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Publication #ENY-867

Managing Diamide Resistance in Florida Tomato1

Hugh A. Smith2

Diamides belong to a class of insecticides that disrupt ryanodine receptors, the intracellular calcium channels that play a central role in muscle and nerve function. Diamide insecticides are systemic—they can be taken up by the plant’s foliar vascular system and, with the exception of flubendiamide, by the roots. Systemic insecticides can be applied to the plant in transplant water, through drip irrigation, and directly to the foliage. There are presently two diamide insecticides available for use on tomatoes in Florida: chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole. Flubendiamide is an additional diamide that is under review by the US Environmental Protection Agency. However growers may use insecticides containing flubendiamide that they presently have on hand. Chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole are also referred to as rynaxypyr and cyazypyr, respectively. Chlorantraniliprole, the active ingredient in Coragen, became available in 2008, and flubendiamide, the active ingredient in Belt, became available in 2009. Cyazypyr became available in 2013, sold as Verimark for soil application and Exirel for foliar application. Diamide insecticides have been assigned the mode of action classification number 28 by the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (www.irac-online.org). This number appears on the label of any insecticide containing diamides. Chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide, and cyantraniliprole are available in additional formulations and in some products combined with other insecticides (Table 1).

Flubendiamide is primarily active against caterpillar pests. Key caterpillar pests of Florida tomato that can be managed with flubendiamide include cutworms, tomato fruitworm (Helicoverpa zea), tomato pinworm (Keiferia lycopersicella), southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania), beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua), and yellowstriped armyworm (Spodoptera ornithogalli). Other caterpillar pests attacking tomato that can be managed with flubendiamide include tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta), cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni), and soybean looper (Pseudopludia includens).

Chlorantraniliprole is effective against the same complex of caterpillar pests of tomato as flubendiamide. In addition, chlorantraniliprole suppresses nymphs of the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B, and can be used to manage the larvae of serpentine and vegetable leafminers (Liriomyza sativae and L. trifolii). Cyantraniliprole is effective against both adults and nymphs of the silverleaf whitefly, in addition to killing leafminer and caterpillar pests. The silverleaf whitefly vectors Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which can cause devastating losses in tomato in Florida and other regions of the world.

As with any insecticide, repeated use of diamide insecticides on successive generations of the same pest may lead to the development of insecticide resistance. In order to avoid the development of resistance to diamides by targeted pests of tomato, group 28 insecticides should be rotated with insecticides possessing different modes of action. Insecticide modes of action available for management of silverleaf whitefly, caterpillars, and leafminers on Florida tomato are listed in Table 2.

In order to conserve the efficacy of diamide and other insecticides, a “treatment window” approach can be employed. A treatment window is a period of time that is defined by the crop stage, the biology of the pest complex attacking the crop, or a combination of both. In order to avoid treating successive generations of whiteflies, caterpillars, and leafminers to the same mode of action, a five week treatment window should be used. Tomato crops are most vulnerable to TYLCV during the first five–six weeks after transplanting, so the first five week treatment window is the most important time to treat to protect the plants from viruliferous whiteflies. Planting resistant varieties, destroying crop residues that serve as a reservoir for TYLCV, and using reflective mulches are key strategies for reducing early infection of the tomato crop. At-plant applications of Group 4 insecticides or cyantraniliprole may also provide important early-season protection from viruliferous whiteflies. Group 4 insecticides include the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid (Admire, many generics), thiamethoxam (Platinum) and dinotefuran (Venom), as well as the butenolide insecticide flupyradifurone (Sivanto Prime). Because of the importance associated with insecticides that can help suppress transmission of TYLCV, the early season may be considered a priority “treatment window” for use of cyantraniliprole.

If a diamide is used during the first five weeks after transplanting, alternate modes of action should be used instead of diamides for the next five-week treatment window. In this scenario, insecticides that do not include active ingredients with a group 28 mode of action would be used for suppression of whitefly, leafminers, and caterpillars during this second treatment window. For example, group 6 and 17 materials could be used for leafminer, and group 11, 18, and 22 materials could be used for caterpillar management. “Softer” materials, including materials that have not been assigned an IRAC MOA number, can be included in these insecticide rotations when appropriate. (Spinosyns, group 5 insecticides, are effective against leafminers and caterpillars but should be reserved for thrips management whenever possible. This is because the spinosyns are among the most effective insecticides for managing thrips, and excessive use of spinosyns can lead to the development of resistance among thrips populations.)

Tables

Table 1. 

Insecticides containing diamides available for management of pests of Florida tomato and other crops.

Product

MOA#

Active ingredient(s)

Coragen

28

Chlorantraniliprole

Durivo (soil)

28 + 4A

Chlorantraniliprole + thiamethoxam

Voliam Xpress

28 + 3

Chlorantraniliprole + lambda cyhalothrin

Voliam Flexi (foliar)

28 + 4A

Chlorantraniliprole + thiamethoxam

Belt

28

Flubendiamide

Vetica

28 + 16

Flubendiamide + buprofezin

Verimark (soil)

28

Cyantraniliprole

Exirel (foliar)

28

Cyantraniliprole

Table 2. 

Modes of action available for management of whitefly, caterpillars, and leafminers on Florida tomato.

MOA #

Grouping or action site

Active ingredient examples

Silverleaf whitefly

Caterpillars

Leafminers

3

Pyrethroid

Beta-cyfluthrin*, bifenthrin, esfenvalerate, zeta-cypermethrin

x

x

 

4A

Neonicotinoid

Acetamiprid, clothianidin*, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam

x

   

4D

Butenolide

Flupyradifurone

x

   

5

Spinosyns

Spinosad, spinetoram

 

x

x

6

Avermectins

Abamectin

 

x

x

7C

Juvenile hormone mimics

Pyriproxifen

x

   

9B

Selective hemipteran feeding blocker

Pymetrozine*

x

   

11

Microbial disruptor of insect midgut membrane

Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai; subspecies kurstaki

 

x

 

15

Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis

Novaluron

x (nymphs)

x

x

16

Buprofezin

x (nymphs)

   

17

Dipteran molting disruptor

Cyromazine

   

x

18

Ecdysone receptor agonist

Tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide

 

x

 

21A

METI insecticides

Fenpyroximate

x

   

22

Sodium channel blocker

indoxacarb

 

x

 

23

Lipid biosynthesis inhibitor

Spiromesifen, spirotetramat

x

   

28

Ryanodine receptor modulators

Chlorantraniliprole**, cyantraniliprole

Cyantran

iliprole

x

x

   

Flubendiamide

 

x

 

unknown

Azadirachtin

x

x

 

unknown

Beauvaria bassiana

x

   

unknown

Cryolite

x

   

unknown

Insecticidal soap

x

   

unknown

Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides

x

 

x

unknown

Stylet oils

x

 

x

*Suppression (uneven or liminted control) of whitefly.

**Supression of whitefly nymphs.

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENY-867, one of a series of the Department of Entomology and Nematology, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date February 2013. Revised July 2016. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Hugh A. Smith, assistant professor, Department of Entomology and Nematology, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.