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Publication #ENY859

Managing Thrips and Tospoviruses in Tomato1

Joe Funderburk, Stuart Reitz, Steve Olson, Phil Stansly, Hugh Smith, Gene McAvoy, Ozan Demirozer, Crystal Snodgrass, Mathews Paret, and Norm Leppla2

Several invasive species of thrips have established in Florida and are causing serious economic losses to vegetable, ornamental, and agronomic crops. Damage to crops results from thrips feeding and egg-laying injury, by the thrips vectoring of plant diseases, the cost of using control tactics, and the loss of pesticides due to resistance. Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), which was introduced and became established in northern Florida in the early 1980s, is the major thrips pest of tomatoes. The western flower thrips did not become an economic problem in central and southern Florida until 2005 (Frantz and Mellinger 2009). Two other invasive species, melon thrips, Thrips palmi, and chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis, are not damaging pests of tomato.

Growers in all regions of Florida initially responded to the threat of the western flower thrips by the calendar application of broad-spectrum insecticides. This has resulted in a classic ”3” R situation: resistance to insecticides (including new reduced-risk insecticides), resurgence of thrips populations due to the killing of natural enemies and competitor native species of thrips, and replacement with various other pests that are induced by the application of broad-spectrum insecticides. Several scientific papers are available that review information on the situation in Florida (Funderburk 2009, Frantz and Mellinger 2009, Weiss et al. 2009).

The western flower thrips is the most efficient vector of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). This virus is one of about twenty known species of tospoviruses (Sherwood et al. 2001a, b). Epidemics of tomato spotted wilt (TSW) occur frequently in numerous crops in northern Florida. Until recently, it was thought that TSW occurred sporadically in central and southern Florida. Most infections were confined to a few isolated plants in a field, transplants, mainly pepper, which originated from planthouses in Georgia. Secondary spread (i.e., within the field) away from the initial site of infection was rarely, if ever, seen. Recently, growers and scouts have begun to report a few instances where increased incidence of secondary spread has occurred. In a few cases, TSW has appeared in fields in south Florida, in which transplants did not come from Georgia or other areas where TSW is established.

In 2009, a new tospovirus was detected in Miami-Dade County on tomato and has since been diagnosed in all south Florida production areas from Miami-Dade County to Manatee County. This new virus is a hybrid of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus, two tospoviruses known from South America (Webster et al. 2010, 2011). Symptoms induced by this new virus resemble TSW. It is thought that some of the infections thought to be caused by TSWV may have indeed been caused by this new tospovirus, although both have been positively identified in south Florida by Scott Adkins at the USDA ARS lab in Fort Pierce using specific molecular diagnostic tests. In addition to being detected in tomato, Groundnut ringspot virus has been also been detected in pepper and tomatillo and is known to infect peanuts in other areas where it occurs. Because both viruses induce similar symptoms on tomato, serological or molecular tests are needed to accurately identify which virus is present.

Like TSWV, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus are transmitted by thrips.

The fact that the disease is beginning to show up more widely across south Florida and with greater frequency is a concern. The close relationship between this new tospovirus and TSWV likely indicates that integrated management strategies, including the use of metalized (UV-reflective) mulch developed for TSW control by scientists at the University of Florida's North Florida Research and Education Center in Quincy, may also be effective for the new tospovirus.

Thrips Biology and Ecology

A review of the scientific literature relating to the biology and ecology of western flower thrips is found in Reitz (2009). Native species of thrips are common in Florida tomato (Momol et al. 2004, Frantz and Mellinger 2009). In northern Florida, the most common species is the eastern flower thrips (Frankliniella tritici) followed by the Florida flower thrips (Frankliniella bispinosa). In central and southern Florida, the Florida flower thrips is the only common native species. Adults of eastern flower thrips, Florida flower thrips, and western flower thrips aggregate in flowers, while larvae of these species are found both in flowers and on fruits. Thrips are cryptic and hide under the calyx on fruits or where fruit contacts stems or leaves.

Characteristics of flower thrips include a wide feeding range of plant host species, an ability to disperse rapidly, a short generation time, and production of male offspring without mating. All of the species mentioned have a high reproductive potential. However, tomato is a poor reproductive host for all of the species, including the western flower thrips. The adults can reach high numbers in the flowers of tomato, but the number of larvae in relation to adults is always low.

The life stages of thrips include egg, larva I, larva II, pupa I, pupa II, and adult. Developmental times at optimal temperatures of eggs, larvae, and pupae are about 6, 5, and 5 days, respectively, for every species (Reitz 2008, Tsai et al. 1996). The adults of all species feed on flower tissues and pollen. Pollen feeding greatly increases the number of eggs produced.

Development of thrips is slower at cool temperatures. The minimum temperature required is about 10 degrees Celsius or 50 degrees Fahrenheit. About 30 to 40 days are necessary for a complete generation during the winter in northern Florida (Toapanta et al. 1996, 2001). Generations develop more rapidly as temperatures increase in the spring. Populations become very abundant in the near absence of natural enemies in the early spring in northern Florida (Northfield et al. 2008). Populations decline greatly in summer and fall as natural enemies become an important factor affecting their abundance. In central and southern Florida, natural enemies are present year round.

Plant species that serve as reproductive hosts vary with each individual species of thrips (Northfield et al. 2008, Paini et al. 2007). Adults also commonly feed in the flowers of plants that are not reproductive hosts. Western flower thrips are suppressed, but not completely eliminated, by interspecific competition with the native thrips. Since western flower thrips share most of the same non-crop hosts as eastern flower thrips and Florida flower thrips, interspecific competition is an important factor in keeping western flower thrips numbers generally low (Paini et al. 2008, Northfield et al. 2011).

Many predaceous arthropod groups help to suppress thrips populations. Minute pirate bugs (Family Anthocoridae) are the most important predators of thrips (Funderburk et al. 2000). Western flower thrips also suffer more severe predation by minute pirate bugs than do the native thrips (Reitz et al. 2006). Species of anthocorids occur nearly worldwide. The species Orius insidiosus occurs throughout eastern North America, Central America and the Caribbean, and South America. Orius pumilio also occurs with O. insidiosus in central and southern Florida (Shapiro et al. 2009). Other thrips predators include the big-eyed bugs (Family Lygaeidae), damsel bugs (Family Nabidae), lacewings (Family Chrysopidae), predatory thrips (primarily in the family Aeolothripidae), and predatory mites (Family Phytoseiidae).

Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

TSWV is circulative and replicative, which means that the virus is circulated by the insect hemolymph (blood) and replicates in the insect’s internal tissues. The cycle of virus acquisition and transmission begins with larval feeding on infected plant tissue (de Assis Filho et al. 2005). The virus passes through the midgut of the insect and spreads to various cells and organs, including the salivary glands. The virus is transmitted to an uninfected plant when saliva is injected into the plant tissue during feeding (Figure 1).

Figure 1. 

Tomato spotted wilt symptoms on fruit of tomato


Credit:

Ozan Demirozer


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

In crop systems, the virus is transmitted by the adult thrips. Importantly, adult thrips that have not acquired the virus as larvae are not able to transmit the virus. Only certain species of thrips are able to transmit TSWV (Sherwood et al. 2001a, b). Aphids and whiteflies are not vectors. At least seven species of thrips are vectors of TSWV. The virus has a worldwide distribution, with a known plant host range of over 926 species.

Epidemics of TSW occur in many geographic regions worldwide. The severity and timing of epidemics in a particular cropping system are the result of interactions between the thrips vector, the pathogen host plants, and the pathogen. TSWV has been found to infect plant species of natural vegetation that are found growing close to susceptible crops, and in some situations natural vegetation is an important source of viruliferous adult thrips that transmit to susceptible crops. In other situations, susceptible crops are the source of viruliferous adults invading new fields.

The unusual virus-vector relationship is a challenge in efforts to manage TSW (Momol et al. 2004). Primary spread of the disease (initial entry into a crop) is due to infections caused by incoming viruliferous adults from outside sources that include uncultivated and cultivated plant hosts. Adults persistently transmit, meaning that they are infected for life, and their control with insecticides does not prevent transmission due to the short time of feeding for infection to occur (Momol et al. 2004).

Secondary spread (within a crop) is caused by viruliferous adults that acquired the virus as larvae feeding on an infected plant. For secondary spread, thrips need to colonize and reproduce on infected plants within a crop. Control of the larvae before their development to adults is effective in preventing secondary spread. Most viral infections in northern Florida are the result of primary spread, although some secondary viral infections occur late in the spring season (Figure 2; Momol et al. 2004). The historic lack of epidemics of TSW in central and southern Florida suggests that the Florida flower thrips is not an efficient vector capable of acquiring tomato spotted wilt virus from uncultivated plant species. It is capable of acquiring and transmitting tomato spotted wilt virus from pepper under laboratory conditions, although less efficiently than the western flower thrips (Avila et al. 2006). The eastern flower thrips, melon thrips, and chilli thrips are not competent vectors of TSWV.

Figure 2. 

The percentage of infected plants in northern Florida tomatoes estimated by Momol et al. (2004) to be primary and secondary spread.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Table 1 lists different types of tactics effective in managing primary and secondary spread of TSW. Each type of tactic is discussed in the text that follows.

Management Programs for Western Flower Thrips and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

Economic thresholds

Adults of the eastern flower thrips and Florida flower thrips cause little if any damage to tomato, and they beneficially out-compete the western flower thrips. No damage has been observed even when densities of 20–25 of these native species per flower were present (Funderburk 2009). The adults of all species of thrips feed on petals and other flower structures, but this injury does not result in economic damage. The adults of the invasive western flower thrips that inhabit tomato flowers cause damage by laying eggs in the small fruit (Salguero Navas et al. 1991). At least one western flower thrips adult per flower can be tolerated without damage, but growers need to take action at this threshold.

Thrips feed by sucking the contents of the epidermal cells of the plant. When feeding occurs on fruit, it results in a damage symptom called “flecking” (Ghiudu et al. 2006), which may not become evident until the fruit ripens although the feeding occurred on immature fruits. Adults of the western flower thrips and larvae of all species cause flecking (Figure 3). At least two larvae per small, medium, or large fruit on average in a field are tolerable, but this is the action threshold (Funderburk 2009).

Figure 3. 

Tomato fruit with “dimpling” caused by egg laying of the western flower thrips and fruit with “flecking” caused by feeding of thrips larvae


Credit:

Russ Mizell


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Scouting

Because the native flower thrips occur in large numbers in the flowers of fruiting vegetables where they out-compete the damaging invasive species, it is necessary to accurately identify the species in order to make management decisions. A few flowers should periodically be placed in a small container with 70% alcohol (Figure 4). The container can be shaken to dislodge the thrips, which can then be examined under a microscope with at least 40X magnification to determine the species of the adults. Shifts in the relative abundance of species of thrips throughout the growing season can be determined in this way. It is best for growers to have a competent scout who can provide this service. Contact your county agent for advice and help.

Figure 4. 

Placing tomato flowers in vials with 70 % alcohol


Credit:

Joe Funderburk


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Densities of thrips

Thrips densities in flowers can be determined by picking the flowers and placing them on a white board. Gently tear open the flower and the thrips will emerge onto the board where the adults and the larvae are readily distinguished from each other and counted. It is not possible to distinguish eastern flower thrips, western flower thrips, and Florida flower thrips from one another in the field. Flowers also can be placed in containers with 70% alcohol and shaken vigorously. The thrips will fall to the bottom of the vial where the total number of larvae and adults can be counted. Counting the thrips from ten flowers from each of several locations in a field is usually sufficient to estimate densities of species for scouting purposes. Examine small, medium, and large fruits directly for thrips, taking care to look under each calyx. Examine and count the thrips on at least four fruit from each of several locations in the field. Special care must be taken to examine the small fruits frequently as the eggs generally are laid during the flower stage, and larvae on the small fruit is the first indication of a developing problem.

Ultraviolet-Reflective Mulch

The ultraviolet-reflective mulch in the typical raised-bed plastic mulch production system of Florida repels the migrating adults of the western flower thrips and this reduces the primary and secondary spread of TSW. The use of ultraviolet-reflective mulch also reduces the influx of eastern flower thrips and Florida flower thrips (Momol et al. 2004). This cultural tactic is most effective from early to midseason before the plants grow to cover the mulch. Application of certain fungicides and other pesticides reduces the UV reflectance and hence the efficacy of the mulch. A single application of copper and mancozeb fungicide can reduce the reflectance by approximately 49%. Repeated applications can consequently lead to higher incidences of TSW (Reitz, unpublished data).The benefits of UV-reflective technologies against other tospoviruses in Florida are not yet determined.

Acibenzolar-S-methyl

Acibenzolar-S-methyl is a systemic acquired resistance inducer that influences the salicylic acid pathway in the plant. This product has been shown to reduce the incidence of infection of TSW (Momol et al. 2004). Its use has minimal impacts on populations of the flower thrips. The product is particularly effective against bacteria and it is an excellent replacement for foliar pesticides for bacterial and fungal disease control.

Insecticides

Populations of invasive western flower thrips that became established in Florida probably arrived resistant to most of the traditional classes of broad-spectrum insecticides. Resistance has been documented for pyrethroid, carbamate, and organophosphate classes of insecticides. Flaring of western flower thrips and the non-target pests is possible when any broad-spectrum insecticide is used. For this reason, their use in tomato is being phased out as new, safer, more selective insecticides in different chemical classes are becoming available (Table 2). Certain organophosphate and carbamate insecticides have some level of efficacy against western flower thrips, but these should be used very selectively. Their use may be warranted but only in particular instances when nontarget effects would be minimal. An example would be near the end of the production season, as re-entry and pre-harvest intervals on the label allow.

The most efficacious insecticides for western flower thrips in tomato and other crops are in the spinosyns class. No other insecticide class provides this level of control. However, some level of resistance to spinosyns has been documented in pockets in Florida (Weiss et al. 2009). The label for spinosyns has a limit on the number of applications per season. Growers should always follow the label and not exceed the label wording. Only use group 5 insecticides (spinosyns) a maximum of 6 sprays and no more than 2 consecutive sprays before rotating to an insecticide in a different class. Avoid sequential sprays on sequential crops. A number of insecticides that provide suppression of western flower thrips adults and larvae are registered or in the process of registration by the EPA. However, none provide the level of efficacy of the spinosyns (Funderburk, Srivistava, and Demirozer, unpublished data). Cyazypyr® and acetamiprid have performed best after the spinosyns in the trials. (Cyazypyr at this writing is under EPA review and it is hoped that it will be labeled for fruiting vegetable use in Florida in 2012). Other insecticides that have shown significant suppression against the adults and larvae of western flower thrips include flonicamid, spirotetramat, and Requiem® (extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides near ambrosioides). Azadirachtin and potassium salts of fatty acids are available commercially, and these provide some suppression of western flower thrips.

The focus of management is not on killing the maximum number of thrips; rather it is on preventing damage. Dimpling and flecking is only damaging at high levels, and both can be reduced to tolerable levels by limited suppression of western flower thrips adults and larvae. It is important to use different insecticides from different chemical classes when multiple applications of insecticide are justified during the production season. In northern Florida, three to five weekly spaced insecticide applications are sometimes justified to prevent unacceptable damage from dimpling and flecking. The weekly applications are sufficient as well to prevent secondary spread of TSW (Momol et al. 2004). In the past, these applications included spinosad and certain broad-spectrum organophosphate insecticides. The organophosphate can be replaced with the newer, safer insecticides (Dripps et al. 2010).

Avoid Spraying Insecticides That Enhance Western Flower Thrips

Most broad-spectrum insecticides, including pyrethroids, organophosphates, and carbamates, kill the native species of thrips that outcompete western flower thrips (Funderburk et al. 2000, Reitz et al. 2003, Srivistava et al. 2008). A number of insecticides have been shown to greatly enhance western flower thrips reproduction and subsequent populations in tomato. Unlike pepper, eggplant, and many other crops, natural enemies that attack thrips are not sufficient to suppress thrips populations in tomato. Moreover, application of broad-spectrum insecticides suppresses important natural enemies of other pests that effectively suppress spider mites, whiteflies, leafminers, and other pests.

Plant nutrition

Fertilization above recommended rates of nitrogen for optimal production results in an increase in the numbers of all species of thrips and an increased incidence of TSW (Stavisky et al. 2002, Brodbeck et al. 2001). The increased level of aromatic amino acids in over-fertilized plants makes them more attractive to adult female western flower thrips and increases thrips reproduction and growth.

Host plant resistance

Numerous varieties of tomato that are resistant or tolerant to TSW are commercially available (Table 3). These varieties are resistant to the virus, but not to thrips feeding. The source of resistance in all of the resistant cultivars is the SW5 gene, and this resistance is single-gene dominant. Strains of TSWV that have overcome resistance from the single-gene dominant trait have appeared in other geographical areas (Rosello et al. 1998). Therefore, an integrated approach is necessary to reduce feeding by thrips and TSW management using ultraviolet-reflective mulch, acibenzolar-S-methyl, and insecticides (Momol et al. 2004). In addition, there is a major research effort underway to integrate SW7, another resistance gene, into tomato cultivars, which could improve plant resistance to TSW (Olson).

Vertical Integration of the Management Program

In northern Florida, western flower thrips is the key pest of tomato, and consequently TSWV is the most damaging disease. The use of UV-reflective mulch has been effective in reducing populations of western flower thrips and the incidence of TSW. Whiteflies and whitefly-vectored viruses are occasional pests in northern Florida, and UV-reflective mulch is also efficacious in reducing damage from these pests. Western flower thrips and other thrips species and thrips-vectored viruses can cause damage to tomato in south and central Florida; however, the primary arthropod pest of tomato in these regions is Bemisia tabaci, also known a B. argentifolii, the silverleaf whitefly. Growers use insecticides to manage whitefly-vectored viruses, particularly tomato yellow leaf curl virus, which can cause devastating losses. Insecticides applied to manage whiteflies on tomatoes and other crops that harbor thrips may impact thrips populations and thrips susceptibility to insecticides. Resulting resistance in western flower thrips populations has been a particular problem in Florida and elsewhere. Broad-spectrum insecticides applied against whiteflies or thrips frequently are responsible for flaring populations of non-target pests, including spider mites and leafminers.

Most tomatoes are treated with neonicotinoid insecticides at planting for control of whiteflies. Imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, or dinotefuran are commonly used. Soil applied neonicotinoid insecticides may suppress foliar-feeding thrips, but will have limited impact on thrips in flowers. Broad spectrum insecticides, such as endosulfan and pyrethroid insecticides, are used to control whitefly adults and can reduce  both natural enemies of thrips and native thrips species, giving western flower thrips a competitive advantage. Pymetrozine is effective against whitefly adults and should not disrupt thrips management programs. Softer materials, such as azadirachtin-based products, microbial insecticides such as Beauvaria bassiana, and insect growth regulators to manage whiteflies, are compatible with thrips management, but are directed at whitefly nymphs and will have limited efficacy in suppressing primary virus transmission by whiteflies coming into the field. Products that are effective against immatures will suppress secondary (within-field) spread.

It is recommended that growers anticipate key pests such as whiteflies or thrips and use preventive tactics to minimize their impacts. This minimizes the need for insecticides that can result in the flaring of nontarget pests.

Regular scouting and proper identification of pests is instrumental in preventing damage from occasional pests. There are soft insecticides available for most occasional pests, and these should be used if an occasional pest reaches threshold, especially during early and mid-season. Broad-spectrum insecticides may be suitable late in the season when little time is left for flaring of non-target pest populations. Always follow the insecticide label, and pay careful attention to re-entry and pre-harvest intervals.

References Cited

Avila, Y., J. Stavisky, S. Hague, J. Funderburk, S. Reitz, and T. Momol. 2006. Evaluation of Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as a vector of Tomato spotted wilt virus in pepper. Florida Entomologist 89: 204–207.

Brodbeck, B. V., J. Stavisky, J. E. Funderburk, P. C. Andersen, and S. M. Olson. 2001. Flower nitrogen status and populations of Frankliniella occidentalis feeding on Lycopersicon esculentum. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 99: 165–172.

De Assis Filho, F. M, J. Stavisky, S. R. Reitz, S. M. Deom, and J. L. Sherwood. 2005. Midgut infection by tomato spotted wilt virus and vector incompetence of Frankliniella tritici. Journal of Applied Entomology 129: 548–550.

Dripps, J. E., L. E. Gomez, A. W. Weiss, J. Funderburk, B. A. Castro, and D. L. Paroonagian. 2010. Insecticide rotation as a component of thrips resistance management programs. Resistant Pest Management Newsletter 19 (2): 32–35.

Frantz, G., and H. C. Mellinger. 2009. Shifts in western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), population abundance and crop damage. Florida Entomologist 92: 29–34.

Funderburk, J. E. 2009. Management of the western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in fruiting vegetables. Florida Entomologist 92: 1–6.

Funderburk, J., J. Stavisky, and S. M. Olson. 2000. Predation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in field peppers by Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Environmental Entomology 29: 376–382.

Ghiudu, G. M., E. M. Hitchner, and J. E. Funderburk. 2006. Goldfleck damage to tomato fruits caused by feeding of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Florida Entomologist 89: 279–281.

Momol, T., S. M. Olson, J. E. Funderburk, J. Stavisky, and J. J. Marois. 2004. Integrated management of tomato spotted wilt in field-grown tomato. Plant Disease 88: 882–890.

Northfield, T. D., D. R. Paini, J. E. Funderburk, and S. R. Reitz. 2008. Annual cycles of Frankliniella spp. thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) abundance on North Florida uncultivated reproductive hosts: predicting possible pest outbreaks. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101: 769–778.

Northfield, T. D., D. R. Paini, S. R. Reitz, and J. E. Funderburk. 2011. Interspecific competition and the limited densities of the highly invasive thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis in Florida. Ecological Entomology 36: 181–187.

Paini, D., J. Funderburk, T. Jackson, and S. Reitz. 2007. Reproduction of four thrips species (Frankliniella spp.) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on uncultivated hosts. Journal of Entomological Science 42: 610–615.

Paini, D. R., J. E. Funderburk, and S. R. Reitz. 2008. Competitive exclusion of a worldwide invasive pest by a native. Quantifying competition between two phytophagous insects on two host plant species. Journal of Animal Ecology 77: 184–190.

Reitz, S. R. 2008. Comparative bionomics of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella tritici. Florida Entomologist 91: 474–476.

Reitz, S. R. 2009. Biology and ecology of the western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The making of a pest. Florida Entomologist 92: 7–13.

Reitz, S. R., E. L. Yearby, J. E. Funderburk, J. Stavisky, M. T. Momol, and S. M. Olson. 2003. Integrated management tactics for Frankliniella thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in field-grown pepper. Journal of Economic Entomology 96: 1201–1214.

Reitz, S. R., J. E. Funderburk, and S. M. Waring. 2006. Differential predation by the generalist predator Orius insidiosus on congeneric species of thrips that vary in size and behavior. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 119: 179–188.

Rosello, S., M. J. Diez, and F. Nuez. 1998. Genetics of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance coming from Lycopersicon peruvianum. European Journal of Plant Pathology 104: 499–509.

Salguero-Navas, V. E., J. E. Funderburk, R. J. Beshear, S. M. Olson, and T. P. Mack. 2001. Seasonal patterns of Frankliniella spp. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in tomato flowers. Journal of Economic Entomology 84: 1816–1822.

Shapiro, J. P., P. D. Shirk, S. R. Reitz, and R. Koenig. 2009. Sympatry of Orius insidiosus and O. pumilio (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in north central Florida. Florida Entomologist 92: 362–366.

Sherwood, J. L., T. L. German, A. E. Whitfield, J. W. Moyer, and D. E. Ullman. 2001a. Tomato spotted wilt, pp. 1030–1031. In Encyclopedia of Plant Pathology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York.

Sherwood, J. L., T. L. German, A. E. Whitfield, J. W. Moyer, and D. E. Ullman. 2001b. Tospoviruses, pp. 1034–1040. In Encyclopedia of Plant Pathology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York.

Srivistava, M., L. Bosco, J. Funderburk, S. Olson, and A. Weiss. 2008. Spinetoram is compatible with the key natural enemy of Frankliniella species thrips in pepper. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2008-0118-02-RS.

Stavisky, J., J. Funderburk, B. V. Brodbeck, S. M. Olson, and P. C. Andersen. 2002. Population dynamics of Frankliniella spp. and tomato spotted wilt incidence as influenced by cultural management tactics. Journal of Economic Entomology 95: 1216–1221.

Toapanta, M., J. E. Funderburk, R. J. Beshear, S. M. Olson, and T. P. Mack. 1996. Abundance of Frankliniella spp. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on winter and spring host plants. Environmental Entomology 25: 793–800.

Toapanta, M., J. E. Funderburk, and D. Chellemi. 2001. Development of Frankliniella species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in relation to microclimate temperatures in vetch. Journal of Entomological Science 36: 426–437.

Tsai, J. H., B. S. Yue, J. E. Funderburk, and S. E. Webb. 1996. Effect of plant pollen on growth and reproduction of Frankliniella bispinosa. Acta Horticulturae 431: 535–541.

Webster, C. G., S. R. Reitz, K. L. Perry, X. Lu, L. Horsman, G. Frantz, and S. Adkins. 2010. First report of Groundnut ringspot virus infecting tomato in south Florida. Plant Health Progress. 10.1094/PHP-2010-0707-01-BR.

Webster, C. G., S. R. Reitz, K. L. Perry, and S. Adkins. 2011. A natural reassortmant arising from two species of plant- and insect-infecting bunyaviruses and comparison of its sequence and biological properties to parental species. Virology 413: 216–225.

Weiss, A., J. E. Dripps, and J. E. Funderburk. 2009. Assessment of implementation and sustainability of integrated pest management programs. Florida Entomologist 92: 24–28.

Tables

Table 1. 

Tactics useful in managing primary and secondary spread of tomato spotted wilt virus and other tospovirus species in tomato

Primary Spread

Secondary Spread

Resistant cultivars

Resistant cultivars

Ultraviolet-reflective barriers and mulches

Ultraviolet-reflective barriers and mulches

Systemic acquired resistance inducer

Systemic acquired resistance inducer

Optimal fertility

Optimal fertility

 

Insecticides for suppression of thrips larvae

Table 2. 

Insecticides for fruiting vegetables that control or suppress the adults and larvae of western flower thrips. Most are selective insecticides, generally with low toxicity to important natural enemies unless otherwise indicated.

Active Ingredient

Trade Name

Comment(s)

spinetoram

Radiant®

Good control of adult and larval western flower thrips; minimize applications and apply a maximum of two per season to avoid resistance development

acetamiprid

Assail®

Control of adult and larval western flower thrips; broad spectrum insecticide where use should be avoided except in appropriate circumstances

Cyantraniliprole (label for fruiting vegetables expected late 2012/early 2013)

Cyazypyr®

Recommended for suppression or in a rotation with other insecticides when multiple applications are required in the same season

flonicamid

Beleaf®

Recommended for suppression or in a rotation with other insecticides when multiple applications are required in the same season

spirotetramat

Movento®

Recommended for suppression or in a rotation with other insecticides when multiple applications are required in the same season

Extract Chenopodium ambrosioides near ambrosioides

Requiem®

Recommended for suppression or in a rotation with other insecticides when multiple applications are required in the same season

methomyl

Lannate®

Control of adult and larval western flower thrips; broad spectrum insecticide where use should be avoided except in appropriate circumstances

potassium salts of fatty acids

M-Pede®

Weak suppression; sometimes suitable in a rotation with other insecticides when multiple applications are required in the same season

rosemary oil and peppermint oil

EcoTrol®

Weak suppression; sometimes suitable in a rotation with other insecticides when multiple applications are required in the same season

Table 3. 

Cultivars with resistance to tomato spotted wilt through the Sw-5 gene

Large Round Determinate Types

Amelia*

Halcon

Redline*

Bella Rosa*

Inbar*

Talladega*

BHN 444*

Mountain Glory*

Top Gun*

BHN 602*

Nico

Tribeca*

BHN 640*

Primo Red

Tribute*

Carson*

Quincy*

Trinity

Crista*

Red Bounty

Tycoon*

Finishline*

Red Defender*

Volante

Fletcher*

   

Plum or Roma Types

BHN 685*

Muriel*

Rubia*

BHN 768

Patria

Shanty*

Galilea*

Picus*

Shenna 31*

Hedvig*

Plum Regal*

Tachi

Monticello

Retana*

 

Large Round Indeterminate Type

Out Damn Spot

   

Large Round Heritage Type

Pamalla

   

Large Round Grape Type

Rona

   

*Cultivars that have been evaluated under Florida conditions

Management Recommendations for Western Flower Thrips and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus in Tomato. 

In scouting program, distinguish between adult and larval thrips and identify adult thrips to species

   

Economic thresholds: about 1 western flower thrips per flower and about 2 larvae per fruit

     

Do not treat for Florida flower thrips and eastern flower thrips because they out-compete western flower thrips 

 

Avoid using insecticides that induce western flower thrips 

         

Use ultraviolet-reflective mulch and other ultraviolet-reflective technologies

       

Use TSWV resistant cultivars when available

             

Vertically integrate management of thrips and TSWV with management of other pests and diseases,

including whiteflies and Lepidoptera, and whitefly-vectored viruses and other tomato diseases 

Follow Best Management Practices for fertility and water management

       
                     

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENY-859 (IN895), one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Date printed: August 2011. Please visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. More information is available at http://ipm.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Joe Funderburk, professor, Entomology and Nematology Department, North Florida REC, Quincy, Florida; Stuart Reitz, research entomologist, USDA ARS, Tallahassee, Florida; Steve Olson, professor, Horticulture Department, North Florida REC; Phil Stansly, professor, Entomology and Nematology Department, Southwest Florida REC, Immokalee, Florida; Hugh Smith, assistant professor, Entomology and Nematology Department, Gulf Coast REC, Wimauma, Florida; Gene McAvoy, vegetable extension agent, Hendry County, LaBelle, Florida; Ozan Demirozer, assistant professor, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey; Crystal Snodgrass, vegetable extension agent, Manatee County, Palmetto, Florida; Mathews Paret, assistant professor, Plant Pathology, North Florida REC; Norm Leppla, professor, Entomology and Nematology Department, Gainesville, Florida 32611.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.