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Publication #ENH1250

Biology and Management of Hairy Bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta) in Ornamental Crop Production1

Chris Marble, Shawn Steed, and Nathan S. Boyd2

Species Description

Class: Dicotyledonous plant

Family: Brassicaceae (mustard family)

Other Common Names: Lamb’s cress, spring cress, wood cress, flickweed

Life Span: Winter annual but can persist year-round in moist, shaded environments

Habitat: Occurs in disturbed areas; shores of rivers, lakes, swamps and wetlands; in greenhouses, container pads, growing media, and nursery pots. It is most often found in irrigated or shaded areas but can grow in full sun.

Distribution: Hairy bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta) is native to Europe and Western Asia and has been introduced and naturalized throughout much of the United States and the world, including parts of Eastern Asia, Africa, and Australia (Clapham, Tutin, and Moore 1987; USDA NRCS 2014).

Growth Habit: Dense basal rosette or upright growth habit (Figure 1).

Figure 1. 

Bittercress with clumping growth habit in loropetalum cuttings.


Credit:

Chris Marble


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Seedling: Cotyledons are small, round, and yellowish-green in color. The first true leaves are simple and slightly lobed (Figure 2).

Figure 2. 

Bittercress in cotyledon to one-leaf growth stage.


Credit:

Chris Marble


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Shoot: Stems are usually 3 to 8 inches long and often reddish to purple in color toward the base of the plant and becoming greener up the stem (Figure 3). Leaves are alternately arranged on the stem, compound, may be lobed or slightly serrated, often club-shaped, and generally on the lower portion of the stem forming a basal rosette.

Figure 3. 

Mature bittercress. Note purplish color and leaves forming a basal rosette at the bottom of the stem.


Credit:

Shawn Steed


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Roots: Fibrous

Inflorescence: Occurs at the top of the stem in clusters called racemes. Individual flowers are white with four petals and can have either four, five, or six stamens.

Fruit and Seeds: Small brown to black seed are produced in pods called siliques, which are cylindrical or cigar shaped, and up to 1 inch long. The fruit is dry and when mature it splits open and forcibly expels seeds up to 6 feet (Figure 4).

Figure 4. 

Bittercress seed capsules.


Credit:

Shawn Steed


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Similar Species: Several species of bittercress are common weeds in ornamental production. Pennsylvania bittercress (Cardamine pensylvanica) is a native species that is similar in appearance but often has fewer basal leaves and always has six stamens in the flower. Small-flowered bittercress (Cardamine parviflora), also called sand bittercress, is another similar species that can be distinguished from others by smaller leaves and growth habit and by its preference for drier habitats.

Plant Biology

Bittercress occurs throughout the year in Florida in shaded and moist areas but is most problematic in the fall through the spring during cooler temperatures, which are more favorable for germination and growth. One bittercress plant can produce five thousand seeds (Bachman and Whitwell 1994) which have no dormancy requirement and can germinate quickly. In cases where environmental conditions are not conducive to germination, bittercress seed can remain viable in the soil or potting for several years. Bittercress seeds are small and sticky when wet, making them prone to sticking to the sides of empty containers or being transported on shoes or clothing of nursery employees. Upon germination, bittercress can reach maturity and begin flowering and seeding in as little as five weeks under favorable conditions. Bittercress is a known host for other common nursery pests including whiteflies, mites, and some diseases (Neal and Derr 2005).

Management

Physical and Cultural Control

Bittercress commonly grows in the potting media of container-grown ornamentals and often through drainage holes in nursery containers (Figure 5). It also can be a problem in propagation houses, greenhouses, and in the field. Bittercress prefers moist environments, but reducing irrigation is often impractical in a container production setting. Hand weed plants before they reach the flowering stage, as seeds can be dispersed by hand contact. Remove the pulled plants from the area and dispose, as they can continue dispersing seeds even when removed from the soil. Control bittercress in non-crop areas by mowing (when seeds are not present), and using densely growing groundcovers or a gravel layer to improve drainage and reduce germination. Coarse-textured mulches at depths of three inches or more also can reduce germination in nursery containers (Richardson et al. 2008). Inspect new plant shipments for bittercress infestations prior to potting or transplanting, as it is a common weed in propagation greenhouses. Sanitation is critical to prevent the germination and spread of bittercress in ornamental production. Ensuring that reused nursery containers are washed and free of debris can significantly reduce the number bittercress seedlings in nursery containers (Bachman and Whitwell 1994).

Figure 5. 

Bittercress growing out of drain hole in a nursery container.


Credit:

Annette Chandler


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Chemical Control

Preemergence

Bittercress is effectively controlled with most preemergence herbicides. However, containers must be weed-free prior to application, as these products generally do not work on emerged plants. While these products do provide control, bittercress continues to be a difficult weed to control due the number of seeds produced as well as its fast germination and growth throughout the year. Table 1 includes a partial list of preemergence herbicides labeled for control in and around ornamentals. The only preemergence herbicide labeled for use inside greenhouses is indaziflam (Marengo®, OHP, Inc.), a new active ingredient for nursery production. Marengo® is labeled for use on greenhouse floors, but greenhouses should be empty during application. Ornamentals can be placed back inside 24 hours after treatment. Marengo® can be tank-mixed with many different postemergence herbicides such as RoundUp® (glyphosate) to control existing weeds.

Postemergence

There are many different postemergence products that are effective on bittercress and can be used in non-crop areas or in landscapes or fields as a directed application. Effective active ingredients include glyphosate (RoundUp®), glufosinate (Finale®), diquat (Reward®), and pelargonic acid (Scythe®), among many others. The spray formulation of flumioxazin (SureGuard®) can provide both pre- and postemergence control, but it is labeled only as a directed application. Both systemic and contact herbicides will provide effective control, though thorough coverage is needed for contact herbicides such as diquat or pelargonic acid. Very few products are labeled for use over the top of ornamentals in production or in the landscape. However, research has shown that the preemergence herbicide isoxaben (Gallery®) can provide early postemergence control to small bittercress less than 2.5 inches tall before flowering (Altland, Gilliam, and Olive 1999). When using any herbicide, always consult the manufacturer’s label and follow all precautions.

Disclaimer: Mention of a commercial or herbicide brand name or chemical does not constitute a recommendation or warranty of the product by the authors or the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, nor does it imply its approval to the exclusion of other products that may also be suitable. Products should be used according to label instructions and safety equipment required on the label and by federal or state law should be employed. Pesticide registrations may change, so it is the responsibility of the user to ascertain if a pesticide is registered by the appropriate state and federal agencies for its intended use.

References

Altland, J. E., C. H. Gilliam, and J. W. Olive. 1999. “Bittercress Size Influences Postemergence Control from Gallery.” Proc. Sothern Nurs. Assoc. Res. Conf. 44:378–380.

Bachman, G. and T. Whitwell. 1994. “Hairy Bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta) Seed Production and Dispersal in the Propagation of Landscape Plants.” Proc. Southern Nurs. Assoc. Res. Conf. 39:299–302.

Clapham, A. R., T. G. Tutin, and D. M. Moore. 1987. Flora of the British Isles, 3rd edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Neal, J. C., and J. F. Derr. 2005. Weeds of container nurseries in the United States. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Assoc. of Nurserymen, Inc.

Richardson, B., C. H. Gilliam, G. Fain, and G. Wehtje. 2008. “Container Nursery Weed Control with Pinebark Mini-Nuggets.” Journal of Environmental Horticulture 26:144–148.

USDA National Resources Conservation Service. 2014. The PLANTS database. http://plants.usda.gov.

Tables

Table 1. 

Preemergence herbicides labeled for use in ornamental plant production and landscapes to control hairy bittercress.

Common Name (active ingredient)

Example trade name and formulation

WSSA Herbicide Group

Efficacy

Container production

Field production

Greenhouse or fully enclosed structures

Landscape

dithiopyr

Dimension® 2EW

3

S-C

YES

YES

NO

YES

oryzalin

Surflan® 4AS

3

C

YES

YES

NO

YES

Oryzalin 4 Pro

3

C

YES

YES

NO

YES

pendimethalin

Pendulum® 2G

3

P-S

YES

YES

NO

YES

Pendulum® 3.3EC, 3.8AC

YES

YES

NO

YES

prodiamine

Barricade® 4FL, 65 WG

3

P-S

YES

YES

NO

YES

trifluralin

Treflan 5G

3

S

YES

YES

NO

YES

simizine

Simizine 4L

5

S

YES

YES

NO

YES

flumioxazin

Broadstar™ 0.25G

14

C

YES

YES

NO

YES

SureGuard® 51WDG

YES

YES

NO

YES

oxadiazon

Ronstar® 2G

14

C

YES

YES

NO

YES

oxyfluorfen

Goal® 2XL (EC)

14

C

YES

YES

NO

NO

dimethenamid-p

Tower® 6EC

15

C

YES

YES

NO

YES

s-metolachlor

Pennant Magnum® 7.6 EC

15

S

YES

YES

NO

YES

dichlobenil

Casoron® 4G

20

C

NO

YES

NO

YES

isoxaben

Gallery® 75DF, 4.16SC

21

C

YES

YES

NO

YES

indaziflam

Marengo® 0.622 SC

29

C

NO

YES

YES

NO

Marengo® 0.0224G

YES

YES

NO

NO

benefin + oryzalin

XL 2G

3 + 3

S-C

YES

YES

NO

YES

pendimethalin + dimethenamid-p

FreeHand® 1.75G

3 + 15

C

YES

YES

NO

YES

trifluralin + isoxaben

Snapshot® 2.5TG

3 + 21

C

YES

YES

NO

YES

prodiamine + isoxaben

Gemini

3 + 21

C

YES

YES

NO

NO

oxadiazon + pendimethalin

Jewel® 3.25G

14 + 3

C

YES

YES

NO

YES

oxadiazon + prodiamine

RegalStar® II

14 + 3

C

YES

YES

NO

YES

oxyfluorfen + oryzalin

Rout® 3G

14 + 3

C

YES

YES

NO

YES

oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin

OH2® 3G

14 + 3

C

YES

YES

NO

YES

oxyfluorfen + prodiamine

Biathlon® 2.75G

14 + 3

C

YES

YES

NO

YES

oxyfluofen + trifluralin

Granular Herbicide 75 5G

14 + 3

C

YES

YES

NO

YES

oxyfluorfen + oxadiazon

Double O™ 3G

14 + 14

C

YES

YES

NO

YES

trifluralin + isoxaben + oxyfluorfen

Showcase® 2.5G

3 + 21 + 14

C

YES

YES

NO

YES

1Herbicide groups are based according to primary sites of action and can be used to select herbicides that have differing sites of action (Weed Technology 17:605-619 [2003])

so as to minimize the potential for the development of herbicide resistant weeds.

2P = poor control; S = suppression, C = good control.

3Can only be used in selected conifer and deciduous tree species. Check manufacturer's label for a complete list of species and recommended application methods.

4Can be applied as a directed application around established woody landscape ornamentals. 5Marengo 0.622 SC can be used in pot-in-pot container ornamentals as a directed application only. Specticle™ is labeled for use in landscapes.

6Labeled for use on greenhouse floors prior to plant production. Plants can be placed back inside greenhouse 24 hours after application.

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENH1250, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date December 2014. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Chris Marble, assistant professor, Mid-Florida REC, Apopka, FL; Shawn Steed, environmental horticulture production Extension agent, Seffner, FL; and Nathan S. Boyd, assistant professor, Gulf Coast REC, Wimauma, FL; UF/IFAS Extension.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow directions on the manufacturer's label.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.