University of FloridaSolutions for Your Life

Download PDF
Publication #ENH1160

Community ButterflyScaping: How to Move Beyond Butterfly Gardening to Create a Large-Scale Butterfly Habitat1

Kathy C. Malone, Wendy Wilber, Gail Hansen, Jaret C. Daniels, Claudia Larsen, and Esen Momol2

Introduction

Butterfly gardening and watching continue to grow in popularity nationwide as more and more people plant butterfly-attracting plants in their yards. Community ButterflyScaping is a broader concept that embraces Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ practices within communities and seeks to connect people with their landscaped and natural surroundings.

Figure 1. 

Community ButterflyScaping expands the concept of butterfly gardening through community-wide preservation and planting of butterfly host vegetation. (Illustration: Gail Hansen)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

In Community ButterflyScaping, the vegetation in common areas, stormwater management systems, undeveloped areas, and yards works together to form large-scale habitats attractive to butterflies, pollinators, birds, and other local wildlife. These habitats are known as Community ButterflyScapes. Figure 1 is an artist's rendering of a Community ButterflyScape. Butterfly gardens or other existing landscaped or natural elements can be components of Community ButterflyScapes.

Community Butterflyscapes encompass all butterfly-attracting vegetation—from canopy trees to smaller trees, shrubs, perennials, grasses, groundcovers, and pond vegetation. Such vegetation provides forage (pollen and nectar), larval host resources, shelter, pollinator nesting sites, and other essential elements necessary for butterfly growth and reproduction.

Community ButterflyScapes also can be practical landscapes that potentially lower maintenance costs through reduced mowing and minimal or no irrigation, fertilizers, and pesticides.

Finally, developers and community associations alike may want to consider a Community ButterflyScaping theme under the umbrella of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ principles. Such landscapes can be marketing tools for communities that aim to conserve and protect water quality as they serve the goals of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™.

Preserve Existing Vegetation

Many butterflies occur naturally in communities and neighborhoods. Both established communities and those planned for development can enhance habitat for Community ButterflyScapes simply by preserving or planting trees, shrubs, grasses, and groundcovers that provide food sources, shelter, and habitat for butterflies.

Host and Nectar Plants

Nectar plants provide food resources for adult butterflies. Host plants are plants on which adult butterflies lay their eggs and on which developing larvae feed.

While butterflies need both host and nectar plants to complete their life cycles, an emphasis on host plants encourages butterflies to breed within given areas. Each kind of butterfly uses a limited range of host plants, but many host plants also provide nectar.

While some of the "wilder" plant species discussed in this publication could be difficult to find at nurseries, many of them may already exist in the community. See the "Additional Resources" section of this publication for more information.

Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Principles and Community ButterflyScaping

Community ButterflyScaping incorporates all nine principles of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™: right plant, right place; water efficiently; fertilize appropriately; mulch; attract wildlife; control yard pests responsibly; recycle; reduce stormwater runoff; and protect the waterfront. These principles are designed to help protect Florida's natural resources by encouraging landscapes that require minimal to no supplemental water, fertilizers, and pesticides. For more information, visit http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/. Each Florida-Friendly principle can incorporate a way to attract butterflies, adding interest to the landscape while helping protect Florida's resources.

Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Principle #1: Right Plant, Right Place

Butterfly host plants span a variety of habitats, soil, and moisture conditions, making for a rich, diverse mosaic across a Community ButterflyScape. Knowing the preferred conditions in which the plants grow is the key to success in any landscape.

Whether native or non-native, butterfly-attracting plants placed in the right spot thrive and require minimal to no supplemental water, fertilizer, and pesticide. One way to help ensure the soil and moisture conditions fit the plant's needs in the community is to have the soil tested. UF/IFAS Extension offices can provide soil sample bags and instructions on how to submit samples for testing.

Any plant can be Florida-Friendly if it matches site conditions and isn't an exotic, invasive plant. For a reference list of plants and their requirements, visit: http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/FYN_Plant_Selection_Guide_v090110.pdf.

Common areas

Common areas include areas within town centers, around clubhouses, along sidewalks, in medians, and along main roads. Table 1 lists host trees, shrubs, perennials, and grasses suitable for common areas. Plantings in common areas set the tone for the community. Residential yards often mirror vegetation in these areas.

Accent and specimen trees can be butterfly hosts, as can colorful shrubs, perennials, native grasses commonly used in landscaping, and groundcovers (see Table 3).

Yards

ButterflyScaping emphasizes the planting of nectar sources in residential yards to attract nearby butterflies when there is a concentration of host plants within the community. Table 2 details nectar sources.

Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Principle #2: Water Efficiently

All plants, both native and non-native, need irrigation to become established. Florida-Friendly plants thrive on minimal irrigation. Established groundcovers that can be mowed and low-growing shrubs that attract butterflies can reduce maintenance. If planted in the right place, most need little to no irrigation and minimal mowing.

Groundcovers

Butterfly-attracting groundcovers can be used in concert with turf, alone as monocultures, or mixed to create a wildflower meadow. Such groundcovers can be used in yards, on roadside slopes, in medians, in dry retention areas, and along pond edges. Table 3 provides suggestions for host groundcovers.

Test the growth and appearance of groundcovers in a patch first to see how they perform. In the more northerly, cooler parts of Florida, groundcovers become dormant. If desired, cover them with a thin layer of mulch during colder months to enhance aesthetics. Groundcovers rebound with warmer temperatures and spring showers.

Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Principle #3: Fertilize Appropriately

If growing the butterfly plants in the right place based on their water requirements and nutritional needs, little or no fertilizer may be necessary after establishment. Always use slow-release nitrogen when fertilizing and never apply fertilizer within 10 ft of a water body.

Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Principle #4: Mulch

Mulch gives off radiant heat, providing a platform for basking butterflies to warm their bodies before flight.

Maintaining a 3-in. layer of mulch helps retain soil moisture, prevents erosion, suppresses growth of unwanted plants, and accents the landscape. In Community ButterflyScapes, mulch provides continuity to the appearance of the landscape when establishing groundcovers. Use naturally occurring mulches, such as leaves, compost, or recycled mulch. The Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Program does not recommend use of cypress mulch, as its origins may be difficult to determine. Don't allow mulch to touch the foundation of the house; this keeps moisture to a minimum and deters termites.

Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Principle #5: Attract Wildlife

Community ButterflyScaping offers the community a way to preserve and enhance habitat to help offset habitat loss in the state. Butterflies often are considered a flagship of environmental health, and they invite people to investigate and connect with their natural surroundings.

Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Principle #6: Control Yard Pests Responsibly

Only a few plants are eaten to the ground by butterfly larvae, such as milkweed, passionflower, parsley, dill, and fennel. However, these plants often rebound several times before they must be replaced. In other cases, especially with trees, most shrubs, and grasses, feeding damage is barely noticeable, and it encourages healthy, new plant growth.

When Community ButterflyScaping, it's important to differentiate between common landscape insect pests and butterfly larvae. Since Community ButterflyScaping provides habitat for butterflies, proper management of insecticides is essential. By implementing integrated pest management (IPM), residents and landscapers learn to identify pests, scout for them, and use soft pesticides—such as oils, soaps, and botanicals—to spot treat pests only when necessary.

Indiscriminate use of insecticides can harm people, pets, beneficial organisms, and the environment. Routine, scheduled spraying is not an IPM practice nor is it compatible with Community ButterflyScaping. For more information about IPM, visit http://ipm.ifas.ufl.edu/index.shtml.

Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Principle #7: Recycle

Compost yard waste, vegetative waste from common areas, and vegetable scraps from the kitchen to use in the Community ButterflyScape. Compost attracts butterflies because it is nutrient rich. Male butterflies sip on moist earth and sand, gathering salts and proteins that they pass to females during mating. Females use these nutrients to support egg production. Muddy or moist spots attract "puddling" males that use their proboscis (tongue) to acquire the nutrients. Compost enriches puddling areas.

Locate puddling patches near high-traffic areas so people can enjoy this fascinating butterfly behavior. Frame the patches of bare earth with rocks or landscape timbers for accents.

Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Principle #8: Reduce Stormwater Runoff

Increasing porous surfaces, planting trees to intercept rainfall, creating rain gardens, and vegetating swales, dry retention areas, roadsides, and undeveloped areas all help reduce stormwater runoff. Less stormwater means less chance nutrients will reach water bodies.

Trees

Preserving and planting trees to create a canopy that intercepts rainfall (Seitz and Escobedo 2008) and increasing porous surfaces with Community ButterflyScape plantings are great ways for developers, builders, and existing communities to fulfill one of the prime goals of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™: Reduce and clean up stormwater.

Trees, such as sassafras (which hosts spicebush swallowtail), wild cherry (which hosts tiger swallowtail), and willow (which hosts viceroy) are often cleared. Wild cherry and willow produce nectar that attracts many kinds of butterflies. Table 4 lists these and other host trees.

Figure 2. 

Great purple hairstreak. (Photo: Kathy Malone)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 3. 

Mistletoe, a native plant, is parasitic in oak trees. Mistletoe is the host for the great purple hairstreak, which ranges from North Central Florida through the Panhandle. (Photo: Kathy Malone)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Rain gardens

Consider installing a rain garden as part of the Community ButterflyScape. Rain gardens, which are natural or manmade depressions that collect stormwater, are landscaped with plants that tolerate dry to wet extremes. Table 5 contains a list of host and nectar plants that survive such extremes. For general information on rain gardens, see the Florida Yards and Neighborhoods Handbook at http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/materials/handbook.pdf.

Swales

Swales, which are roadside depressions, absorb nutrients from runoff. Low-growing plants used in the rain garden also are suitable in swales as long as they do not compromise stormwater function.

Dry retention areas

Dry retention areas are shallow, sculpted basins within developments that capture excess stormwater, but which usually stay dry much of the year. Generally, they are many acres in size and, often, they are maintained. They present a fantastic opportunity to convert them into a Community ButterflyScaping element.

Placing butterfly host vegetation in such areas—especially low-growing vegetation that can be mowed occasionally—could lower a community association's maintenance bill through reduced maintenance. Possibilities include a wildflower meadow, but make sure the meadow includes a diversity of host plants. Examples are passionflower, fogfruit, plants listed in Table 5, and other naturally occurring species as listed in Table 7. Again, an important concept of Community ButterflyScaping is to recognize host plants that already exist and incorporate them into the Community ButterflyScape. Accents of hosts trees and shrubs can be added as well.

Consider a cascade of layered vegetation—from trees, to smaller trees, to shrubs, and finally groundcovers. Vertical layers attract wildlife by fostering protection, creating a niche for birds and other wildlife and adding diversity to the landscape.

Take care to keep dry retention areas functional with respect to the role they play in stormwater management. Be sure to check with local and regional regulatory agencies and look into community association restrictions when landscaping a dry retention area.

Tips for landscaping dry retention areas

Side slopes – Bunchgrasses and groundcovers. Accent with butterfly host trees.

First (top) layer – Trees and small trees. Be cognizant of residents' views when selecting plants. However, dry retention areas are at lower elevations, so even tall trees may be acceptable.

Second layer – Shrubs and grasses. To add interest and diversity, add grasses as a visual break between the second and third layers and as a visual tie-in to the side slopes.

Third (bottom) layer – Groundcovers and wildflower seed mixes. Make sure to plant seed mixes appropriate for the locality and grown locally or in Florida. Create nature trails through wildflowers and shrubs by mowing pathways.

Figures 4 and 5 show an example of a tree that can be used in North Florida to attract and host the uncommon Sweadner's juniper hairstreak. Plant red cedar in groups or rows, keep the lower limbs intact, and do not place mulch under the trees. The tree's lower limbs, along with fallen needles, are necessary for the life cycle of the hairstreak (Pence 2005).

Table 6 lists suggestions for host plants for each layer of plantings in dry retention areas.

Figure 4. 

Red cedar (Photo: Kathy Malone)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 5. 

Sweadner's juniper hairstreak (Photo: Kathy Malone)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Nonlandscaped roadsides and undeveloped areas

In communities with nonlandscaped roadsides and undeveloped areas, host plant seeds may lay dormant and sprout when conditions are right. Table 7 lists a number of these. Additional undeveloped areas include conservation buffers, easements, wetland jurisdictions, dry retention areas and detention ponds, recreational trails and pathways, wildlife corridors, and vacant lots. Protecting the integrity of these areas with vegetative cover helps filter and reduce stormwater runoff.

By designating areas that are not mowed frequently, residents can see which of the more obscure, weedy host wildflowers draw in butterflies. With a Community ButterflyScape as the context, plants that might otherwise be unwanted or overlooked have a purpose. It may be surprising and rewarding to see which plants emerge in these areas of interest and the butterflies that find them.

Many undeveloped areas have cudweed or fogfruit growing in them. Figures 6, 7, 8, and 9 show these host plants and their associated butterflies. Larvae of the American lady shelter themselves in the puffy blooms of cudweed. Search for larvae in the flower heads in the springtime.

Figure 6. 

American lady larva in a cudweed flower head (Photo: Kathy Malone)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 7. 

American lady (Photo: Kathy Malone)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 8. 

Fogfruit with phaon crescent (Photo: Kathy Malone)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 9. 

Carpet of fogfruit (Photo: Kathy Malone)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

How to propagate fogfruit

To propagate fogfruit, find a succulent, healthy stem with several leaves. Near the bottom of the stem, trim at least two leaves at the leaf nodes. Place the exposed nodes in wet, rich soil or water. The nodes will form roots. Water daily for at least a week until the plant no longer wilts between waterings. While fogfruit can grow almost anywhere, from beach dunes to pond edges, it makes a lush, dense groundcover under moist, rich conditions. It hosts the phaon crescent, white peacock (South Florida), and common buckeye.

Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Principle #9: Protect the Waterfront

Plantings of groundcovers, grasses, shrubs, and trees accent ponds and enrich the landscape. Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ principles recommend a no-maintenance, 10-ft buffer of vegetation around ponds to help protect water quality. Such vegetation cleanses stormwater before it enters the water body. In addition, landscaping ordinances that require a buffer may come into effect in the next several years as local governments adopt Florida-Friendly ordinances.

Consider transforming stormwater ponds into visually pleasing and Florida-Friendly aesthetic landscapes with plantings that also attract butterflies. Groundcovers, such as fogfruit (which hosts three butterfly species and is a fantastic nectar source for many butterflies), are low growing. Low-growing vegetation helps maintain views of the water. Fogfruit can be a great no-mow alternative at the water's edge.

Check with state and local water resource regulatory agencies and look into community association restrictions before landscaping a pond.

Including a pond buffer in the Community ButterflyScape

Use emergent plants around the pond's edge, then groundcovers, shrubs, and trees landward. Focus on host plants, but add a few nectar plants to enrich the diversity of the pond's edge and enhance visual appeal. Buttonbush is an excellent nectar source for large and small butterflies. Figure 10 is an artist's rendering of a cross section of a planted pond edge. Table 8 lists host plants for each section.

Besides pond edge plantings, look into an emerging new technology that helps cleanse ponds—floating vegetation mats anchored to the pond bottom. The mats can be an element of the Community ButterflyScape by using water-loving host and nectar plants.

Figure 10. 

Example of planted pond cross section and suggested plantings with associated butterflies (Illustration: Gail Hansen)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

While a variety of plants are available at some nurseries, a number of the plants may already exist by the community pond. One of the concepts of Community ButterflyScaping is to preserve existing, noninvasive host vegetation, and then plan around it.

Condominiums and other coastal communities are in a unique location to attract two beautiful coastal butterflies—the martial scrub-hairstreak and the mangrove skipper. Figures 11 and 12 show the bay cedar—the host plant for the martial scrub-hairstreak—and the butterfly.

Figure 11. 

Bay cedar branch (Photo: Kathy Malone)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 12. 

Martial scrub-hairstreak (Photo: Kathy Malone)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

The martial scrub-hairstreak is of concern due to loss of habitat for bay cedar which is found in coastal South Florida from Sarasota and Martin counties south through the Florida Keys. Bay cedar grows in sand dunes by the beach and slightly inland, and on barrier islands in South Florida. Residents of coastal communities have a singular opportunity to plant the versatile bay cedar in an effort to help conserve the butterfly. Bay cedar also hosts the mallow scrub-hairstreak.

Bay cedar can be used as a hedge, as it responds well to clipping, or as a specimen or border plant in beach locations. It also can be planted in a container or used as a screen when planted in a row with trunks five to six feet apart (Gilman 2007). Bay cedar is a good nectar source. Lantana, Spanish needles, and fogfruit also make great nectar sources for a variety of butterflies.

Red mangrove is the host for the mangrove skipper. Homeowners who have red mangrove near their coastal communities in peninsular Florida should consider attracting the mangrove skipper with nectar sources such as Spanish needles, citrus, and bougainvillea. Black mangrove is the host for the mangrove buckeye.

Additional Components for Community ButterflyScapes: Butterfly Bouquets and Green Walls

Butterfly bouquets

Various butterfly-attracting plants do well as potted plants. A "butterfly bouquet" is simply a combination of larval host trees and plants, with nectar accents, planted in hanging baskets and containers to attract butterflies. A display of butterfly bouquets along a town center's sidewalk presents an educational opportunity and gives passersby a delightful way to see the butterfly life cycle up close. Figure 13 depicts an artist's rendering of such a thoroughfare. Depending on the types of plants used, the display may need to be replaced annually.

Figure 14 provides an example of plants that could attract at least six different species of butterflies. It contains two hosts (passionflower and fogfruit) and three nectar sources (goldenrod, eupatorium, and firebush). Passionflower hosts the Gulf fritillary, zebra heliconian, and variegated fritillary; fogfruit hosts the phaon crescent, white peacock, and common buckeye.

Another example of a butterfly bouquet might contain colorful pentas, passionflower, fogfruit, and herbs—such as parsley, dill, fennel, and an ornamental herb known as rue. This makes a functional and attractive butterfly bouquet with host plants for eight butterfly species: Gulf fritillary, zebra heliconian (Florida's state butterfly), variegated fritillary, black swallowtail, giant swallowtail, phaon crescent, common buckeye, and white peacock (South Florida). Place a small sign in the container that mentions the bouquets are part of the Community ButterflyScape and identify the plants and butterflies that use them. Table 9 contains additional examples of plant combinations.

Figure 13. 

Butterfly bouquets: Larval host trees and plants, with nectar accents, in hanging baskets and containers add interest along the sidewalk of a town center. (Illustration: Gail Hansen)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 14. 

Example butterfly bouquet (Photo: Eric Zamora/Florida Museum)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Green walls

By planting host plants in vertical green walls—upright garden structures that contain soil and sometimes watering systems for plants—communities can attract butterflies and feature their host plants in a unique way. Figure 15 is an example of a green wall.

Figure 15. 

Example of a green wall presented at EPCOT (Photo: Tom Wichman)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Conclusion

How to Get Started with Community ButterflyScaping

A few specimen trees and shrubs and patches of host groundcovers are great ways to start Community ButterflyScapes. Small changes really make big differences, so don't feel overwhelmed. While a mass of particular host plants provides abundant food for larvae, butterflies are able to find individual host plants on which to lay eggs. Try designating one area of the community or one section of pond edge as a pilot project. See how it goes, then expand from there.

Community ButterflyScaping presents opportunities for developers, community associations, and homeowners to increase awareness of butterflies among community residents, provide critical wildlife habitat, beautify existing areas, and protect natural resources by incorporating Florida-Friendly Landscaping™. Table 10 shows how Community ButterflyScaping relates to Florida-Friendly Landscaping™.

Developers, community associations, and homeowners can seek recognition for Florida-Friendly Landscapes, of which Community ButterflyScapes can be a part, through the Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Program. For more information about the program, visit http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/professionals/services.htm.

Further, developers and community associations can adopt all or part of the Model Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions (CCRs) prepared by the Department of Environmental Protection and the UF/IFAS Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Program. For the model CCRs, visit http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/community_association_kit.htm.

These model CCRs include considerations for long-term maintenance of Florida-Friendly Landscapes. By following maintenance practices outlined in the manual, Florida Friendly Best Management Practices for Protection of Water Resources by the Green Industries, developments and communities can help conserve water and protect water resources. For the manual, visit http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/professionals/GI-BMP_publications.htm.

Developers

Developers can identify and preserve butterfly host vegetation, enhance common grounds with butterfly-attracting host plants, create areas of interest on undeveloped lands, market their communities as Community ButterflyScapes, and provide educational opportunities.

Opportunities to put Community ButterflyScaping components to use include vegetative buffers; street rights-of-way with street trees; easements; dry retention areas and detention ponds; conservation set-asides and wildlife areas; wetland jurisdiction areas; wildlife corridors; recreational areas, such as trails and pathways; and vegetative screens. Existing host plants can be preserved, and new host plants can be added.

Community associations

Community associations can establish community butterfly gardens, landscape common grounds with butterfly host plants, create amenities out of stormwater systems and pond buffers, and provide education to residents about Community ButterflyScaping and butterfly gardening.

Homeowners

Homeowners can participate in Community ButterflyScaping by planting nectar or butterfly gardens—with hosts and nectar—in their yards. Homeowners also can set aside part of their property as a meadow, to mow occasionally.

Table 11 is a summary list of the common host plants for the butterflies discussed in this publication.

References

Gilman, E. 2007. Suriana maritima: Bay cedar. FPS-565. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fp565.

Pence, J. A. 2005. Conservation Biology of Mitoura gryneus sweadneri (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). PhD diss., University of Florida. http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/etd/UFE0013112.

Seitz, J., and F. Escobedo. 2008. Urban forests in Florida: Trees control stormwater runoff and improve water quality. FOR184. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FR/FR23900.pdf.

Additional Resources

To locate native host and nectar plants, consult the Association of Florida Native Nurseries or the Florida Wildflower Foundation.

Association for Native Nurseries. http://www.afnn.org/ [October 2011].

Florida Wildflower Foundation. http://floridawildflowerfoundation.org/introduction.html.

Books and online documents:

Brock, J. P., and J. Glassberg. 2005. Caterpillars in the field and garden: A field guide to butterfly caterpillars of North America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cech, R., and G. Tudor. 2007. Butterflies of the East Coast: An observer's guide. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Daniels, J. C. 2000. Your Florida guide to butterfly gardening: A guide for the Deep South. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Daniels, J. C. 2003. Butterflies of Florida field guide. Cambridge, MN: Adventure Publications.

Daniels, J. C. 2010. Wildflowers of Florida field guide. Cambridge, MN: Adventure Publications.

Daniels, J., J. Schaefer, C. Huegel, and F. Mazzotti. 2008. Butterfly gardening in Florida. WEC 22. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw057.

Gerberg, E. J., and R. H. Arnett, Jr. 1989. Florida butterflies. Baltimore: Natural Science Publications.

Gilman, E., and D. G. Watson. 1993. Celtis laevigata: Sugarberry. ST-138. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/st138.

Gilman, E., and D. G. Watson. 1994. Persea borbonia: Redbay. ST-436. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. hhttp://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/st436.

Gilman, E., and D. G. Watson. 2006. Fraxinus pennsylvanica 'Summit': 'Summit' green ash. ENH428. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ST269.

Glassberg, J., M. C. Minno, and J. V. Calhoun. 2000. Butterflies through binoculars: A field, finding, and gardening guide to butterflies in Florida. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Minno, M. C., J. F. Butler, and D. W. Hall. 2005. Florida butterfly caterpillars and their host plants. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Minno, M. C., and M. Minno. 1999. Florida butterfly gardening: A complete guide to attracting, identifying, and enjoying butterflies. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Sprenkel, R. 2008. Getting started in butterfly gardening. ENY722. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN56400.pdf.

Walton, D., and L. Schiller. 2007. Natural Florida landscaping. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press.

Tables

Table 1. 

Suggestions for host plants and associated butterflies for common grounds

Trees and butterflies

Shrubs, perennials, grasses,

and butterflies

Indigobush – Silverspotted skipper and southern dogface

Asters – Pearl crescent

Elm – Question mark (North Florida)

Blue plumbago – Cassius blue (peninsular Florida)

Hickory – Banded hairstreak (North Florida)

Bay cedar – Martial scrub-hairstreak, mallow scrub-hairstreak (South Florida)

Jamaica dogwood – Fulvous hairstreak, hammock skipper (South Florida)

Common sweetleaf – King's hairstreak (North Florida)

Oaks – Some hairstreaks and skippers

Coontie – Atala hairstreak (South Florida)

Sassafras – Spicebush swallowtail (North Florida)

Deerberry – Redspotted purple (North Florida)

Sparkleberry – Striped hairstreak (North Florida)

Herbs (parsley, dill, and fennel) – Black swallowtail

Sugarberry – American snout, hackberry emperor, tawny emperor, question mark

Partridge pea – Cloudless sulphur, gray hairstreak, ceraunus blue

Sweetbay magnolia – Tiger swallowtail (South Florida)

Passionflower – Gulf fritillary, zebra heliconian, variegated fritillary

Redbud – Henry's elfin (Panhandle)

Pawpaw – Zebra swallowtail

Red cedar – Sweadner's juniper hairstreak (North Florida)

Rue – Black swallowtail and giant swallowtail

Wild cherry and tulip tree – Tiger swallowtail (North Florida)

Sennas – Sulphurs

Wild lime – Giant swallowtail

Wax myrtle – Redbanded hairstreak

Wild cherry – Redspotted purple (North Florida)

Eastern gamagrass or fakahatchee grass – Byssus skipper

Note: Unless noted, plants listed are suitable statewide. North Florida roughly means the Panhandle to Central Florida. South Florida roughly means from Central Florida to South Florida. For specific zones, see UF/IFAS document, Butterfly Gardening in Florida, http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw057.

Table 2. 

Nectar plants and suitability for North and South Florida

Nectar plants

Scientific name

South Florida

North Florida

Indigobush

Amorpha fruticosa

x

x

Beach sunflower

Helianthus deblis

x

x

Blackeyed Susan

Rudbeckia hirta

 

x

Blue porterweed

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis

x

x

Buddleia

Buddleja davidii

 

x

Bush seaside oxeye daisy

Borrichia frutescens

x

 

Butterfly weed

Asclepias tuberosa

 

x

Buttonbush

Cephalanthus occidentalis

x

x

Button eryngo

Eryngium yuccifolium

x

x

Climbing aster

Symphyotrichum carolinianum

 

x

Coastal vervain

Glandularia maritima

x

 

Coral bean

Erythrina herbacea

x

x

Coreopsis

Coreopsis spp.

x

x

Curacioa bush

Cordia globosa

x

 

Cutleaf coneflower

Rudbeckia laciniata

 

x

Duranta

Duranta erecta

x

x

Echinacea

Echinacea purpurea

 

x

False tamarind

Lysiloma latisiliquum

x

 

Fiddlewood

Citharexylum spinosum

x

 

Firebush

Hamelia patens

x

x

Firespike

Odontonema stictum

x

x

Florida flame azalea

Rhododendron austrinum

 

x

Gaillardia

Gaillardia pulchella

x

x

Garberia

Garberia heterophylla

 

x

Garlic chives

Allium tubersum

x

x

Giant ironweed

Vernonia gigantea

x

x

Glossy abelia

Abelia x grandiflora

 

x

Joe pye weed

Eupatorium fistulosum

 

x

Mexican sunflower

Tithonia rotundifolia

x

x

New Jersey tea

Ceanothus americanus

 

x

Pentas

Pentas lanceolata

x

x

Plumbago

Plumbago auriculata

x

x

Rattlesnakemaster

Eryngium aquaticum

 

x

Redbud

Cercis canadensis

 

x

Rose vervain

Glandularia canadensis

 

x

Saw palmetto

Serenoa repens

x

x

Scarlet hibiscus

Hibiscus coccineus

x

x

Seaside goldenrod

Solidago sempervirens

 

x

Snow squarestem

Melanthera nivea

x

x

Sparkleberry

Vaccinium arboretum

 

x

Spotted beebalm

Monarda punctata

x

x

Stokes aster

Stokesia laevis

 

x

Swamp sunflower

Helianthus angustifolius

 

x

Sweet almond bush

Aloysia virgata

x

x

Tropical sage

Salvia coccinea

x

x

Vitex

Vitex agnus castus

x

x

White swamp milkweed

Asclepias perennis

 

x

Wild azalea

Rhododendron canescens

 

x

Wild coffee

Psychotria nervosa

x

 

Wild sage lantana involucrate

Lantana involucrata

x

 

Zinnia

Zinnia elegans

x

x

Table 3. 

Host groundcovers and associated butterflies

Groundcover

Moisture

Flower

Butterflies

Comments and tips

Fogfruit

Moist to dry, sunny areas

Small, white

Phaon crescent, common buckeye, white peacock (South Florida)

Excellent nectar source, grows denser with moisture, easy to propagate from cutting, rebounds after mowing, try as hanging plant

Passionflower

Dry to moist

Large, purple

Gulf fritillary, variegated fritillary, zebra heliconian

Lush, showy vine that creeps along the ground

Fanpetals

Dry to moist

Small, yellow

Tropical checkered- skipper, and white checkered-skipper

Mow occasionally to keep low, but let flower in between; becomes shrub if not mowed.

Spanish needles

Dry to moist

Small, white

Dainty sulphur

Excellent nectar source. Allow to bloom, but mow to maintain at around 12 in. to prevent undesirable, weedy appearance; becomes shrub if not mowed.

Sunshine mimosa

Dry to moist, sandy

Pink, fluffy

Little yellow

Good nectar source

Twinflower

Dry

Medium bluish/purplish

Common buckeye

Good nectar source, fills in, rebounds after winter

Note: Unless noted, plants listed are suitable statewide. North Florida roughly means the Panhandle to Central Florida. South Florida roughly means from Central Florida to South Florida. For specific zones, see UF/IFAS document, Butterfly Gardening in Florida, http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw057.

Table 4. 

Host trees, their ranges, and associated butterflies in Florida

Trees

Associated butterflies

Tree ranges in Florida

Indigobush

Silverspotted skipper, southern dogface

Throughout

Bay cedar

Martial scrub-hairstreak (South Florida), mallow scrub-hairstreak (South Florida)

Coastal, Central to South Florida

Bayleaf capertree

Florida White (South Florida) and occasionally great southern white

Coastal, Central Florida to Keys

Cabbage palm

Monk skipper (Peninsular Florida)

Throughout

Dahoon holly

Henry's elfin (North Florida)

Throughout

Elm

Question mark, mourning cloak (Panhandle)

Throughout to Palm Beach County

False tamarind

Orange sulphur, cassius blue (Peninsular Florida)

South Florida

Green ash

Tiger swallowtail

North Florida

Hickory

Banded hairstreak (North Florida)

North Florida

Jamaica dogwood

Fulvous hairstreak (South Florida), hammock skipper (South Florida)

South Florida

Oaks

Duskywings, oak hairstreak, white M hairstreak

Throughout

Pawpaw

Zebra swallowtail

Throughout

Redbud

Henry's elfin (North Florida)

North Florida

Red cedar

Sweadner's juniper hairstreak (North Florida)

North to Central Florida

Sassafras

Spicebush swallowtail (North Florida)

North Florida

Sennas

Sulphurs

Throughout

Sourwood

Summer spring azure (North Florida)

Panhandle

Sparkleberry

Striped hairstreak (North Florida)

North Florida

Strangler fig

Ruddy daggerwing (South Florida)

South Florida

Sugarberry

American snout, hackberry emperor, tawny emperor, question mark

Throughout

Sweet bay

Tiger swallowtail

South Florida

Tulip tree

Tiger swallowtail

North Florida

Wild cherry

Tiger swallowtail, redspotted (North Florida)

North Florida

Wild lime

Giant swallowtail

South Florida

Willow

Viceroy, mourning cloak (Panhandle)

Throughout

Wisteria

Longtailed skipper

North Florida

Note: North Florida roughly means the Panhandle to Central Florida. South Florida roughly means from Central Florida to South Florida. For specific zones, see UF/IFAS document, Butterfly Gardening in Florida, http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw057. Mistletoe, host for great purple hairstreak (North Florida), grows on oaks. Figures 2 and 3 show the butterfly and its host plant.

Table 5. 

Rain garden host and nectar plants and associated butterflies

Host and nectar plants

Flowers

Butterflies

Asters

Pinkish, lavender

Pearl crescent

Fogfruit

Small, white

Phaon crescent, common buckeye, white peacock (South Florida)

Swamp milkweed

Small, white

Monarch

Water hemlock (poisonous to humans)

Umbrella-shaped clusters of small, cream flowers

Black swallowtail

Willow

Small, white clusters

Viceroy, mourning cloak (Panhandle)

Host plants

Flowers

Butterflies

Dahoon holly

Small, white

Henry's elfin (North Florida)

Eastern gamagrass

 

Byssus skipper

False nettle

Small, green

Red admiral

Green ash (tree, North Florida)

Small, green

Tiger swallowtail

Sweet bay (tree, South Florida)

Large, white

Tiger swallowtail

Wax myrtle

Very small

Redbanded hairstreak

Wild canna

Large, yellow

Brazilian skipper

Wild lime (tree, North Central and South Florida)

Very small

Giant swallowtail

Nectar plants

Flowers

 

Cardinalflower

Small, red, elongated

 

Itea

Small, white, cluster on stalk

 

Blazing star

Small, lavender to pink, cluster on stalk

 

Mistflower

Small, light bluish/purplish, clusters

 

Pickerelweed

Small, purple, cluster on stalk

 

Swamp hibiscus

Large, red

 

Swamp sunflower

Yellow

 

Note: North Florida roughly means the Panhandle to Central Florida. South Florida roughly means from Central Florida to South Florida. For specific zones, see UF/IFAS document, Butterfly Gardening in Florida, http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw057.

Table 6. 

Example host plants and associated butterflies for dry retention areas

Layer One:

Trees, small trees,

and butterflies

Layer Two:

Shrubs, grasses,

and butterflies

Layer Three:

Groundcovers, wildflowers,

and butterflies

North and South Florida

North and South Florida

North and South Florida

Indigobush – Silverspotted skipper, southern dogface

Milkweed – Monarch, queen, soldier (South Florida)

Eastern gamagrass – Various skippers

Citrus (cultivated and wild) –Giant swallowtail

Partridge pea – Cloudless sulphur, gray hairstreak, ceraunus blue

Sunshine mimosa or powderpuff – Little yellow

Sugarberry – American snout, tawny emperor, hackberry emperor, question mark

Saw Palmetto – Monk skipper, palmetto skipper

Fogfruit – Phaon crescent, common buckeye

Wild lime – Giant swallowtail

 

White clover – Orange sulphur, southern dogface

   

Lopsided Indiangrass – Various skippers

 

Twinflower – Common buckeye

 

Pawpaw – Zebra swallowtail

North Florida

North Florida

North Florida

Redbud – Henry's elfin

Deerberry – Redspotted purple

 

Red cedar – Sweadner's juniper hairstreak

   

Sassafras – Spicebush swallowtail

   

Sourwood (Panhandle) –Summer spring azure

   

South Florida

South Florida

South Florida

Bayleaf capertree – Florida white and occasionally great southern white

Coontie – Atala hairstreak

Fogfruit – White peacock, phaon crescent, common buckeye

Cabbage palm – Monk skipper

   

Jamaica dogwood – Fulvous hairstreak, hammock skipper

   

Strangler fig – Ruddy daggerwing

   

Sweetbay magnolia – Tiger swallowtail

   
Table 7. 

Example host plants and associated butterflies for undeveloped and roadside areas

Plant

Butterflies

Asters

Pearl crescent

Beggarticks and peas

Various duskywing and cloudywing skippers

Black medick

Orange sulphur (North Florida)

Cudweed

American lady

Fanpetals

Tropical checkered-skipper and white checkered-skipper

Hercules club

Giant swallowtail

Indigo

Ceraunus blue

Milkpea

Gray hairstreak and various skippers, including zarucco duskywing

Milkweeds

Monarch, queen, soldier (South Florida)

Pencilflower, shyleaf, and sticky jointvetch

Barred yellow

Purple thistle

Little metalmark

Ticktrefoil (Desmodium spp.)

Longtailed skipper

Virginia peppergrass

Checkered white, great southern white (Central and South Florida and coastal areas)

White clover

Eastern tailed-blue (North Florida and Panhandle)

White sweetclover

Orange sulphur (North Florida)

Table 8. 

Example pond host vegetation and butterflies

Host vegetation

Butterflies

Groundcover or sod

Fogfruit

Phaon crescent, common buckeye, white peacock (South Florida)

Passionflower (vine)

Gulf fritillary, zebra heliconian

   
   

Pellitory (Peninsular Florida)

Red admiral

Native grasses

Skippers

Trees

Indigobush

Silverspotted skipper, southern dogface

Cabbage palm

Monk skipper (Peninsular Florida)

Dahoon holly

Henry's elfin (North Florida)

Elm

Question mark

Green ash

Tiger swallowtail (North Florida)

Sugarberry

American snout, tawny emperor, hackberry emperor, question mark

Sweet bay

Tiger swallowtail (South Florida)

Willow

Viceroy

Plant buffer

False nettle

Red admiral

Partridge pea

Cloudless sulphur, ceraunus blue, gray hairstreak

Swamp milkweed

Monarch, queen

Switchcane

Southern pearly-eye, several skippers

Wax myrtle

Redbanded hairstreak

Pond edge

Alligator-flag (South Florida)

Brazilian skipper

Mock bishopweed

Black swallowtail

Sedges and sawgrass

Various skippers

Waterhyssop

White peacock (South Florida)

Yellow canna

Brazilian skipper

Pond mats

Yellow canna and alligator-flag

Brazilian skipper

*Mock bishopweed

Black swallowtail

*Fogfruit

Phaon crescent, common buckeye, white peacock (South Florida)

*False nettle or pellitory

Red admiral

Nectar: *Bur marigold, *cardinalflower, and pickerelweed

*Undergoing trials.

Note: North Florida roughly means the Panhandle to Central Florida. South Florida roughly means from Central Florida to South Florida. For specific zones, see UF/IFAS document, Butterfly Gardening in Florida, http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw057.

Table 9. 

Possible butterfly bouquet combinations

Plants

Butterflies

Bouquet One (South Florida): Blue and yellow

Blue plumbago

Cassius blue

Coontie

Atala hairstreak

Partridge pea

Cloudless sulphur, gray hairstreak, ceraunus blue

Bouquet Two (Throughout Florida): Purple flowers at three heights

Carolina wild petunia

Common buckeye

Passionflower

Gulf fritillary, zebra heliconian, variegated fritillary

Fogfruit

Phaon crescent, common buckeye, white peacock (South Florida)

Bouquet Three (Throughout Florida): Purple and pink

Twinflower

Common buckeye

Carolina wild petunia

Common buckeye

Sunshine mimosa

Little yellow

Bouquet Four (Coastal South Florida): Yellow, blue, and purple

Bay cedar

Martial scrub-hairstreak (South Florida), mallow scrub-hairstreak (South Florida)

Blue plumbago

Cassius blue (Peninsular Florida)

Passionflower

Gulf fritillary, zebra heliconian, variegated fritillary
Table 10. 

The nine principles of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ and the relationship of Community ButterflyScaping components

Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ principle

Community ButterflyScaping

Right plant, right place

*Preserved vegetation grows where it is normally found.

*Plants that match site conditions require less maintenance.

Water efficiently

*Use of butterfly host groundcovers and other host vegetation may require minimal or no irrigation and minimal mowing.

Fertilize appropriately

*Slow-release fertilizer is best.

*Use slow release, if needed, with butterfly-host groundcovers.

Mulch

*Mulch attracts basking butterflies.

*Mulch conserves moisture and creates an aesthetically pleasing look of unity in the landscape.

Attract wildlife

*Community ButterflyScaping enhances habitat for pollinators.

*Community ButterflyScaping invites people to relax and connect with their natural surroundings.

Manage yard pests responsibly

*Responsible pest management encourages the identification of insects.

*Routine, scheduled spraying is not compatible with Community ButterflyScaping.

Recycle yard waste

*Recycled compost can be used as a butterfly attractor for puddling areas (open patches where male butterflies imbibe salts and proteins needed for reproduction).

Reduce stormwater runoff

*Host trees (and any trees) intercept rainwater and reduce stormwater volume.

*Rain gardens can capture water from downspouts and low areas.

*Swales, dry retention areas, roadsides, and undeveloped areas can become areas of interest with appropriate host plants.

Protect the waterfront

*Pond buffers can consist of many different kinds of host plants.

Note: Long-term maintenance of a Florida-Friendly Landscape is crucial to keeping such a landscape truly Florida-Friendly. Consider how a Community ButterflyScape can keep irrigation, fertilizer, and pesticide inputs to a minimum while offering a marketable, engaging, and aesthetically pleasing landscape.

Table 11. 

Common host plants for butterflies

Common name

Scientific name

Butterfly

Aster

Symphyotrichum spp.

Pearl crescent

Indigobush

Amorpha fruiticosa

Southern dogface, silverspotted skipper

Bay cedar

Suriana maritima

Martial scrub-hairstreak (South Florida), mallow scrub-hairstreak (South Florida)

Bayleaf capertree

Capparis flexuosa

Florida white (South Florida) and occasionally great southern white

Black medick

Medicago lupulina

Orange sulphur (North Florida)

Blue plumbago

Plumbago auriculata

Cassius blue

Butterfly weed

Asclepias tuberosa

Monarch, queen

Cabbage palm

Sabal palmetto

Monk skipper (Peninsular Florida)

Carolina wild petunia

Ruellia caroliniensis

Common buckeye

Citrus

Citrus spp. (native and cultivated)

Giant swallowtail

Clover

Trifolium spp.

Eastern tailed-blue (North Florida)

Common sweetleaf

Symplocos tinctoria

King's hairstreak (North Florida)

Coontie

Zamia pumila

Atala hairstreak (South Florida)

Cudweed

Gnaphalium obtusifolium

American lady

Dahoon holly

Ilex cassine

Henry's elfin (North Florida)

Deerberry

Vaccinium stamineum

Redspotted purple (North Florida)

Eastern gamagrass (also called fakahatchee grass)

Tripsacum dactyloides

Byssus skipper

Elm

Ulmus spp.

Question mark

False nettle

Boehmeria cylindrica

Red admiral

False tamarind

Lysiloma latisiliquum

Cassius blue (Peninsular Florida), large orange sulphur (South Florida), mimosa yellow (South Florida)

Fanpetals

Sida spp.

Tropical checkered-skipper and white checkered-skipper

Fogfruit or

matchstick plant

Phyla nodiflora

Phaon crescent, common buckeye, white peacock (South Florida)

Green ash

Fraxinus pennsylvanica

Tiger swallowtail (North Florida)

Herbs (parsley, dill, and fennel)

Umbelliferae spp.

Black swallowtail

Hercules club

Zanthoxylum clava-herculis

Giant swallowtail

Hickory

Carya spp.

Banded hairstreak (North Florida)

Indigo

Indigofera spp.

Ceraunus blue

Jamaica dogwood

Piscidia piscipula

Hammock skipper (South Florida), fulvous hairstreak (South Florida)

Lopsided Indiangrass

Sorghastrum secundum

Various skippers

Milkpea

Galactia spp.

Gray hairstreak and various skippers, including zarucco duskywing

Milkweed

Asclepias perennis, A. incarnata, A. longifolia, A. humistrata, A. tuberosa

Monarch, queen, soldier (South Florida)

Oaks

Quercus spp.

Southern oak hairstreak, white M hairstreak, various duskywings

Partridge pea

Chamaechrista fasciculata

Cloudless sulphur, gray hairstreak, ceraunus blue

Passionflower

Passiflora incarnata, P. suberosa, P. lutea

Gulf fritillary, zebra heliconian, variegated fritillary

Pawpaw

Asimina spp.

Zebra swallowtail

Pencilflower

Stylosanthes biflora

Barred yellow

Powderpuff

Mimosa strigillosa

Little yellow

Purple thistle

Cirsium horridulum

Little metalmark

Redbay

Persea borbonia

Palamedes swallowtail

Red cedar

Juniperus virginiana

Sweadner's juniper hairstreak (North Florida)

Redbud

Cercis canadensis

Henry's elfin (North Florida)

Rue

Ruta graveolens

Black swallowtail, giant swallowtail

Sassafras

Sassafras albidum

Spicebush swallowtail (North Florida)

Saw palmetto

Serenoa repens

Monk skipper (Peninsular Florida), palmetto skipper

Sennas

Senna spp.

Sulphurs

Shyleaf

Aeschynomene americana

Barred yellow

Sourwood

Oxydendrum arboreum

Summer spring azure (North Florida)

Spanish needles

Bidens alba

Dainty sulphur

Sparkleberry

Vaccinium arboreum

Striped hairstreak (North Florida)

Sticky jointvetch

Aeschynomene viscidula

Barred yellow

Strangler fig

Ficus aurea

Ruddy daggerwing (South Florida)

Sugarberry

Celtis laevigata

American snout, tawny emperor, hackberry emperor, question mark

Sweetbay magnolia

Magnolia virginiana

Tiger swallowtail (South Florida)

Ticktrefoil

Desmodium spp.

Gray hairstreak and various skippers, including longtailed skipper and cloudywings

Tulip tree

Liriodendron tulipifera

Tiger swallowtail (North Florida)

Twinflower

Dyschoriste oblongifolia

Common buckeye

Virginia peppergrass

Lepidium virginicum

Great southern white, checkered white

Water hemlock

Umbelliferae spp.

Black swallowtail

Wax myrtle

Myrica cerifera

Redbanded hairstreak

White clover

Trifolium repens

Eastern tailed-blue (North Florida)

White swamp milkweed

Asclepias perennis

Monarch, queen

White sweetclover

Melilotus albus

Orange sulphur

Wild canna

Cannas spp.

Brazilian skipper

Wild cherry

Prunus serotina

Tiger swallowtail

Redspotted purple (North Florida)

Wild lime

Zanthoxylum fagara

Giant swallowtail

Willow

Salix spp.

Viceroy

Wisteria

Wisteria frutescens

Longtailed and silverspotted skippers

Note: For photos of the butterflies and to make a field identification sheet, go to www.flmnh.ufl.edu/WINGS and click on "Everything Butterfly."

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENH1160, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date May 2010. Reviewed September 2013. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Kathy C. Malone, state builder and developer coordinator, Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Program; Wendy Wilber, environmental horticulture Extension agent; Gail Hansen, assistant professor, Environmental Horticulture Department; Jaret C. Daniels, assistant professor, Department of Entomology and Nematology; Claudia Larsen, senior biological scientist, Environmental Horticulture Department; and Esen Momol, director, Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Program, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.