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Publication #SS-AGR-150

Planting Dates, Rates, and Methods of Agronomic Crops 1

D.L. Wright, E.B. Whitty, and A.R. Blount2

Many factors affect the dates, rates, and methods of planting of Florida field crops. Some of these are climate and weather conditions; fertility, moisture-holding capacity, temperature, and moisture content of the soil; depth to the water table; size and germination of the seed; plant size and growth habit; growing season and water requirements of the crop; and the habits of insects, disease, and other pests. The recommendations presented in Table 1 and Table 2 are based on consideration of the factors listed above, and reflect, wherever possible, the results of research conducted under Florida conditions.

Planting dates given are for northwestern and northeastern Florida. Spring crops may be planted 1 to 2 weeks earlier in central Florida, and 2 to 3 weeks earlier in southern Florida. Fall crops may be planted late by comparable periods of time.

The recommended seeding rates and spacings are for each crop seeded alone, except the velvetbean recommendations for interplanting with corn. Seeding rates are based on good quality seed with germination of 80 percent or higher.

Tables

Table 1. 

Planting dates, seeding rates and row spacing for field and forage crops that are sexually propagated.

Crop

Planting Dates

Seeding Rates per acre

Row Spacings

Broadcast

(lb)

In Rows

(lb)

Between

(Ins.)

In Rows

(Ins.)

Aeschynomene

Mar. 30 - Jun. 30

6 - 8

(dehulled)

---

---

---

Alfalfa2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

12 - 20

---

---

---

Alyceclover2

Apr. 15 - Jun. 30

12 - 15

---

---

---

Bahiagrass, Argentine

Feb. 15 - Aug. 151

15 - 20

---

---

---

Bahiagrass, Pensacola

Feb. 15 - Aug. 151

15 - 20

---

---

---

Bermudagrass, common

Feb. 15 - Jul. 31

8 - 10

---

---

---

Buffelgrass

Feb. 15 - Jul. 31 1

2 - 4

---

---

---

Bur-clover, Calif. 2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

20 - 25

---

---

---

Bur-clover, spotted 2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

12 - 15

---

---

---

Carpetgrass

Feb. 15 - Aug. 1 1

8 - 10

---

---

---

Chufa

Apr. 1 - Jun. 30

---

24 - 36

36 - 42

6 - 8

Clover, arrowleaf

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

8 - 10

---

---

---

Clover, berseem

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

16 - 20

---

---

---

Clover, crimson 2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

20 - 26

---

---

---

Clover, hop, large 2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

3 - 4

---

---

---

Clover, hop, small 2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

6 - 8

---

---

---

Clover, Persian 2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

6 - 8

---

---

---

Clover, red 2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

12 - 15

---

---

---

Clover, rose

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

8 - 16

---

---

---

Clover, subterranean

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

18 - 22

---

---

---

Clover, white 2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

3 - 4

---

---

---

Corn

Feb. 15 - Apr. 15

---

4 - 10

30 - 36

7 - 15

Cotton

Apr. 1 - Jun. 1

---

6 - 10

36 - 42

4 - 5

Cowpea

Apr. 1 - Aug. 1

---

60 - 90

24 - 30

1 - 2

Dallisgrass

Feb. 15 - Aug. 11

12 - 15

---

---

---

Desmodium, Fl. carpon

Mar. 30 - Jun. 30

3 - 5

---

---

---

Fescue, tall

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

16 - 20

---

---

---

Indigo, hairy2

Apr. 1 - Jun. 30

6 - 8

---

---

---

Kenaf

Apr. 1 - May 15

---

6 - 8

36 - 38

2

Lespedeza, common2

Feb. 15 - Mar. 31

12 - 15

---

---

---

Lespedeza, Kobe2

Feb. 15 - Mar. 31

16 - 20

---

---

---

Lupine, blue

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

60 - 80

30 - 40

21 - 42

1 - 2

Lupine, yellow

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

40 - 60

20 - 30

21 - 42

1 - 2

Medic, black2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

12 - 15

---

---

---

Oats for forage

Sep. 15 - Oct. 31

96 - 128

---

---

---

Oats for grain

Nov. 15 - Dec. 15

64 - 80

---

---

---

Pea, Austrian winter

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

45 - 60

---

---

---

Peanuts, runner

Apr. 1 - Jun. 1

---

80 - 135

30 - 36

2 - 3

Peanuts, Spanish

Apr. 1 - May 15

---

60 - 100

24 - 30

2 - 3

Peanuts, Virginia

May 1 - Jun. 1

---

90 - 135

30 - 36

2 - 3

Millet, Browntop

Feb. 15 - Aug. 15

5 - 10

---

---

---

Millet, Japanese

Feb. 15 - Aug. 15

5 - 10

---

---

---

Millet, Pearl

Mar. 15 - Jun. 30

24 - 30

8 - 10

36 - 42

---

Phasey bean

Mar. 30 - Jun. 30

10 - 12

---

---

---

Pigeonpea

Apr. 1 - Jun. 15

20 - 25

5 - 6

36 - 38

4 - 5

Rice

Feb. 1 - May 31

80 - 100

---

---

---

Roughpea2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

30 - 40

---

---

---

Rye for forage

Oct. 15 - Nov. 15

84 - 112

---

---

---

Rye for grain

Dec. 1 - Dec. 31

35 - 84

---

---

---

Ryegrass, Italian

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

20 - 30

---

---

---

Sericea

Feb. 15 - Mar. 31

12 - 15

---

---

---

Sorghum, grain

Apr. 1 - Jun. 30

10 - 15

6 - 8

20 - 36

2 - 3

Sorghum, silage

Apr. 1 - Jun. 30

10 - 15

6 - 8

20 - 36

3 - 4

Sorghum x sudangrass

Mar. 15 - Jun. 30

24 - 30

8 - 10

21 - 42

---

Sourclover2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

12 - 15

---

---

---

Soybean

May 15 - Jun. 15

60 - 90

35 - 65

30 - 36

1 - 2

Stylosanthes2

Feb. 15 - Mar. 31

10 - 12

---

---

---

Sunflower

Feb. 15 - Aug. 10

---

6 - 8

36 - 38

6 - 8

Sweetclover2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

12 - 15

---

---

---

Tobacco (plant beds) 3

Dec. 20 - Jan. 15

.75 - 1.5

---

---

---

Tobacco (transplanted)

Mar. 10 - Apr. 10

---

---

42 - 48

16 - 24

Trefoil, big2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

2 - 4

---

---

---

Trefoil, birdsfoot2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

6 - 8

---

---

---

Triticale-forage

Oct. 15 - Nov. 15

84 - 112

---

---

---

Turnips

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

5 - 6

---

---

---

Velvetbean

Mar. 15 - Jun. 30

30 - 45

2 - 8

36 - 42

24 - 72

Vetch, common2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

40 - 50

---

---

---

Vetch, hairy2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

20 - 30

---

---

---

Vetch, monantha2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

30 - 40

---

---

---

Vetch, Woollypod2

Oct. 1 - Nov. 15

30 - 40

---

---

---

Wheat for forage

Oct. 15 - Nov. 15

90 - 120

---

---

---

Wheat for grain

Nov. 15 - Dec. 15

75 - 90

---

---

---

1 These grasses may be planted over a wide range of dates, but February and June are preferred dates under most conditions.

2 These legumes may be seeded alone or on established sods of perennial grasses at rates given.

Table 2. 

Dates and methods of planting Florida field and forage crops that are propagated asexually.

Crop

Planting Dates and Methods

Bermudagrasses

Digitgrasses

Limpograss (Hemarthria)

Stargrass

Plant between Jan. 15 and Mar. 15, or between Jun. 1 and Aug. 15. Use underground stems (rhizomes) and sod crowns. To obtain planting material use a commercial sprig digger; or use a plow or disk, and pitch forks. Plant 30 - 40 bu/A. To plant, use a commercial sprig planter; or broadcast sprigs onto the soil surface, cover with a disk and firm soil with a cultipacker or heavy land roller. Plant between Jun. 1 and Aug. 15. All these grasses can be planted from upright stems (green tops). Use mature grass (6+ weeks). To cut tops, use a mower similar to mower used for harvesting hay. Tops may be handled loose, or made into bales using conventional hay balers. Plant 1000 - 1500 lb/A green tops. Special machines for broadcasting tops are available. Uniformly scatter planting material over soil surface; cover immediately, using a finishing disk set at a slight angle. Firm the soil with a cultipacker or heavy land roller. Fertilize appropriately and control weeds.

Cassava

Plant between Feb. 15 and Mar. 31. Cut seed canes into pieces 4 - 8" in length; drop one piece every 3 - 4 ft. in the rows 3 - 4 ft. apart; and cover with about 4" of soil.

Perennial Peanut

Plant between Jan. 15 and Mar. 15 or between June 15 and August 15. Use a commercial sprig digger to harvest rhizomes (underground stems). Plant 80+ bu/A. Plant rhizomes in a well-prepared seedbed, using a row-type commercial sprig planter. Pack soil after planting. Irrigate to insure successful establishment.

Ramie

Plant between Mar. 1 and Jun. 30. Plant rhizome cuttings, in rows spaced 4 ft. apart, with plants spaced about 1 ft. in the row.

Sugarcane

Plant between Sep. and Jan. A new crop of sugarcane can be planted following the final stubble crop harvest of the preceding crop, but fall plantings are the norm. Furrows on 5-foot centers should be opened to a depth of 6 - 8" and fertilizer and seed canes placed in the bottom of the furrow. Overlap seed canes by at least 50%. Between 3 and 4 tn/A of seed cane are usually required. Cut seed pieces in short lengths (about 24") to break apical dominance and get good alignment in the furrow. Cover with 4 - 5" of compact soil.

Tobacco

Transplant Mar. 10 to Apr. 10 in rows 42 - 48" apart. Space plants 16 - 24" apart in the row.

1 In southern Florida, plantings may be made any time soil moisture conditions are favorable.

Footnotes

1.

This document is SS-AGR-150, one of a series of the Agronomy Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. First printed December 1992. Revised November 2008, July 2011, and March 2013. Please visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

D.L. Wright, professor, North Florida Research and Education Center-Quincy; E. B. Whitty, professor emeritus, Agronomy Department; and A.R. Blount, professor, Agronomy Department, North Florida Research and Education Center; Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.