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Publication #FE472

The Current Restructuring of Cuba's Sugar Agroindustry1

José Alvarez2

Introduction

After remaining a leading world sugar producer for most of the twentieth century, Cuba's sugar agroindustry is currently undergoing a radical transformation. In spite of the interest that the process has generated outside of Cuba, very few details about its scope and impacts are known. The objective of this fact sheet is to partially fill that gap.

The Restructuring Process

The Underlying Reasons

On April 10, 2002, the Cuban government announced that about half of Cuba's 156 sugar mills would be closed permanently as part of a restructuring process. Such a radical decision had to come from the very top of the Cuban leadership. In a 2003 speech, Cuba's Vice-President Lage stated that: “as we advance on this task, we understand better Fidel's vision when he decided to close 70 mills and start this profound and broad transformation” (Varela Pérez, 2003). Reasons for such a drastic measure included depressed prices and a negative outlook for the world sugar market, and Cuba's sugar agroindustry's existing excess capacity, well above current and future needs.

The restructuring (or re-dimensioning, or reconversion, or rationalization as it is also called) has three general objectives:

  1. to achieve efficiency and competitiveness in sugarcane and sugar production.

  2. to increase food production through agricultural and industrial diversification.

  3. to develop a sustainable agriculture, supported by knowledge and human capital.

General Overview

The restructuring program was named the “Alvaro Reynoso Task” in honor of a famous Cuban scientist of the mid-1800s whose sugarcane recommendations are still being followed in many areas of the world. According to the Cuban Minister of Sugar (Rosales del Toro, 2002, pp. 4–5), the implementation would encompass the following tasks:

  • From the existing 156 sugar mills, 71 will produce raw sugar; 14 will produce raw sugar and molasses intended for animal feed; and the remaining 71 will be deactivated, whereby 5 will be converted into museums, 5 will remain idle, and 61 will be dismantled (Tables 1 and 2).

  • Sugar production from sugarcane will occupy 700,000 hectares of the best soils, with the goal of achieving crop yields of 54 metric tons per hectare from harvests lasting only 90–100 days.

  • Molasses production from sugarcane will occupy 127,344 hectares.

  • Sugar production will be geared towards satisfying a domestic need of 700,000 tons, fulfilling trade agreements, and accessing the market when prices are favorable.

  • Extensive soil testing will be conducted on lands taken out of sugarcane production (1,378,000 hectares) to determine what areas will be devoted to mixed crops, livestock, fruit trees, and forestry. This program began in 1998 (MINAZ, 1999).

Deactivating the sugar mills displaced 213,000 workers, who have either retired or moved into other productive tasks—23,540 workers (58%) remain in the ministry's enterprises; 42,600 workers (20%) are full-time students; 21,300 workers (10%) have moved into non-sugar agricultural production; 17,040 workers (8%) have retired or gone into some other type of business; and 8,520 workers (4%) are working full-time dismantling the inactive sugar mills (Peters, 2003, p. 9). The surplus workers who opted for full-time study continue to receive their paychecks during the retraining process.

The Cuban Minister of Sugar has stated publicly that the remaining sugar mills will be open to foreign investment (Frank, 2002a). The first mill to benefit from foreign financing, according to the Associated Press (2002), was the “Paraguay” in the oriental province of Guantánamo. Peters (2003, p. 11) reported that 10 joint ventures have been formed with foreign investors (where the foreign investor owns part of the business and shares profits), and 15 cooperative production agreements have been reached (where the foreign partner contracts to assist production and earns a share of revenues, without ownership). The joint ventures include alcohol production (Spain), chemicals (Mexico), and specialty papers (Italy).

Scope and Regional Impact

The numbers mentioned above, however, do not tell the whole story. A few calculations from the official Cuban data shown in Tables 1 and 2 help to better understand the magnitude of the current transformation and its regional impacts. For example, by reducing the number of raw mills from 156 to 85 (a 45.5% decrease), total daily grinding capacity declined from 647,200 to 404,700 metric tons (a 37.5% decrease), whereas average milling capacity went from 4,149 to 4,761 metric tons per mill (a 14.7% increase).

With minor exceptions (due perhaps to the location of mills within important sugarcane production areas), the goal of eliminating small, inefficient factories appears to have been fulfilled. Of the 66 mills that are being dismantled or converted into museums, the majority had less than 3,000 metric tons grinding capacity.

Although all the provinces have been impacted to some degree, a few have seen their sugar industries shrink considerably. Examples include Matanzas, La Habana, Villa Clara, and Cienfuegos, which have seen their number of mills decreasing to 38%, 40%, 46%, and 58%, respectively, of what they were before the restructuring process.

While Cuba lists 400,000 workers in its sugar agroindustry, the methodology used to develop that figure has never been explained. Regardless of the exact number of people working in Cuba's largest industry, the impact is by no means small. Shortly after the announcement was officially made, Cuba's President Castro himself had to address the nation to calm the worries of those who were about to lose their jobs (Frank, 2002b). However, the nation's fear was well founded since Cuba's raw sugar mills are located in 100 of its 169 municipalities. This means that almost 100,000 displaced workers need to be retrained. While displaced workers receiving retraining will probably not be impacted too much, workers engaged in indirect activities will feel the repercussions of this process for a long time.

Final Thoughts

The current restructuring process has just begun. It is obvious that an effort of this magnitude will require periodic adjustments, which has created a debate over other alternatives. For example, Almazán del Olmo (2002, p. 98) states that Cuba's sugar agroindustry should embody:

  • a close relationship among production, marketing, distribution, education, and scientific research.

  • the application of scientific knowledge and technological innovations.

  • a production oriented to the different market segments.

  • a diversified production, with the objective of increasing the value added of products and byproducts.

  • wider labor profiles and more effective incentive mechanisms.

  • flexibility to meet changing market conditions.

Some world sugar specialists have reacted with some degree of skepticism concerning a successful outcome (Licht, 2002). Nobody, however, questions the need for restructuring Cuba's sugar agroindustry (Alvarez and Peña Castellanos, 2001, pp. 91–106). While the current plan being implemented appears to be appropriate, questions remain unanswered or have not been adequately addressed. For example,

  • the methodology used in selecting the best lands and most efficient mills to remain in production has not been explained (Was it based on economic criteria?).

  • the procedure followed for the clustering of lands and mills once the previous selection was completed also has not been explained.

  • no rationale has been advanced for how agricultural yields are going to almost double in just 2 years to reach 54 metric tons per hectare when they have been depressed for so many years with no apparent solution in sight.

  • although 4 million tons have been mentioned a few times, a definite sugar production goal has not been provided (How much sugar is going to be produced? What types of current trade commitments were chosen to target output?). This means that external demand may have been underestimated.

  • diversification efforts have not been adequately addressed. Most of the emphasis seems to be concentrated on food production on former sugarcane lands. Little has been said about new developments in by-products, derivatives, and energy that would increase Cuba's sugar agroindustry's efficiency and competitiveness.

  • no concrete plans on how Cuba's sugar sector is going to regain its profitability have been announced. A recent report analyzing the performance of the Basic Units of Cooperative Production in their first 10 years of operation (1993-2003) shows that more than half of these units are still unprofitable (MINAZ, 2003, p. 7).

  • Cuban Minister Rosales del Toro has stated that having more than 1 million hectares available for organopónicos and intensive gardens, mixed crops, beef and milk livestock development, and fruits is an enviable goal in today's world (Varela Pérez, 2003). This goal will require a tremendous effort that could very well divert resources and attention from the restructuring tasks.

The final concern involves the potential neglect of the restructuring process after the big push of the first years of implementation. It has happened with other gigantic plans and projects undertaken by the Cuban government (Alvarez, 2004). Even if the process is completed, it is doubtful that the Cuban sugar agroindustry will be able to switch back to higher levels of sugar output (as is done in Brazil) when world prices call for such a move.

The current restructuring has ended decades of internal debate concerning the role of sugar in the Cuban economy. However, despite depressed cyclical world sugar prices (which are not a new phenomenon anyway), the law of comparative advantage dictates that Cuba should remain a top world sugar producer. Lack of incentives has been identified as a key factor hindering the achievement of higher levels of productivity and economic efficiency. Perhaps that should be a priority area if Cuba's sugar agroindustry is to regain its former competitiveness.

References

Almazán del Olmo, Oscar. 2002. Viabilidad del Proyecto Azucarero Cubano (Feasibility of Cuba's sugar project). Revista Bimestre Cubana (Epoca III) XCII (17, July–December): 92–105.

Alvarez, José. 2004. Cuba's Agricultural Sector. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. In Press.

Alvarez, José and Lázaro Peña Castellanos. 2001. Cuba's Sugar Industry. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.

Associated Press. 2002. Reconvierten ingenio azucarero cubano con financiamiento externo (Cuban sugar mill is restructured with foreign financing). Havana, Cuba, November 8.

Frank, Marc. 2002a. Cuba will downsize sugar industry by 50 pct - minister. Transmission and Distribution World, June 18. http://tdworld.com/ar/agriculture_cuba_downsize_sugar/index.htm.

Frank, Marc. 2002b. Castro moves to calm Cuban sugar industry's worries. Forbes, October 22. http://www.forbes.com/business/newswire/2002/10/22/rtr761254.html.

Licht, F.O. 2002. Cuba seeks to revamp its sugar industry. International Sugar and Sweetener Report 134 (20): 309, 311–314.

MINAZ. 1999. Diversificación – Bases del Proceso de Perfeccionamiento del Complejo Agroindustrial Azucarero (Diversification - Basis of the process of improvement of the agroindustrial complex). La Habana, Cuba: Ministry of Sugar.

MINAZ. 2003. Informe Resumen de los Resultados Alcanzados por las UBPC Cañeras en el Período 1993-2003 (Summary report of the sugarcane UBPCs results in the 1993-2003 period). La Habana, Cuba: Ministry of Sugar and National Syndicate of Sugar Workers, October 31.

Peters, Philip. 2003. Cutting Losses: Cuba Downsizes its Sugar Industry. Washington, DC: Lexington Institute, December. http://www.lexingtoninstitute.org/cutting-losses-cuba-downsizes-its-sugar-industry.

Rosales del Toro, Ulises.2002. Intervención del Ministro del Azúcar a los Embajadores Extranjeros en Cuba Sobre la Restructuración del MINAZ (Oral presentation of the Minister of Sugar to foreign ambassadors in Cuba about MINAZ's restructuring). La Habana, December 5. Mimeo Report.

Varela Pérez, Juan. 2003. Restructuración Azucarera: El Compromiso de Dar Uso a las Tierras que Pasan a Otros Cultivos (Sugar restructuring: The commitment to use the lands transferred to other crops). Granma, October 25, 2003. http://www.granma.cu.

Tables

Table 1. 

Cuban mills after the 2002 restructuring process.

No.

Current Name

Former Name

Municipality

Grinding Capacity

(mt/day)a

Fate

Pinar del Río

102

Harlem

Bahía Honda

Bahía Honda

2,300

Sugar

106

Manuel Sanguily

Niágara

La Palma

2,000

Sugar/Molasses

107

Pablo de la Torriente Brau

Orozco

Bahía Honda

3,000

Dismantled

108

José Marti

San Cristóbal

San Cristóbal

3,000

Dismantledb

110

Treinta de Noviembre

New (1980)

San Cristóbal

6,000

Sugar

La Habana

101

Abraham Lincoln

Andorra

Artemisa

4,000

Sugar

103

Eduardo Garcia Lavandero

El Pilar

Artemisa

4,000

Dismantled

105

Angusto César Sandino

Mercedita

Mariel

2,000

Dismantled

109

Orlando Nodarse

San Ramon

Mariel

3,000

Dismantled

201

Amistad con los Pueblos

Amistad

Güines

3,000

Dismantled

202

Cdte. Manuel Fajardo

Fajardo

Quivicán

3,000

Sugar/Molasses

203

Héctor Molina Riaño

Gómez Mena

San Nicolás

7,000

Sugar

204

Habana Libre

Habana

Caimito

2,000

Sugar

205

Camilo Cienfuegos

Hershey

Santa Cruz del Norte

6,000

Dismantled

206

Manuel Isla

Josefita

Nueva Paz

2,000

Dismantled

207

Gregorio Arleé Mañalich

Mercedita

Melena del Sur

4,000

Sugar

208

Pablo Noriega

Occidente

Quivicán

1,200

Dismantled

210

Osvaldo Sánchez

Prividencia

Güines

3,000

Dismantled

211

Rubén Martínez Villena

Rosario

Madruga

3,000

Dismantled

212

Boris Luis de Santa Coloma

San Antonio

Madruga

3,000

Sugar

Ciudad de la Habana

213

Manuel Martínez Prieto

Toledo

Marianao

5,000

Refinery/Museum

Matanzas

301

México

Alava

Colón

6,000

Sugar

302

Reynold García

Araujo

Calimete

3,000

Dismantled

303

Australia

Australia

Jagüey Grande

3,000

Dismantled

304

Granma

Carolina

Jovellanos

3,000

Dismantled

305

Puerto Rico Libre

Conchita

Unión de Reyes

5,000

Dismantled

306

Cuba Libre

Cuba

Pedro Betancourt

6,000

Sugar/Molasses

307

Jaime López

Dolores

Jovellanos

2,000

Dismantled

308

Humberto Alvarez

Dos Rosas

Cárdenas

2,000

Dismantled

310

España Republicana

España

Perico

8,000

Sugar

311

Esteban Hernández

Guipúzcoa

Martí

3,000

Sugar/Molasses

312

Fructuoso Rodríguez

Limones

Limonar

3,000

Dismantled

313

Seis de Agosto

Mercedes

Calimete

6,000

Dismantled

314

Jesús Rabí

Porfuerza

Calimete

3,000

Sugar

315

José Smith Comas

Progreso

Cárdenas

3,000

Museum

318

Victoria de Yaguajay

Santa Amalia

Jovellanos

2,600

Dismantled

319

René Fraga

Santa Rita

Colón

2,600

Sugar

320

Juan Avila

Santo Domingo

Unión de Reyes

2,600

Sugar

321

Julio Reyes Cairo

Soledad

Jovellanos

2,600

Dismantled

322

Sergio González

Tinguaro

Colón

4,800

Dismantled

323

Horacio Rodríguez

Triunfo

Limonar

2,000

Dismantled

324

Mario Muñoz Monroyc

New (1986)

Los Arabos

5,400

Sugar

Villa Clara

401

Heriberto Duquesne

Adela

Remedios

2,500

Sugar/Molasses

405

Luis Arcos Bergnes

Carmita

Camajuaní

2,000

Dismantled

407

Abel Santamaría

Constancia "E"

Encrucijada

2,600

Sugar

408

Mariana Grajales

Corazón de Jesús

Cifuentes

2,000

Dismantled

411

José Maria Pérez

Fe

Camajuaní

4,000

Sugar

412

Juan Pedro Carbó Serviá

Fidencia

Placetas

2,300

Reserve

415

Braulio Coroneaux

Macagua

Cifuentes

2,000

Dismantled

417

Veintiséis de Julio

María Antonia

Santo Domingo

2,000

Dismantled

420

Emilio Córdova

Nazábal

Encrucijada

2,700

Dismantled

423

Osvaldo Herrera

Pastora

Ranchuelo

2,700

Dismantled

426

Perucho Figueredo

Purio

Encrucijada

4,000

Sugar/Molasses

427

Quintín Banderas

Ramona

Corralillo

4,300

Sugar

428

Marcelo Salado

Reforma

Caibarién

2,600

Museum

429

José Ramón Riquelme

Resolución

Quemado de Güines

2,000

Dismantled

430

Antonio Finalet

Resulta

Sagua la Grande

3,200

Dismantled

432

Chiquitico Fabregat

San Agustin "R"

Remedios

2,500

Sugar

434

Panchito Gómez Toro

San Isidro

Quemado de Güines

3,700

Sugar

435

Hermanos Ameijeiras

San José

Placetas

2,800

Dismantled

437

Carlos Caraballo

Santa Catalina

Ranchuelo

2,600

Dismantled

439

El Vaquerito

Santa Lutgarda

Cifuentes

2,300

Sugar

440

Efraín Alfonso

Santa María

Ranchuelo

3,000

Sugar

441

Diez de Octubre

Santa Rosa

Ranchuelo

2,600

Sugar

442

Héctor Rodríguez

Santa Teresa

Sagua la Grande

4,600

Sugar

446

Carlos Baliño

Ulacia

Santo Domingo

2,200

Sugar

447

Unidad Proletaria

Unidad

Cifuentes

2,000

Dismantled

449

George Washington

Washington

Santo Domingo

4,000

Sugar

450

Benito Juárez

Zaza

Placetas

2,500

Dismantled

460

Batalla de Santa Clara

New (1986)

Camajuaní

6,000

Reserve

Cienfuegos

403

Mal Tiempo

Andreíta

Cruces

3,000

Sugar

404

Ciudad Caracas

Caracas

Lajas

4,000

Sugar

406

Guillermo Moncada

Constancia "A"

Abreus

3,700

Sugar

409

Antonio Sánchez

Covadonga

Aguada de Pasajeros

3,600

Sugar

413

Espartaco

Hormiguero

Palmira

3,800

Dismantled

416

Catorce de Julio

Manuelita

Rodas

3,000

Sugar

424

Primero de Mayo

Perseverancia

Aguada de Pasajeros

3,600

Dismantled

425

Elpidio Gómez

Portugalete

Palmira

2,600

Sugar

431

Ramón Balboa

San Agustín "L"

Lajas

3,800

Dismantled

433

Martha Abreu

San Francisco

Cruces

2,000

Reserve

443

Pepito Tey

Soledad

Cienfuegos

2,400

Dismantled

456

Cinco de Septiembre

New (1981)

Rodas

7,000

Sugar

Sancti Spíritus

414

Remberto Abad Alemán

La Vega

Cabaiguán

2,000

Dismantled

418

Obdulio Morales

Narcisa

Yaguajay

2,200

Sugar/Molasses

419

Siete de Noviembre

Natividad

La Sierpe

2,000

Dismantled

421

Aracelio Iglesias

Nela

Yaguajay

2,000

Dismantled

438

Ramón Ponciano

Santa Isabel

Fomento

2,500

Sugar

444

FNTA

Trinidad

Trinidad

4,000

Sugar/Molasses

445

Melanio Hernández

Tuinicú

Taguasco

4,600

Sugar

448

Simón Bolívar

Victoria

Yaguajay

2,200

Dismantled

512

Uruguay

Jatibonico

Jatibonico

13,800

Sugar

Ciego de Avila

501

Enrique Varona González

Adelaida

Chambas

5,500

Sugar

503

Orlando González

Algodones

Majagua

5,200

Sugar

504

Ecuador

Baraguá

Baraguá

10,400

Sugar

506

Bolivia

Cunagua

Bolivia

5,000

Dismantled

515

Ciro Redondo

Morón

Ciro Redondo

11,600

Sugar

517

Patria o Muerte

Patria

Morón

2,500

Museum

518

Máximo Gómez

Punta Alegre

Chambas

6,000

Dismantled

522

Venezuela

Stewart

Venezula

11,600

Sugar

524

Primero de Enero

Violeta

Primero de Enero

8,700

Sugar

Camagüey

502

Ignacio Agramonte

Agramonte

Florida

4,600

Sugar

505

Carlos M. de Céspedes

Céspedes

Carlos M. de Céspedes

4,500

Sugar

508

República Dominicana

Estrella

Carlos M. de Céspedes

5,000

Dismantled

509

Argentina

Florida

Florida

3,300

Sugar

511

Brasil

Jaronú

Esmeralda

10,600

Sugar/Molasses

513

Sierra de Cubitas

Lugareño

Minas

6,300

Sugar

514

Haití

Macareño

Sta. Cruz del Sur

5,000

Dismantled

516

Alfredo Alvarez Mola

Najasa

Sibanicú

2,100

Dismantled

519

Cándido González

Santa Marta

Sta. Cruz del Sur

6,000

Sugar

520

Noel Fernández

Senado

Minas

5,000

Reserve

521

Siboney

Siboney

Sibanicú

2,000

Sugar/Molasses

523

Panamá

Vertientes

Vertientes

10,600

Sugar

525

Jesús Suárez Gayol

New (1983)

Sta. Cruz del Sur

7,000

Reserve

530

Batalla de las Guásimas

New (1980)

Vertientes

7,000

Sugar

Las Tunas

507

Colombia

Elia

Colombia

4,600

Sugar

510

Amancio Rodríguez

Francisco

Amancio

7,400

Sugar/Molasses

610

Jesús Menéndez

Chaparra

Jesús Menéndez

9,200

Sugar

611

Antonio Guiteras

Delicias

Puerto Padre

12,200

Sugar

618

Perú

Jobabo

Jobabo

10,300

Dismantled

622

Argelia Libre

Manatí

Manatí

9,200

Dismantled

642

Majibacoa

New (1987)

Majibacoa

4,800

Sugar

Holguín

602

Loynaz Hechevarría

Alto Cedro

Cueto

3,800

Sugar

604

López Peña

Báguanos

Báguanos

4,000

Sugar

607

Nicaragua

Boston

Banes

8,000

Sugar/Molasses

608

Cristino Naranjo

Cacocum

Cacocum

6,400

Sugar

621

Antonio Maceo

Maceo

Cacocum

5,200

Sugar

626

Guatemala

Preston

Mayarí

13,000

Dismantled

631

Urbano Noris

San Germán

Urbano Noris

4,000

Sugar

635

Rafael Freyre

Santa Lucía

Rafael Freyre

3,600

Museum

639

Fernando de Dios

Tacajó

Báguanos

3,600

Sugar

640

Frank País

Tánamo

Frank País

3,500

Dismantled

Granma

609

Luis Enrique Carracedo

Cape Cruz

Pilón

2,000

Dismantled

612

Francisco Castro Ceruto

Dos Amigos

Campechuela

2,100

Dismantled

615

Bartolomé Masó

Estrada Palma

Bartolomé Masó

3,400

Sugar

616

Juan Manuel Márquez

Isabel "B"

Media Luna

6,800

Sugar

620

Arquímides Colina

Mabay

Bayamo

2,400

Sugar

624

Roberto Ramírez Delgado

Niquero

Niquero

3,500

Sugar

627

José Nemesio Figueredo

Río Cauto

Río Cauto

4,700

Dismantled

629

La Demajagua

Salvador

Manzanillo

2,300

Dismantled

636

Enidio Díaz Machado

Santa Regina

Campechuela

2,600

Sugar

637

Ranulfo Leyva

Sofía

Yara

3,000

Dismantled

650

Grito de Yara

New (1982)

Río Cauto

6,600

Sugar

Santiago de Cuba

601

Salvador Rosales

Algodonal

Songo-La Maya

1,700

Sugar

603

América Libre

América

Contramaestre

2,800

Sugar

605

Los Reynaldos

Baltony

Songo-La Maya

4,600

Sugar/Molasses

606

Paquito Rosales

Borjita

San Luis

2,700

Sugar

623

Julio Antonio Mella

Miranda

Mella

7,000

Sugar

625

Dos Ríos

Palma

Palma Soriano

4,600

Sugar

633

Chile

Santa Ana

San Luis

2,600

Sugar

641

Rafael Reyes

Unión

San Luis

1,800

Dismantled

Guantánamo

613

Costa Rica

Ermita

El Salvador

2,000

Dismantled

614

Argeo Martínez

Esperanza

Guantánamo

2,400

Sugar

617

Honduras

Isabel "G"

Guantánamo

2,000

Dismantled

619

Paraguay

Las Cañas

Guantánamo

2,000

Dismantled

630

Manuel Tames

San Antonio

Manuel Tames

1,200

Sugar

638

El Salvador

Soledad

El Salvador

2,500

Sugar/Molasses

a From Alvarez and Peña Castellanos (2001, pp. 123–127).

b The refinery is being annexed to the Treinta de Noviembre Mill.

c A mill with same name (formerly, Zorrilla) was dismantled in 1962 in same municipality and province.

Source: MINAZ (Cuba's Sugar Ministry).

Table 2. 

Active and deactived sugar mills, 2003.

Province

Active Mills

Deactivated Mills

Total Mills

 

Sugar

Sugar/

Molasses

Dismantled

Museum

Reserve

Active and Deactived

 

#

Capacitya

#

Cap.

#

Cap.

#

Cap.

#

Cap.

#

Capacity

Pinar del Río

2

8,300

1

2,000

2

6,000

0

N/Ab

0

N/A

5

16,300

La Habana

5

20,000

1

3,000

9

27,200

0

N/A

0

N/A

15

50,200

C. Habana

0

N/A

0

N/A

0

N/A

1c

5,000

0

N/A

1

5,000

Matanzas

6

27,600

2

9,000

12

39,000

1

3,000

0

N/A

21

78,600

Villa Clara

11

35,800

2

6,500

12

28,500

1

2,600

2

8,300

28

81,700

Cienfuegos

7

26,900

0

N/A

4

13,600

0

N/A

1

2,000

12

42,500

S. Spíritus

3

20,900

2

6,200

4

8,200

0

N/A

0

N/A

9

35,300

C. de Avila

6

53,000

0

N/A

2

11,000

1

2,500

0

N/A

9

66,500

Camagüey

7

42,300

2

12,600

3

12,100

0

N/A

2

12,000

14

79,000

Las Tunas

4

30,800

1

7,400

2

19,500

0

N/A

0

N/A

7

57,700

Holguín

6

27,000

1

8,000

2

16,500

1

3,600

0

N/A

10

55,100

Granma

6

25,300

0

N/A

5

14,100

0

N/A

0

N/A

11

39,400

S. de Cuba

6

21,400

1

4,600

1

1,800

0

N/A

0

N/A

8

27,800

Guantánamo

2

3,600

1

2,500

3

6,000

0

N/A

0

N/A

6

12,100

Total

71

342,900

14

61,800

61

203,500

5

16,700

5

22,300

156

647,200

a Daily grinding capacity in metric tons per day.

b N/A = Not Applicable.

c Refinery was incorporated to the 30 de Noviembre Mill.

Source: Calculated from Table 1.

Footnotes

1.

This document is FE472, one of a series of the Food and Resource Economics Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date January 2004. Revised August 2009. Reviewed April 2016. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

José Alvarez, professor, Department of Food and Resource Economics, UF/IFAS Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade, FL.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.