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Spondias Growing in the Florida Home Landscape

Spondias mombin (fruit and leaves). Location: Maui, Enchanting Gardens of Kula

Spondias species (whose common names among English speakers include ambarella, Ataheite apple, mombins, and hog plums) are flowering trees native to tropical and subtropical regions. They are known for their sweet fruit and grow well in the warmest parts of Florida. This 8-page fact sheet discusses biology, distribution and uses, as well as guidelines for propagation and maintenance. Written by Jonathan H. Crane and Jeffrey Wasielewski, and published by the UF Department of Horticultural Sciences, April 2015. (Photo by Forest & Kim Starr, CC BY 3.0)
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/mg059

Tea Shot-Hole Borer Euwallacea fornicates (Eichhoff, 1868) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

Figure 1.  Adult Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff). A-B female, C-D male.
The tea shot-hole borer is an Asian ambrosia beetle introduced to Florida in the early 2000s. In Florida it does not have any known economic impact, but it is a serious pest of tea around the world and is one of the few ambrosia beetles that can infest healthy plants. The tea shot hole borer has a symbiotic relationships with the ambrosia fungus Fusarium ambrosium (Gadd & Loos), which is also a weak plant pathogen. This 4-page fact sheet includes diagnosis section with guidance for avoiding misidentification. Written by You Li, Andrea Lucky, and Jiri Hulcr, and published by the UF Department of Entomology and Nematology, June 2015.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1090

A Sand Fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Insecta: Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

Figure 1. Adult (A) female and (B) male Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva), a sand fly. Credit: Cristina Ferro, Instituto Nacional de Salud, ColombiaThe true sand flies are densely covered with setae, have long slender legs, and broad and pointed wings that are held erect at rest. Several phlebotomine species are vectors of the protozoan parasites in the genus Leishmania, that are the causal agents of leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniais is the most severe form of the disease, and is fatal to the human or dog host if untreated. This 6-page fact sheet was written by Maria C. Carrasquilla and Phillip E. Kaufman, and published by the UF Department of Entomology and Nematology, June 2015. (Photo credit: Cristina Ferro, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Colombia
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1091

Vespiform Thrips Franklinothrips vespiformis Crawford (Insecta: Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae)

Figure 1. Female vespiform thrips showing constricted waist and white band. Credit: Runqian Mao, University of Florida
Franklinothrips vespiformis Crawford is a predatory thrips with a pantropical distribution. The distinctive red, humped-back larvae and fast-moving ant-like adults are predaceous on small arthropods. In addition to being easily mistaken for an ant, this beneficial thrips is unusual in that it constructs a silken cocoon within which it pupates. Males of this species are rare. This species is sold for use as a biological control agent in botanical gardens, zoos, interior landscapes, research greenhouses, nurseries with ornamental plants as well as outdoors in subtropical regions. This 4-page fact sheet was written by Runqian Mao, Yingfang Xiao, and Steven P. Arthurs, and published by the UF Department of Entomology and Nematology, March 2015. (Photo credit: Runqian Mao, UF/IFAS)
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1083

Black Scale Saissetia oleae (Olivier, 1791) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae)

Figure 1.  Adult female black scales, Saissetia oleae (Olivier) on cultivated olive (Olea europaea L.). Credit: Lyle Buss, University of FloridaThe black scale is an important pest of citrus and olive trees. Originally from South Africa, this scale is now distributed worldwide. In Florida, black scale is found on citrus, cultivated olive, avocado, and many popular landscape plants. It is likely that black scale, like many invasive pests, was imported to the United States on infested nursery plants. Based on their small size and the unique life history of scale insects, these insects are difficult to detect and control. This 4-page fact sheet was written by Morgan A. Byron, Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman, and Sandra A. Allan, and published by the UF Department of Entomology and Nematology, March 2015. (Photo credit: Lyle Buss, UF/IFAS)
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1082

Black Turpentine Beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans (Olivier) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

Figure 1. Dorsal view of an adult black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans (Olivier). Its large size, trapezoidal pronotum, and rounded declivity distinguish it from all other bark beetles infesting pines in the southern United States. Credit: Adam Black and Jiri Hulcr, University of FloridaBlack turpentine beetles bore into the inner bark of stressed or injured pines, where they breed and feed on phloem tissue. Adults are strongly attracted to volatile pine odors and readily breed in fresh stumps. In typical forests, infestations do not exhibit the rapid and devastating expansion characteristic of the closely related southern pine beetle, but in stands where stress conditions are frequent or persistent, black turpentine beetle can become a chronic pest and cause significant mortality over an extended period of time. Historically, black turpentine beetle has been a major pest of pines wounded or treated with herbicides in naval stores production. During the 1950s, black turpentine beetle damaged 37 million board feet of timber and contributed to the financial collapse of turpentine farms. This 5-page fact sheet was written by Albert E. Mayfield, John L. Foltz and Jiri Hulcr, and published by the UF Department of Entomology and Nematology, June 2015. (Photo credit Adam Black and Jiri Hulcr, UF/IFAS)
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in636

An ambrosia beetle Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, 1868 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

Figure 1. Adult female Xyleborus affinis. Credit: Jiri Hulcr, UF/IFASXyleborus affinis is one of the most widespread and common ambrosia beetles in the world. It is also very common in Florida. Like other ambrosia beetles, it bores tunnels into the xylem of weakened, cut or injured trees and farms gardens of symbiotic fungus for food. Females lay eggs in the fungus-lined galleries and larvae feed exclusively on the fungi. Recent studies have shown that Xyleborus affinis can vector the fungus responsible for laurel wilt disease, which is lethal to numerous species of trees in the Lauraceae family. This 5-page fact sheet was written by Lanette Sobel, Andrea Lucky, and Jiri Hulcr, and published by the UF Department of Entomology and Nematology, June 2015. (Photo credit: Juri Hulcr, UF/IFAS)
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1094

Asian Horntail Eriotremex formosanus (Matsumura) (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Siricidae: Tremicinae)

Figure 3. Eriotremex formosanus (Matsumura). A- antenna. B- metatibial spur. Abdomen (C) and mesonotum (D) with long golden setae (hair-like projections).  Credit: You Li, University of Florida
Since it was introduced to North America, the Asian woodwasp has become the most common wood wasp in Florida. It is not considered an economically important pest because it only attacks dying or dead trees, but the species may someday prove to be a pest and its ecological impacts in North American forests remain unknown. This 4-page fact sheet was written by You Li and Jiri Hulcr, and published by the UF Department of Entomology and Nematology, June 2015. (Photo credit: You Li, UF/IFAS)
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1095

Dagger Nematode Xiphinema spp. (Cobb, 1913) Inglis, 1983 (Nematoda: Enoplea: Dorylaimia: Dorylaimina: Xiphinematinae)

Figure 9.  Schematic diagram showing detailed morphological features of a dagger nematode, Xiphinema spp.
Dagger nematodes parasitize plants. They cause economic damage and death of host crops through feeding on the roots and by spreading viral mosaic and wilting diseases, but field studies have shown that some control measures targeting reduction in the population of dagger nematodes can be effective in controlling viral diseases in susceptible crops. This 7-page fact sheet was written by William K. Heve, William T. Crow, and Tesfamarian Mengistu, and published by the UF Department of Entomology and Nematology, June 2015.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1097

Skyflower: Hydrolea corymbosa

Flowers of skyflower

Skyflower is a native wetland plant that produces brilliant blue flowers and can be found throughout Florida. This 4-page facts sheet details skyflower biology, distribution and habitat, propagation, and uses. Written by Lyn A. Gettys and Carl J. Della Torre III, and published by the UF Department of Agronomy, July 2015.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag397

Climate Change and the Occurrence of Harmful Microorganisms in Florida?s Ocean and Coastal Waters

SG136blag

Climate change is expected to result in increased temperatures of nearshore ocean water, and this could lead to increased growth of harmful microorganisms. These include algae that form noxious or toxic blooms, including red tides, and bacteria and other pathogens. This situation could have negative consequences in regard to human health and also Florida?s ocean-related economy. A 6-page fact sheet written by Karl Havens, and published by the UF Department of Sea Grant, June 2015.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/sg136

Positive Discipline: Behavioral Management Skills for Parents and Teachers, Part 3: Fostering the Parent-Child and Teacher-Student Relationship to Build Responsibility

Figure 1.  Parents and teachers need to be clear about their expectations for children and students. Credit: Thinkstock.com/iStock/natasaadzic

Tell me and I forget,
Teach me and I may remember,
Involve me and I learn.

The general goal of healthy parenting and teaching is to produce children and students who can think critically, make good decisions, and become independent, accountable, responsible, and contributing members of society. Part 3 of this Positive Discipline: Behavioral Management Skills for Parents and Teachers series covers tips and strategies to help parents and teachers build critical thinking and positive behavioral skills in children. Several of these strategies that can help parents and teachers achieve these goals through “love and logic” are discussed in this 6-page fact sheet written by Victor Harris, Whitney Fung, Sarah Ellis, and Alison Schmeer, and published by the UF Department of Family Youth and Community Sciences, July 2015. (Photo Credit: Thinkstock.com/iStock/natasaadzic)
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fy1460

Positive Discipline: Behavioral Management Skills for Parents and Teachers, Part 2: General Approaches to Managing Behavior

Figure 3.  If a behavior is consequential, the parent or teacher will need to intervene.

When a child is locked in the bathroom
With water running
And he says he is doing nothing
But the dog is barking,
Call 911.
–Erma Bombeck

Research indicates that there must be at least an 8-to-1 positive-to-negative interaction ratio for parents and teachers to have a positive relationship with their children and students. Put simply, both verbal and non-verbal communication needs to be generally positive. Learning how to steer a child or a student toward managing his or her own behavior in healthy ways requires both knowledge and skills that make it easy to have positive interactions and behavior change. This 6-page fact sheet will help you identify specific approaches to successfully managing appropriate and inappropriate behavior at home and in the classroom. It outlines four principles of behavior management, and describes several strategies before providing a practice activity. Written by Victor Harris, Whitney Fung, Sarah Ellis, and Alison Schmeer, and published by the UF Department of Family Youth and Community Sciences, July 2015. (Photo Credit: Thinkstock.com/Jupiterimages/Creatas Images)
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fy1459

Positive Discipline: Behavioral Management Skills for Parents and Teachers, Part 1: Types of Misbehaviors and Keys to Success

Figure 3.  Successful parents and teachers are encouraging and engaged in children?s educational and extracurricular activities.

“Before I got married I had six theories about bringing up children; now I have six children, and no theories.” — John Wilmot

Parents and teachers often experience a lot of insecurities, especially with regard to helping children manage their own behaviors. Not surprisingly, there are many similarities in the skills that effective parents and teachers use to help children manage their own behavior successfully. Building a foundation for healthy and effective parenting and teaching begins with understanding some different types of misbehaviors. This 4-page fact sheet discusses four common types of misbehaviors, encourages the reader to identify healthy and unhealthy practices, and continues with key factors of effective parenting and teaching. Written by Victor Harris, Whitney Fung, Sarah Ellis, and Alison Schmeer, and published by the UF Department of Family Youth and Community Sciences, July 2015. (Photo credit: Thinkstock.com/iStock)
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fy1458

Volunteer Training Series: 4-H Cloverbuds Program: 4-H for Younger Members

Figure 1.  4-H Cloverbud programs offer fun and age-appropriate learning experiences. Credit: Lisa HensonFlorida 4-H programs offered to children ages 5 to 7 are called 4-H Cloverbud programs and are a component of the Florida 4-H Youth Development Program. The goal of the Florida 4-H Cloverbud program is to offer age-appropriate, fun, and exploratory learning experiences for children in the 5 to 7 age group. This 5-page fact sheet describes the best management practices 4-H faculty and volunteers should use when teaching and interacting with this age group. Written by Amanda Squitieri and Sarah Hensley, and published by the UF Department of 4-H Youth Development, July 2015.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/4h369

Lionfish: Is It Safe to Eat?

Figure 1. Eating large, predatory fish harvested from warmer, tropical waters puts consumers at risk for ciguatoxic fish poisoning, and food safety officials in the United States and Caribbean caution against it. The voracious appetite and diverse eating habits of the lionfish suggest it is also a top-order predator species prone to accumulation of ciguatoxins. Credit: Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
Lionfish is not a traditional or likely seafood selection, but growing interest in response to the invasive and increasing abundance has stirred recreational and commercial interest. This prolific, invasive fish is threatening reefs and coastal fisheries in ocean waters throughout the Caribbean Seas and neighboring regions, and eating lionfish is being encouraged as one of the best options to mitigate the its harmful impact. This 4-page fact sheet discusses the risks in handling and consuming lionfish, and offers recommendations for avoiding risk, for both recreational and commercial harvesters. Written by Steve Otwell, and published by Florida Sea Grant, April 2015.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/sg135

Contaminants in the Urban Environment: Dioxins

Figure 1. General structure of dioxins and the most toxic dioxin (TCDD)Dioxins are among the most toxic chemicals on the earth. They are by-products of a number of human activities such as combustion of fuels and wastes containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC), chlorine bleaching of paper products, and selected industrial processes. Current releases of dioxins by humans are due to the combustion of fuels and burning of household trash. The good news is that levels of dioxins in the environment have decreased in the United States throughout the past 30 years due to the improved emission controls and regulatory activities. But dioxins break down slowly, so they remain in the environment for a long time and accumulate in the food chain. Long-term exposure to dioxins can harm immune system, nervous system, endocrine system, and reproductive functions. This 7-page fact sheet discusses the sources, emission trends, and impacts of dioxins as well as the ways to minimize exposure to dioxins. Written by Yun-Ya Yang and Gurpal S. Toor, and published by the UF Department of Soil and Water Science, July 2015.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss642

Facts about Wildlife Diseases: Rabies

dog getting rabies shotRabies is a virus carried by mammals. It kills infected humans and animals if they are not treated shortly after exposure. Rabies can be prevented, but it cannot be cured once symptoms become evident. This 6-page fact sheet explains how rabies spreads, which animals can get it, how common it is, symptoms, what you can do to limit its spread and what to do in case of a possible rabies exposure. Written by Samantha M. Wisely and Holly K. Ober, and published by the UF Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, June 2015.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw282

Healthy Living: Diabetes

People with diabetes are at high risk for high blood pressure.

Diabetes is a serious health condition that occurs when a person’s body has difficulty making or using insulin, which results in high blood glucose (blood sugar) and can lead to other complications. This 3-page facts sheet covers the effects of high blood glucose, who is at risk, the symptoms and management of the condition, and additional resources for those with or at risk of developing diabetes. Written by Linda B. Bobroff, Karla P. Shelnutt, and Paulina Wittkowsky, and published by the UF Department of Family Youth and Community Sciences, June 2015.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fy078

Climate Change: Effects on Salinity in Florida's Estuaries and Responses of Oysters, Seagrass, and Other Biota

Figure 3. The oyster bed is photographed at low tide when the animals are exposed to the air. These are called inter-tidal oyster beds. In some places in Florida, where the water is deeper in the estuary, the oysters always are underwater. These are called sub-tidal oyster beds. Credit: UF/IFAS photoFlorida’s economically important estuaries could be heavily impacted by sea-level rise and altered river flow, both caused by climate change. The resulting higher salinity, or saltiness of the water, could harm plants and animals, alter fish and bird habitat, and reduce the capacity of estuaries to provide such important services as seafood production and the protection of shorelines from erosion. This 6-page fact sheet explains the importance of estuaries, salinity in estuaries, and provides examples of stress from extreme high salinity. Then it explores the projected change in climate that could affect salinity in estuaries, how plants and animals would be affected, mitigating effects, and other impacts of climate change on estuaries. Written by Karl Havens, and published by the UF Department of Sea Grant, June 2015.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/sg138


2014 ROA information

Annual Statistics for 2014 reports will be available November 17th. More...

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