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Publication #CPMG01

2018–2019 Florida Citrus Production Guide: Introduction1

L. M. Diepenbrock, M. M. Dewdney, and T. Vashisth2

Over the past decade, Florida citrus production practices have changed dramatically due to the challenges presented by Huanglongbing (HLB). As we have learned more about this disease, how it is spread by the Asian citrus psyllid, and the overall effects on citrus tree health, it is increasingly evident that management of this disease requires changes to ALL aspects of citrus production. For this reason, the Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide has been expanded to include topics beyond pest management. Under the new title of Florida Citrus Production Guide, additional coverage is provided on horticultural practices that are important to consider for maintaining productivity in the era of HLB. Topics covered include selection of rootstock and scion varieties, irrigation and nutrient management, and maintaining overall health of trees through proper root and canopy management strategies. These and other factors must all be considered together when developing a site-specific management plan for citrus production in the presence of HLB. The Florida Citrus Production Guide will continue to be updated annually (mid-summer) with the latest information to help growers refine their production practices using the latest research-based findings that have been proven to be effective for Florida citrus production.

In addition to changes in production practices needed to manage emerging pest problems in Florida, the regulatory environment is also constantly changing. For example, in 2015 new rules for Worker Protection Standards (WPS) were passed and must be fully implemented by January 2, 2018. These new rules include important changes to worker training, reporting and posting of pesticide applications. Likewise, new rules regarding food safety training, reporting and monitoring are also being implemented. Because these new rules will directly affect Florida citrus growers, and all of agriculture, significant changes have been made to the chapter on WPS and a new chapter on food safety has been included with which growers should be familiar. As changes in these rules are likely to occur, the guide will be updated to reflect the latest information growers need to know to ensure compliance.

Overall, the goal of the Florida Citrus Production Guide is to serve as a reference for information needed to guide decision-making in Florida citrus growing operations. It is not intended to replace agricultural product labels that contain important usage information and should be immediately accessible for reference. Violations of directions for use printed on the label are against State and Federal laws. Always read and follow label instructions! Likewise, State and Federal Regulations on topics such as WPS are constantly changing and not all the information needed to ensure compliance can be covered in this guide. The chapter in this guide covers some of the important highlights of these rules. It is imperative that growers obtain copies of and follow the detailed rules out-lined in the regulatory documents referenced in this guide. The Florida Citrus Production Guide provides general guidance and is NOT the final regulatory document that should be followed!

For specific information on pest identification, biology, damage or non-chemical management techniques, refer to Extension Digital Information System (EDIS) and other UF/IFAS, USDA, and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) publications. In addition to the authors listed throughout the Florida Citrus Production Guide, the citrus faculty and Extension agents listed below can provide assistance with citrus production practices.

UF/IFAS Research and Education Centers

UF/IFAS Citrus REC

700 Experiment Station Road

Lake Alfred, FL

33850-2299

http://www.crec.ifas.ufl.edu

(863) 956-1151

Dr. Michael E. Rogers, Center Director / Entomology

Mr. Travis K. Chapin, Food Safety

Dr. Michelle D. Danyluk, Food Safety

Dr. William O. Dawson, Citrus Pathology / Virology

Dr. Megan M. Dewdney, Citrus Pathology

Dr. Lauren M. Diepenbrock, Entomology

Dr. Larry W. Duncan, Nematology

Dr. Manjul Dutt, Horticulture / Genomics

Dr. Ed Etxeberria, Horticulture / Plant physiology

Dr. Fred G. Gmitter, Horticulture / Citrus breeding

Dr. Jude W. Grosser, Horticulture / Citrus breeding

Dr. Evan G. Johnson, Plant Pathology

Dr. Davie M. Kadyampakeni, Soil & Water Sciences

Dr. Nabil Killiny, Plant Pathology

Dr. Amit Levy, Plant Pathology / Virology

Dr. Choaa El-Mohtar, Plant Pathology / Virology

Dr. Kirsten Pelz-Stelinski, Entomology

Dr. Arnold W. Schumann, Soil and Water Science

Dr. Ariel Singerman, Economics

Dr. Lukasz L. Stelinski, Entomology

Dr. Tripti Vashisth, Horticulture

Dr. Christopher I. Vincent, Horticulture / Tree Physiology

Dr. Nian Wang, Cell Science / Molecular Genetics

Dr. Yu Wang, Food Science / Flavor Chemistry

UF/IFAS Indian River REC

2199 South Rock Road

Ft. Pierce, FL 34945-3138

http://www.irrec.ifas.ufl.edu

(772) 468-3922

Dr. Ron Cave, Center Director / Entomology

Dr. Liliano Cano, Plant Pathology

Dr. Rhuanito S. “Johnny” Ferrarezi, Horticulture

Dr. Jawwad A. Qureshi, Entomology

Dr. Mark A. Ritenour, Postharvest Physiology

Dr. Lorenzo Rossi, Horticulture

Dr. Alan Wright, Soil & Water Sciences

UF/IFAS Southwest Florida REC

2686 State Road 29 N

Immokalee, FL 34142-9515

http://www.imok.ufl.edu

(239) 658-3400

Dr. Kelly T. Morgan, Center Director/ Soil and Water Sciences

Dr. Ute Albrecht, Horticulture / Plant physiology

Dr. Fernando Alferez, Horticulture

Dr. Ioannis Ampatzidis, Agricultural and Biological Engineering

Dr. Ozgur Batuman, Plant Pathology

Dr. Ramdas Kanissery, Horticulture / Weed Science

Mr. Matt Krug, Food Science

Dr. Fritz M. Roka, Economics

Dr. Philip A. Stansly, Entomology

Dr. Sarah Strauss, Soil and Water Sciences / Soil Microbiology

Dr. Tara Wade, Economics

UF/IFAS Tropical REC

18905 SW 280 Street

Homestead, FL 33031-3314

http://trec.ifas.ufl.edu

(305) 246-7000

Dr. Edward “Gilly” Evans, Interim Center Director / Economics

Dr. Jonathan H. Crane, Associate Center Director / Tropical Fruit Crops

Dr. Daniel Carillo, Tropical Fruit Crop Entomology

UF/IFAS Extension Agents—Citrus

Dr. Juanita Popenoe

Extension Agent IV, Multi-County, Fruit Crops

UF/IFAS Extension Lake, Marion, and Orange County

1951 Woodlea Road

Tavares, FL 32778-4052

(352) 343-4101 Email: jpopenoe@ufl.edu

Dr. Stephen H. Futch

Extension Agent IV, Multi-County, Citrus

DeSoto, Hardee, Manatee, and Sarasota

UF/IFAS Citrus Research and Education Center

700 Experiment Station Road

Lake Alfred, FL 33850-2299

(863) 956-1151 Email: shf@ufl.edu

Ms. Adrian Hunsberger

Extension Agent IV, Urban Horticulture

UF/IFAS Extension Miami-Dade County

18710 SW 288th Street

Homestead, FL 33030-2309

(305) 248-3311 Email: aghu@ufl.edu

Ms. Laurie Hurner

County Extension Director, Extension Agent III, Citrus

UF/IFAS Extension Highlands County

4509 George Boulevard

Sebring, FL 33875

(863) 402-6540 Email: lhurner@ufl.edu

Mr. W. Chris Oswalt

Extension Agent IV, Multi-County, Citrus

Hillsborough and Polk

UF/IFAS Extension Polk County

PO Box 9005, Drawer HS03

Bartow, FL 33831-9005

(863) 519-8677 Email: wcoswalt@ufl.edu

Garima Kakkar

Multi-County, Fruit Crops

UF/IFAS Extension St. Lucie County

8400 Picos Rd., Suite 101

Ft. Pierce, FL 34945

(772) 462-1660 Email: garimaiari@ufl.edu

Dr. Mongi Zekri

Extension Agent IV, Multi-County, Citrus

UF/IFAS Extension Charlotte, Collier, Glades, Hendry, and Lee County

PO Box 68

LaBelle, FL 33975-0068

(863) 674-4092 Email: maz@ufl.edu

Table of Contents

GENERAL INFORMATION

  1. Introduction.............................................................................................................. iii

  2. Useful Telephone Numbers.............................................................................................................. 1

  3. Fresh Fruit Pesticide Residue Limits................................................................................................ 3

  4. Pesticide Resistance Management.................................................................................................. 7

  5. Pesticide Application Technology..................................................................................................... 11

  6. Best Management Practices for Soil-Applied Agricultural Chemicals.................................................. 19

  7. Interpreting PPE Statements on Pesticide Labels............................................................................. 23

  8. Quick Reference Guide to Worker Protection Standards................................................................... 25

  9. Food Safety Requirements.............................................................................................................. 33

HORTICULTURAL PRACTICES

  1. Rootstock and Scion Selection........................................................................................................ 41

  2. Grove Planning and Establishment.................................................................................................. 43

  3. Irrigation Management of Citrus Trees............................................................................................. 47

  4. Nutrition Management for Citrus Trees............................................................................................. 51

  5. Fertilizer Application Methods.......................................................................................................... 59

  6. Root Health Management............................................................................................................... 63

  7. Canopy Management...................................................................................................................... 67

  8. Plant Growth Regulators….............................................................................................................. 71

  9. Cold Protection…........................................................................................................................... 75

  10. Citrus Under Protected Screen Production Systems…...................................................................... 79

MITES, INSECTS, AND NEMATODES

  1. Asian Citrus Psyllid and Citrus Leafminer......................................................................................... 81

  2. Rust Mites, Spider Mites, and Other Phytophagous Mites................................................................. 89

  3. Soft-Bodied Insects Attacking Foliage and Fruit................................................................................ 95

  4. Plant Bugs, Chewing Insect Pests, Caribbean Fruit Fly, and Thrips.................................................... 99

  5. Citrus Root Weevils........................................................................................................................ 103

  6. Nematodes.................................................................................................................................... 107

DISEASES

  1. Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening)..................................................................................................... 111

  2. Citrus Canker................................................................................................................................. 113

  3. Phytophthora Foot Rot and Root Rot............................................................................................... 117

  4. Brown Rot of Fruit........................................................................................................................... 123

  5. Greasy Spot................................................................................................................................... 125

  6. Melanose....................................................................................................................................... 127

  7. Citrus Black Spot............................................................................................................................ 129

  8. Citrus Scab.................................................................................................................................... 135

  9. Alternaria Brown Spot.................................................................................................................... 137

  10. Postbloom Fruit Drop..................................................................................................................... 141

  11. Exocortis, Cachexia, and Other Viroids............................................................................................ 143

  12. Blight............................................................................................................................................. 145

  13. Tristeza.......................................................................................................................................... 147

  14. Decay Control of Florida Fresh Citrus............................................................................................... 149

WEEDS

  1. Weeds........................................................................................................................................... 153

PESTICIDES

  1. Pesticides Registered for Use on Florida Citrus................................................................................ 161

Footnotes

1.

This document is CPMG01, one of a series of the Plant Pathology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date December 1999. Revised September 2013, April 2016, and May 2018. Visit the EDIS website at https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu for the currently supported version of this publication.

2.

L. M. Diepenbrock, assistant professor, Department of Entomology and Nematology; M. M. Dewdney, associate professor, Plant Pathology Department; and T. Vashisth, assistant professor, Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Citrus Research and Education Center; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.