Pennywort (Dollarweed) Biology and Management in Turf1

Ramon G. Leon, Darcy E. P. Telenko, and J. Bryan Unruh 2

Pennywort (Hydrocotyle spp.), also known as dollarweed, is a perennial weed prevalent in Florida. Pennywort reproduces via seeds, rhizomes, and occasionally by tubers. It produces erect, bright green, shiny leaves with scalloped margins. The petiole is located in the center of the leaf and forms an umbrella shape, which renders this weed easily distinguishable from dicondra, where the petiole is found at the margin of the leaf base (see photograph to the left). Pennywort flowers occur in elongated spikes or rounded umbels at the top of long stalks. The plant produces greenish, rounded, and somewhat flattened fruit. Pennywort is found in moist to wet sites. Therefore, proper drainage and avoiding excessive irrigation help reduce pennywort populations.

Figure 1. 
Figure 1. 

Figure 2. 
Figure 2. 

Herbicide Options for Controlling Pennywort (Dollarweed) in Florida Turfgrass

(Always refer to the label for specific uses, application rates, and turfgrass tolerance)

Bermudagrass

  • Preemergence: isoxaben, prodiamine+isoxaben

  • Postemergence: clopyralid, 2, 4-D, dicamba +2, 4-D, dicamba, imazaquin, metsulfuron, penoxsulam+sulfentrazone+dicamba+2,4-D, quinclorac, rimsulfuron, sulfentrazone+quinclorac, sulfentrazone+2,4-D+MCPP+dicamba, thiencarbazone+iodosulfuron+dicamba, thiencarbazone+floramsulfuron+halosulfuron, triclopyr+clopyralid, trifloxysulfuron

St. Augustinegrass

  • Preemergence: atrazine, isoxaben, prodiamine+isoxaben

  • Postemergence: atrazine, clopyralid, 2,4-D, dicamba + 2,4-D, dicamba, imazaquin, metsulfuron, penoxsulam+sulfentrazone+dicamba+2,4-D, thiencarbazone+iodosulfuron+dicamba

Centipedegrass

  • Preemergence: atrazine, isoxaben, prodiamine+isoxaben

  • Postemergence: atrazine, clopyralid, 2,4-D, dicamba + 2,4-D, dicamba, imazaquin, metsulfuron, penoxsulam+sulfentrazone+dicamba+2,4-D, sulfentrazone+quinclorac, sulfentrazone+2,4-D+MCPP+dicamba(reduced rate), thiencarbazone+iodosulfuron+dicamba, triclopyr+clopyralid

Bahiagrass

  • Preemergence: isoxaben, prodiamine+isoxaben

  • Postemergence: clopyralid, 2,4-D, dicamba+2,4-D, dicamba, fluroxypry, sulfentrazone+2,4-D+MCPP+dicamba, triclopyr+clopyralid

Seashore Paspalum

  • Preemergence: prodiamine+isoxaben

  • Postemergence: clopyralid, penoxsulam+sulfentrazone+dicamba+2,4-D, quinclorac, sulfentrazone+quinclorac

Zoysiagrass

  • Preemergence: atrazine, isoxaben, prodiamine+isoxaben

  • Postemergence: atrazine, clopyralid, 2,4-D, dicamba +2,4-D, dicamba, imazaquin, metsulfuron, penoxsulam+sulfentrazone+dicamba+2,4-D, quinclorac, sulfentrazone+quinclorac, sulfentrazone+2,4-D+MCPP+dicamba, thiencarbazone+iodosulfuron+dicamba, triclopyr+clopyralid

Perennial Ryegrass

  • Preemergence: none

  • Postemergence: clopyralid, 2,4-D, dicamba +2,4-D, dicamba, sulfentrazone+quinclorac, sulfentrazone+2,4-D+MCPP+dicamba, triclopyr+clopyralid

Refer to the publication Pest Control Guide for Turfgrass Managers at http://turf.ufl.edu/pdf/2012_UF_Pest_Control_Guide.pdf for brand names associated with chemical names listed.

Footnotes

1. This document is ENH1128, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date June 2009. Revised February 2013 and April 2016. Visit the EDIS website at https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.
2. Ramon G. Leon, assistant professor, Agronomy Department; Darcy E. P. Telenko, former postdoctoral research associate; and J. Bryan Unruh, professor, Environmental Horticulture Department; UF/IFAS West Florida Research and Education Center, Jay FL 32565.