Black Medic Biology and Management in Turf1

Barry J. Brecke, Ramon Leon, J. Bryan Unruh, and Darcy E. P. Telenko 2

Black medic (Medicago lupulina) is a dark green annual with spreading, prostrate growth. Leaves are alternate with three leaflets on square stems. Leaflets are obovate to elliptic, toothed near the tip, and have a small spur on the tip. Bright yellow flowers are produced in tight, compressed clusters at leaf axils. Reproduction occurs via seed in tightly coiled black seed pods.

Figure 1. Black medic
Figure 1.  Black medic
Credit: Creative Commons BY-NC by hedgerowmobile

Herbicide Options for Controlling Black Medic in Florida Turfgrass

(Always refer to the label for specific uses, application rates, and turfgrass tolerance.)

Refer to the publication Pest Control Guide for Turfgrass Managers at turf.ufl.edu/pdf/2012_UF_Pest_Control_Guide.pdf for brand names associated with chemical names listed.

Bermudagrass

  • Preemergence: none

  • Postemergence: carfentrazone, clopyralid, 2,4-D, dicamba, quinclorac, sulfentrazone, sulfentrazone+imazethapyr, sulfentrazone+quinclorac, sulfentrazone+2,4-D+MCPP+dicamba, thiencarbazone+iodosulfuron+dicamba, triclopyr+clopyralid, trifloxysulfuron

St. Augustinegrass

  • Preemergence: none

  • Postemergence: carfentrazone, clopyralid, 2,4-D, dicamba, sulfentrazone, thiencarbazone+iodosulfuron+dicamba

Centipedegrass

  • Preemergence: none

  • Postemergence: carfentrazone, 2,4-D, dicamba, sulfentrazone, sulfentrazone+imazethapyr, sulfentrazone+quinclorac, sulfentrazone+2,4-D+MCCP+dicamba, thiencarbazone+iodosulfuron+dicamba

Bahiagrass

  • Preemergence: none

  • Postemergence: carfentrazone, 2,4-D, dicamba, sulfentrazone, sulfentrazone+2,4-D+MCCP+dicamba, triclopyr+clopyralid

Seashore Paspalum

  • Preemergence: none

  • Postemergence: carfentrazone, quinclorac, sulfentrazone, sulfentrazone+quinclorac

Zoysiagrass

  • Preemergence: none

  • Postemergence: carfentrazone, 2,4-D, dicamba, quinclorac, sulfentrazone, sulfentrazone+imazethapyr, sulfentrazone+quinclorac, sulfentrazone+2,4-D+MCCP+dicamba, thiencarbazone+iodosulfuron+dicamba, triclopyr+clopyralid, trifloxysulfuron

Perennial Ryegrass

  • Preemergence: none

  • Postemergence: carfentrazone, 2,4-D, dicamba, quinclorac, sulfentrazone, sulfentrazone+quinclorac, triclopyr+clopyralid

Footnotes

1. This document is ENH1233, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date December 2013. Reviewed October 2016. Visit the EDIS website at https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.
2. Barry J. Brecke, professor; Ramon Leon, assistant professor, Agronomy Department; J. Bryan Unruh, professor, Environmental Horticulture Department; and Darcy E. P. Telenko, postdoctoral research associate, UF/IFAS West Florida Research and Education Center; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, 32611.