn, J., Gross, P., and Thibodeaux, L. (N.D.). Why study self-concept or the power of self-concept. In It's Up To Me. Texas A&M University, College Station, TX: Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

Developing Skills for Youthful Leaders

Developing Skills for Youthful Leaders is a six part curriculum designed for volunteers who work with young people. It is designed to enable teachers to apply a systematic approach to training youth for leadership roles in schools and neighborhoods. Each module includes training materials and activities that can be used for leadership education for students and youth groups. Partial funding for the development of these modules was provided by The Junior Woman's Club of Milton, Florida.

Modules:

Module I - You Can Be A Leader

Module II - Knowing and Accepting Yourself

Module III - Being Your Best

Module IV - Communicating With Others

Module V - Listening Skills to Improve Communication

Module VI - Making a Decision

Developed by:

Elizabeth B. Bolton, Professor

Community Development

University of Florida

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

Gainesville, FL 32611-0310

Assistance provided by:

John R. Rutledge, Former Associate Professor

4-H Youth Specialist

University of Florida

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

Gainesville, FL 32611-0520

Linda Bowman and Linda Barber

Santa Rosa County

Cooperative Extension

Milton, FL 32570-8944

Footnotes

1.

This document is FCS9089, one of a series of the Family Youth and Community Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original print publication date 1993. Revised and published on EDIS March 2006. Reviewed July 2009 and March 2013. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Elizabeth B. Bolton, Professor, Community Development, John R. Rutledge, Former Associate Professor, 4 H- Youth Specialist, Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611-0310, Linda Bowman, Family Consumer Sciences Agent and Linda Barber, Former 4-H Agent, Santa Rosa County Cooperative Extension Service, Milton, FL.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.