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Publication #FSHN11-06

Shopping for Health: Vegetarian Diets1

Lauren Foster and Wendy J. Dahl2

A Healthy Choice: Vegetarianism

Well-balanced vegetarian diets can be nutritious and provide a variety of health benefits. Vegetarians are less likely to develop chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and certain cancers (Melina, Craig, and Levin 2016).

There are several types of vegetarian diets. Lacto-ovo vegetarians eat animal products such as eggs and milk in addition to plant foods. Lacto-vegetarians include milk but not eggs in their diets, and ovo-vegetarians include eggs but not milk. Vegans are vegetarians that do not allow any animal products in their diet.

Health Implications

Vegetarians are at higher risk for several nutrient deficiencies, including iron, vitamin B12, calcium, and zinc. These deficiencies can be avoided with well-planned diets that incorporate a variety of fruits, vegetables, legumes, and dairy products. In addition, consumption of fortified foods may substantially increase the intake of many essential nutrients (Melina, Craig, and Levin 2016).

Figure 1. 

Juliadeb goes shopping.


Credit:

bricolage.108, used here under Creative Commons license CC BY-NC-SA 2.0. Source: http://flic.kr/p/fV4z3


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Vitamin B12

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin B12 is 2.4 micrograms (µg) per day for healthy adults (IOM 1998). Plant foods generally are not reliable sources of vitamin B12. Lacto-ovo vegetarians may get enough B12 from dairy sources, but vegans need to either eat foods enriched with vitamin B12 or take B12 supplements. Table 1 lists several vegetarian foods that are good sources of B12 (USDA 2017).

Calcium

Calcium is needed in the body for proper bone development and maintenance. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for healthy adults up to 50 years of age is 1,000 milligrams (mg) per day. Women over 50 and men over 70 should consume 1,200 mg of calcium per day (IOM 2010). Dairy products, leafy green vegetables, tofu, and dried fruit are all good sources of calcium for vegetarians. Many vegetarian foods are fortified with calcium. Table 2 lists vegetarian food options that are higher in calcium (USDA 2017).

Figure 2. 

Clockwise from left: raw kale shitake salad, kale with cranberries, preparing fresh kale for later use, kale salad with grapefruit.


Credit:

elenaspantry.com, and used here under Creative Commons license CC BY-NC-ND 2.0


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Iron

Iron is an essential nutrient for oxygen transport in the body. The RDA for iron is 8 mg per day for healthy adult males, and 18 mg for females. Pregnant females have increased needs for iron, with the RDA set at 27 mg per day (IOM 2001).

Vegetarians are at higher risk for iron deficiency because the body does not absorb iron from plant sources as efficiently as it can from meat sources (Melina, Craig, and Levin 2016). To enhance absorption, you should consume foods high in vitamin C (such as citrus fruits, tomatoes, or broccoli) along with iron-containing foods. Table 3 lists some iron-rich vegetarian foods (USDA 2017).

Zinc

Zinc is needed as a cofactor for numerous enzymes in the body. The RDA for zinc in healthy adults is 8 mg per day for females and 11 mg per day for males (IOM 2001). Like iron, zinc is not as readily absorbed from plant sources as it is from meat sources (Melina, Craig, and Levin 2016). Because of this, vegetarians are encouraged to consume levels greater than the set RDA. Whole grains, dry beans, and seeds are generally good sources of zinc. Table 4 lists several vegetarian foods and their zinc contents (USDA 2017).

Learn More

A UF/IFAS Extension Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) agent at your local office may have more written information, as well as nutrition classes for you to attend. Also, a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) can provide you with reliable food and nutrition information.

Endnotes

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B, Folate, Vitamin B, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Melina, V., W. Craig, and S. Levin. 2016. "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets." J Acad Nutr Diet 116 (12): 1970-1980. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2016.09.025.

US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2017. "National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 22." Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl.

Tables

Table 1. 

Food sources of vitamin B12.

FOOD

VITAMIN B12 (µg PER SERVING)

SOY PRODUCTS

Morningstar Farms® Grillers Burger Style Crumbles (1 cup)

8

Morningstar Farms® Grillers Original Patty (1 patty)

3

Morningstar Farms® Chik’n Nuggets (4 pieces)

2

CEREALS

Kellogg’s® Special K (1 cup), All-Bran Original (½ cup), Rice Krispies (1.25 cups), Raisin Bran (1 cup), Corn Flakes (1 cup), Frosted Flakes (3/4 cup), Apple Jacks (1 cup)

1–6

General Mills® Total Raisin Bran (1 cup), Cheerios (1 cup), Corn Chex (1 cup), Wheaties (3/4 cup)

5–11

DAIRY/EGG*

Swiss Cheese (¼ cup, shredded)

<1

Mozzarella Cheese, whole milk, shredded (¼ cup)

<1

Plain Yogurt, low fat (8 oz)

<1

Egg, hardboiled, large (1)

<1

µg=microgram, g=gram, oz=ounce

*Not included in vegan diets

Table 2. 

Food sources of calcium.

FOOD

CALCIUM (mg PER SERVING)

SOY PRODUCTS

Silk® Soymilk, plain (1 cup)

300

Soybeans, cooked (½ cup)

130

Morningstar Farms® Chik’n Nuggets (4 pieces)

64

Morningstar Farms® Grillers Original Burger Patty (1 patty)

39

CEREALS

General Mills® Total Raisin Bran (1 cup)

1000

General Mills® Kix (1.25 cups), Cinnamon Toast Crunch (3/4 cup), Cheerios (1 cup), Lucky Charms (3/4 cups), Corn Chex (1 cup)

100-171

Kellogg’s® All-Bran Original (1/2 cup)

121

VEGETABLES

Spinach, cooked (½ cup)

122

Turnip Greens, cooked (½ cup)

99

Kale (½ cup)

47

DAIRY/EGG*

Plain Yogurt, low fat (1/2 cup)

207

Reduced-fat 2% Milk (1 cup)

295

Swiss Cheese, 1 slice

200

Mozzarella Cheese, whole milk, shredded (¼ cup)

141

mg=milligram, g=gram, oz=ounce

*Not included in vegan diets

Table 3. 

Food sources of iron.

FOOD

IRON (mg PER SERVING)

SOY PRODUCTS

Morningstar Farms® Grillers Burger Style Crumbles (1 cup)

5

Morningstar Farms® Grillers Original Patty (1 patty)

3

Morningstar Farms® Chik’n Nuggets (4 pieces)

2

CEREALS AND GRAINS

General Mills® Total Raisin Bran (1 cup)

18

Kellogg’s® All-Bran Original (½ cup)

5

Kellogg’s® Mini-Wheats, unfrosted bite size (30 biscuits)

16

General Mills® Cheerios (1 cup), Corn Chex (1 cup), Kix (1 ¼ cups)

9–10

Kellogg’s® Rice Krispies (1 ¼ cups), Crispix (1 cup), Special K (1 cup), Corn Flakes (1 cup)

8–11

Wheat flour, enriched (1 cup)

6

White rice, cooked, enriched (½ cup)

1

LEGUMES

Canned White Beans (½ cup)

4

Lentils, boiled (½ cup)

3

Kidney Beans, red, boiled (½ cup)

3

VEGETABLES

Spinach, cooked (½ cup)

3

Swiss Chard, cooked (½ cup)

2

µg=microgram, g=gram, oz=ounce

Table 4. 

Food sources of zinc.

FOOD

ZINC (mg PER SERVING)

CEREALS AND GRAINS

General Mills® Total Raisin Bran (1 cup)

15

Kellogg’s® All-Bran Original (½ cup)

3.8

General Mills® Wheaties (3/4 cup)

7.5

General Mills® Cheerios (1 cup), Corn Chex (1 cup), Kix (1 ¼ cups)

3.8–5.2

SOY PRODUCTS

Soybeans, cooked (½ cup)

0.8

Morningstar Farms® Grillers Original Patty (1 patty)

0.8

NUTS/LEGUMES

Vegetarian Baked Beans, canned (½ cup)

2.9

Kidney Beans, red, boiled (½ cup)

1.0

Pine Nuts (1 oz)

1.8

Cashews, raw (1 oz)

1.6

Chickpeas/Garbanzo Beans, canned (½ cup)

1.3

Lentils, boiled (½ cup)

1.3

Almonds, dry roasted (1 oz)

0.9

DIARY/EGG*

Ricotta Cheese (¼ cup)

0.7

Plain Yogurt, low fat (8 oz)

2.0

Swiss Cheese, shredded (¼ cup)

1.2

Reduced-fat 2% Milk (1 cup)

1.0

µg=microgram, g=gram, oz=ounce

*Not included in vegan diets

Footnotes

1.

This document is FSHN11-06, one of a series of the Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date June 2011. Revised October 2014 and December 2017. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Lauren Foster, BS; and Wendy J. Dahl, PhD, associate professor, Food Science and Human Nutrition Department; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication does not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.