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Publication #ENH-752

Sophora japonica 'Pendula': Weeping Scholar Tree1

Edward F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson2

Introduction

Weeping pagoda tree will grow to a height and spread of about 20 feet, forming a fine-textured, weeping round canopy even as a young tree. It has a rapid growth rate and tolerates polluted city conditions, heat, and drought. The tree prefers a sunny, open location on any light soil. The very showy, greenish-white to yellow flowers produced by the species in mid to late summer are mostly absent from this cultivar. The young green twigs turn a dark grey with age.

Figure 1. 

Young Sophora japonica 'Pendula': weeping scholar tree


Credit:

Ed Gilman, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

General Information

Scientific name: Sophora japonica
Pronunciation: sah-FOR-uh juh-PAWN-ih-kuh
Common name(s): Weeping scholar tree, weeping Japanese pagoda tree
Family: Leguminosae
USDA hardiness zones: 5A through 8A (Fig. 2)
Origin: not native to North America
Invasive potential: little invasive potential
Uses: deck or patio; shade; parking lot island 100-200 sq ft; parking lot island > 200 sq ft; tree lawn 4-6 feet wide; tree lawn > 6 ft wide; street without sidewalk; urban tolerant; highway median
Availability: not native to North America

Figure 2. 

Range


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Description

Height: 15 to 20 feet
Spread: 12 to 20 feet
Crown uniformity: symmetrical
Crown shape: weeping
Crown density: moderate
Growth rate: moderate
Texture: fine

Foliage

Leaf arrangement: alternate (Fig. 3)
Leaf type: odd-pinnately compound
Leaf margin: entire
Leaf shape: ovate
Leaf venation: pinnate
Leaf type and persistence: deciduous
Leaf blade length: less than 2 inches
Leaf color: green
Fall color: yellow
Fall characteristic: not showy

Figure 3. 

Foliage


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Flower

Flower color: white/cream/gray, yellow
Flower characteristics: showy

Fruit

Fruit shape: pod or pod-like, elongated
Fruit length: 3 to 6 inches, 6 to 12 inches
Fruit covering: dry or hard
Fruit color: yellow, brown
Fruit characteristics: does not attract wildlife; showy; fruit/leaves a litter problem

Trunk and Branches

Trunk/bark/branches: branches droop; not showy; typically multi-trunked; thorns
Pruning requirement: needed for strong structure
Breakage: resistant
Current year twig color: green
Current year twig thickness: thin, medium
Wood specific gravity: unknown

Culture

Light requirement: full sun
Soil tolerances: sand; loam; clay; acidic; alkaline; well-drained; occasionally wet
Drought tolerance: high
Aerosol salt tolerance: moderate

Other

Roots: not a problem
Winter interest: no
Outstanding tree: no
Ozone sensitivity: unknown
Verticillium wilt susceptibility: unknown
Pest resistance: resistant to pests/diseases

Use and Management

The dropping flowers and fruit on the species which are considered a messy nuisance by some people are not a problem for this cultivar. These attributes could make this a superior tree for certain sites. The leaflets are small, creating light shade beneath the tree and are mostly washed away with rain or fall into shrub beds or between the grass blades.

Some trees come from the nursery with multiple trunks or branches clustered together at one spot on the trunk. Buy those with one central trunk growing up the center of the tree or prune the tree to a central leader to create a strong, durable structure. Space branches along the central leader to ensure good branch attachment. It may take several prunings to train the tree to the proper form.

This urban-tough tree is highly recommended for urban planting. Also makes a nice medium-sized patio tree and is well-suited for parking lot planting, creating shade from its spreading canopy. Adapted to restricted soil spaces, tolerates salt spray, and tolerates drought in reasonable soil but not wet soil. Best when planted in full sun.

Many tree cultivars must be grafted or propagated from cuttings. This one reproduces fairly consistently from seed. Sophora species has a few cultivars: 'Fastigiata'—upright habit; 'Pendula'—weeping habit; 'Princeton Upright'—upright form suitable for narrow sites, somewhat smaller than the species; 'Regent'—oval crown and blooms at an early age, has glossy leaves which shed soot and dirt, readily available in nurseries.

Pests

Potato leafhopper kills young stems causing profuse branching or witches broom on small branches. It usually is not a problem on larger trees.

Diseases

Sophora species is generally pest- and disease-free.

Occasionally, scholar tree will get a fungus canker about two-inches or less across, have raised reddish brown margins and light brown centers. The infected stem is killed when the fungus girdles the stem. Another fungus is sometimes found on dead branches on Sophora species. Frost injury may give both fungi an entrance into the tree. Prune out dead, damaged, or diseased branches.

Twig blight or dieback can be a problem occasionally. Prune out infected branches and avoid unnecessary wounding. Keep trees vigorous by regular fertilization.

Powdery mildew forms a fungus mat which looks like a white coating on the leaves. The disease is usually not serious.

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENH-752, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date November 1993. Revised December 2006. Reviewed February 2014. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Edward F. Gilman, professor, Environmental Horticulture Department; and Dennis G. Watson, former associate professor, Agricultural Engineering Department, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.