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Publication #SSPLP14

Turfgrass Disease Management1

M. L. Elliott and P. F. Harmon2

Introduction

Turfgrass diseases are underappreciated because the biological organisms (plant pathogens) causing the problems are rarely observed. Fortunately, grasses maintained using proper cultural practices (water, mowing, and fertility) are not as likely to become diseased or be as severely damaged as grasses that do not receive proper care. The following section discusses turfgrass diseases, their causal agents, diagnosis, and management.

What Is a Disease?

Diseases are the exception and not the rule for lawns. Spots and patches of yellow or brown turfgrass do not necessarily mean the lawn has a disease. Because turfgrass diseases are difficult to diagnose, it is often faster to rule out involvement of other factors than to verify the presence of disease. Determining if other factors are causing the turf to appear "sick" solves the problem more quickly and avoids the application of unnecessary fungicides.

An injury to turfgrass is a destructive physical occurrence, such as pesticide damage (Figure 1), mowing the grass too short (Figure 2), or a fuel leak. A turfgrass disorder is associated with imbalances of physical or chemical requirements for turfgrass growth. Examples include nutritional deficiencies, cold temperatures, drought (Figure 3), and excessive rainfall. Again, while these problems may appear to be diseases, there are no pathogens involved. However, these injuries or disorders may weaken the turf so much that a pathogen may attack the plants and cause a disease.

Figure 1. 

Damage from an excessive rate of herbicide. No disease.


Credit: M. L. Elliott
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 2. 

St. Augustinegrass mowed too short, resulting in scalped turfgrass. No disease.


Credit: M. L. Elliott
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 3. 

Dry patches in St. Augustinegrass. No disease.


Credit: M. L. Elliott
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

A disease is an interaction between the plant and a pathogen that disrupts the normal growth and appearance of the plant. While turfgrasses may be affected by diseases all year, individual turf diseases are active for only a few months each year, usually because of weather patterns and resulting environmental effects. However, any stress (environmental or manmade) placed on the turf weakens it, making it more susceptible to diseases.

Turfgrass diseases in Florida are caused by fungi (molds in a bathroom are fungi; the green stuff on an old orange or old bread are fungi). Most fungi living in lawns are totally harmless to plants. In fact, they are beneficial because they decompose the grass clippings and old roots. A very small number of fungi cause plant diseases.

It is important to know that when a fungal pathogen is not actively attacking the plant, it has not disappeared from the turfgrass area. It is simply surviving in the environment in a state of dormancy (like a bear in hibernation) or as a saprophyte (nonpathogenic phase), living off dead organic materials in the thatch and soil layers.

Disease Process

There are many steps in the disease process, and all are dependent on environmental conditions. The first step is inoculation, when the pathogen comes in contact with the susceptible plant. For turfgrass, this is always occurring. The next steps determine if a disease will develop. In the second step, the pathogen must actually enter the plant. This is called infection. Fungi can enter a plant via wounds (cut leaf blades), natural openings (stomates), or direct penetration using a number of different mechanisms. Just because a fungus infects a plant does not mean a disease automatically develops. In the next step, the pathogen must become established inside the host. It is at this point that the pathogen starts to disrupt the normal growth of the plant or affect the appearance of the plant. Depending on the pathogen, it may then reproduce (i.e., produce spores). These reproductive structures or other parts of a pathogen may then spread to other turfgrass plants. A disease epidemic means that large populations of turfgrass plants are affected by the pathogen.

Disease Symptoms

Unlike insects or weeds, it is not possible to monitor the number of turfgrass pathogens present in a given area. Instead, disease symptoms (if already present), the weather, and stress factors affecting the turfgrass are monitored. It is critical to document active disease sites, as many disease outbreaks occur in the same location each year. Try to determine if the active disease sites are associated with environmental characteristics, such as excessive shade, fertilizer application timing, type of fertilizer, soil type, or excessive irrigation. Use these records to help predict disease outbreaks and to design effective management strategies.

There are two common patterns of turfgrass disease symptoms. One is a circular patch of turfgrass, either small or large, that is no longer uniformly green. The second is turf that has spots on the leaves. If disease patches are present, examine the leaves and roots in these patches for characteristic disease symptoms and signs (actual fungal structures) of the pathogen. The best time to observe fungal mycelia is in the early morning when dew is still present. Mycelia look similar to white cotton candy. Early afternoon is a good time to look for localized patches of wilt or drought symptoms that may indicate root or crown diseases. For turf with spots, note the color and shape of the spots, but always keep in mind that there are several other conditions that are not caused by disease that can produce similar symptoms.

Monitoring the weather helps with disease prediction and with determining the necessity of fungicide applications. If the disease-affected areas are small and the weather is not conducive to an epidemic, then a fungicide may not be necessary, or only spot applications may be required. However, if the long-term weather forecast is conducive to development of a disease that routinely occurs in the area in specific landscapes, then a fungicide may be useful in preventing an outbreak. Also take note of the location in the landscape where the disease occurs, especially if it occurs more than once a year or recurs each year. The disease may be occurring in areas affected by a microclimate created by man. Refer to the Florida Lawn Handbook at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_book_disease_problems for publications on specific diseases and fungicide recommendations for those diseases.

Disease Control Is Not Simple or Easy!

Disease control recommendations are aimed at (1) altering the environment so it is less favorable for disease development, (2) suppressing pathogen growth, and (3) decreasing stress on turfgrass. An integrated management program that includes cultural and chemical methods is the key to preventing and controlling turfgrass diseases.

There are three steps to disease management. First, correctly identify the disease. Second, identify the conditions that promote disease development. Third, identify the management techniques that will alter or eliminate these conducive conditions. Disease samples can be sent to your local UF/IFAS Plant Extension Plant Diagnostic Clinic (see http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/sr007 for submission guidelines).

For landscape maintenance companies and pest control companies, the primary obstacle they may face is lack of control over all management practices. For example, the homeowner may control the irrigation system. One company does the mowing. Another company or the homeowner applies the fertilizer. Then, if necessary, another company applies the pesticides. Better coordination and communication among all those involved with maintenance is required to ensure healthy turfgrass.

Cultural Control Practices

Cultural practices should create an environment that does not promote disease development. While not possible to change weather patterns (the overall environment), it is possible to change localized environments. Water-saturated soils from excessive irrigation are a local environmental condition created by humans. The north side of the house is cooler and receives less sun than the south side. A big oak or ficus tree creates a local environment that is much different than that of a palm tree or an area with no trees. Remember that every maintenance practice, fertilizer application, and chemical (especially herbicide) application has an impact on turfgrass health.

If turfgrass becomes diseased, cultural practices should be implemented first or at the same time that fungicides are applied. If a home lawn, recreational site, or commercial landscape has a history of developing a particular disease at a certain time of year, then it makes sense to implement cultural practices to prevent this yearly reoccurrence.

If you are a landscape maintenance professional, explain to the landscape owner your reasons for altering a practice. Provide them with records indicating such things as disease outbreaks, cost of fungicide applications, and turf replacement. Explain the potential benefits of altering a maintenance practice in both economical and ecological terms.

The cultural practices discussed below are designed to alter the turfgrass environment to prevent diseases or, at least, lessen their severity. For more specific details on each topic, see the relevant chapters in the Florida Lawn Handbook at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_book_florida_lawn_handbook.

Turfgrass Selection

The selection of turfgrass species (St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, bahiagrass, etc.) and cultivars within that species (e.g., 'Floratam' vs. 'Raleigh' St. Augustinegrass) should be based on location and how the turf will be used and maintained. Selections that are not suited for a particular area are continually stressed and more susceptible to diseases and pests, requiring increased maintenance costs in terms of labor and pesticides. For example, it is difficult to grow St. Augustinegrass without supplemental irrigation or with too much shade. Centipedegrass should be grown in soils with low pH (less than 6.0). Check with your county Cooperative Extension Service office for local recommendations.

Mowing Practices

Mowing is the most common turfgrass maintenance practice and the most damaging when done improperly. Mower blades must be sharp so they cut rather than tear the turf leaves. Turfgrasses that are cut below their optimum height become stressed and more susceptible to diseases, especially root rots. Mow as frequently as necessary so that no more than one-third of the leaf is removed at any one time. The actual recommended turf height depends on the turfgrass species being grown. It is especially important not to mow St. Augustinegrass too low. Avoid mowing wet grass.

When any disease occurs, raise the cutting height. A low cutting height reduces the leaf tissue necessary for photosynthesis, the process by which the plant produces energy for growth. An active disease eventually reduces the leaf canopy, and photosynthesis is reduced even further. Raising the cutting height increases the green plant tissue available for photosynthesis, resulting in more energy for turfgrass growth and subsequent recovery from the disease.

Mulching mowers do not increase diseases. However, if an area of the lawn has an active leaf disease, this area should be mowed last to prevent the spread of the disease. Likewise, wash the mower with water after mowing the diseased area to remove diseased leaf clippings.

Water Management

While irrigation is essential to prevent drought damage during the dry season, the amount of water and the timing of its application can prevent or contribute to disease development. Most fungal pathogens that cause leaf diseases require free water (rainfall, irrigation, dew) on the leaf or very high humidity to initiate the infection process.

Dew (more importantly, the length of the dew period) is a critical factor for leaf disease development. Dew is dependent on temperature and humidity. Extending the length of the dew period by irrigating in the evening before dew forms or in the morning after dew evaporates extends the dew period. Therefore, irrigate when dew is already present, usually in the predawn hours. A good time range is between 2 and 8 a.m. This also dilutes or removes the guttation fluid (fluid being forced out of the leaf tips by internal plant pressure) that can accumulate at the cut leaf tip and may provide a food source for some pathogens.

Irrigate only when drought stress is observed (as evidenced by curled leaf blades), and then apply enough water to saturate the root zone of the turfgrass. Make sure the irrigation system is applying the water uniformly across the lawn. Irrigating every day for a few minutes is not beneficial for the turfgrass because it does not provide enough water to the root zone, but it is beneficial for the turfgrass pathogens. It is always best to apply water in the early morning hours (after 2 a.m.). This saves water and helps reduce disease development.

Nutrition (Fertilizer) Management

Many diseases are also influenced by the nutritional status of the grass, especially nitrogen (N). Both excessively high and excessively low nitrogen fertility contribute to turfgrass diseases. The goal is to create a perfect balance. Excessive nitrogen applications encourage the diseases brown patch and gray leaf spot. Very low nitrogen levels encourage dollar spot disease. Remember, it is easy to add nitrogen but impossible to remove it. Therefore, apply the minimal amount of nitrogen required for the particular turfgrass in the lawn.

Potassium (K) seems to be an important component in the prevention of diseases, perhaps because it prevents plant stress. To maintain healthy turfgrass, the amount of elemental potassium applied should be either the same or greater than the amount of nitrogen. In an area prone to disease, it is beneficial to increase the amount of potassium. It is important to remember that potassium leaches just as readily as nitrogen. The use of both nitrogen and potassium from slow-release sources is highly encouraged. If it is not possible to obtain slow-release potassium, apply smaller amounts of quick-release potassium more frequently. This is especially useful during the rainy season. When turfgrass roots are damaged or not functioning properly—whether from diseases, nematodes, or water-saturated soils—it is beneficial to apply nutrients in a liquid solution sprayed on the leaf tissue. Damaged roots have a difficult time absorbing nutrients from the soil. Frequent applications of small amounts of nutrients to the leaves help keep the plant alive until new roots are produced. Application frequency is dependent on the severity of the root problem but could be as often as twice a month.

Thatch Management

Thatch is the tightly bound layer of living and dead stems and roots that develops between the zone of green vegetation and the soil surface. It is a natural component of turfgrass. When excessive thatch accumulates, it means plant tissue is being produced more quickly than it is being decomposed. Bacteria, fungi, earthworms, and other organisms that naturally live in the soil decompose thatch.

Excessive thatch often causes the mower to sink because the turfgrass is "spongy." This produces a lower cutting height than desired and potential scalping of St. Augustinegrass, which results in stressed turf. Physical removal is the best way to eliminate excessive thatch. To prevent excessive thatch from occurring again, review maintenance practices. Is too much nitrogen being applied? Is too much or too little water being used for irrigation? Correct those practices that may be promoting excess thatch development.

Soil Physical and Chemical Status

Compacted soils prevent proper drainage, resulting in areas that remain excessively wet. Once they dry out completely, they are often difficult to rewet. Turfgrass in these areas may have root systems that are deprived of oxygen, resulting in a weak plant. This is also an ideal situation for root rots to develop. High soil pH may affect nutrient uptake and weaken the plant. High salt concentrations impact turfgrass health, resulting in higher disease susceptibility.

If areas in the lawn or landscape appear to dry out first or are the first to appear sick, use a metal rod to be sure that there is nothing buried at that location. It is not uncommon to find building materials buried in the landscape. If an area is waterlogged for long periods, build that area up and make it level with the rest of the lawn.

Chemical Control Practices

What Is a Fungicide?

Fungicides are pesticides used to manage fungal diseases. Fungicides suppress or slow down fungal growth or prevent the fungus from reproducing. Most fungicides are active against a limited group of fungi. This is why it is important to know what disease you need to control.

Fungicides do not promote the growth of the turfgrass. The only way healthy turfgrass reappears is when new growth occurs. For example, a leaf spot will remain on the leaf even after a fungicide is applied. This diseased leaf area will remain until it is removed by mowing and a new leaf replaces it, or until the leaf dies and begins to decompose. Since many turfgrass diseases occur when the grass is not actively growing, complete recovery may be very slow. It may seem like the turfgrass is not responding to the fungicide application, when in fact the fungicide has been effective against the fungal target. It is simply that the turfgrass has not grown enough to replace the diseased tissue.

When to Use a Fungicide

It is acceptable to use fungicides on a preventive basis (prior to disease development) as long as it is understood which diseases/pathogens are likely to occur at any given time of the year. For example, why apply a fungicide to protect against Pythium blight on St. Augustinegrass when this is an extremely rare disease? Why apply a fungicide to prevent take-all root rot when this disease has never been observed on the lawn before?

Use fungicides only when absolutely necessary. Just because your neighbor has a lawn disease does not mean it will occur on your lawn, as your management techniques or turfgrass cultivar may be different. Remember that the primary factor for turfgrass disease development in Florida is the environment—not just the overall environment, but also the microenvironment created by building placement in the landscape or by management practices. In fact, each side of the house may have its own microenvironment influenced by factors such as trees, other buildings, bodies of water, and soil type.

When using a fungicide, read the label and follow the directions regarding rates, the amount of water needed to apply the product effectively, irrigation requirements, and safety instructions for mixing, applying, and storing the product. Almost all pesticide failures are due to misapplication, including misidentification of the problem. Don't waste money, become a safety risk, or pollute the environment by using a product incorrectly.

Think about fungicide applications relative to other maintenance practices. Unless the clippings are returned to the turfgrass, do not mow for at least 24 hours (preferably longer). The fungicide is probably on the leaf. If the clippings are collected when the yard is mowed, the fungicide is also collected. Unless the product is supposed to be irrigated into the soil, do not irrigate for at least 24 hours after a fungicide application. Ideally, the turf area should be mowed and irrigated prior to a fungicide application to allow a maximum time interval between fungicide application and the next turfgrass maintenance operation.

Fungicide Categories

Turfgrass fungicides can be divided into four broad categories based on the location of their activity: 1) contact fungicides, 2) systemic fungicides, 3) local-penetrant fungicides, and 4) mesostemic fungicides. They can also be divided into very small groups based on chemical properties.

Contact fungicides

Contact fungicides are generally applied to the leaf and stem surfaces of turfgrasses. They are considered protective or preventive fungicides. They inhibit the fungi on the plant surface so the fungus is not able to enter/infect the plant. These fungicides remain on the plant surface and do not penetrate the plant. They remain active only as long as the fungicide remains on the plant surface in sufficient concentration to inhibit fungal growth, usually 7–14 days. Leaves that emerge after the fungicide has been applied are not protected. Any fungus already in the plant will not be affected. To obtain optimum protection, it is important that contact fungicides evenly coat the entire leaf surface and are allowed to dry completely before irrigating or mowing.

Contact fungicides are normally used to control foliar diseases and not root diseases. The exceptions are those used to control Pythium root rot (chloroneb and etridiazole). Contact fungicides have a broad spectrum of disease control activity and have been used extensively in the turf industry for a number of years. However, recent changes in labeling have occurred, so always read the label prior to fungicide use. Mancozeb can only be applied by a professional pesticide applicator. Chlorothalonil can no longer be applied to the turfgrass in residential landscapes (single-family homes, condominiums, and apartment complexes). It can be applied to the turfgrass of commercial landscapes and to the ornamentals in a residential landscape.

Systemic Fungicides

Systemic fungicides are chemicals that penetrate plant surfaces and are then translocated (moved) within the plant vascular system, either in the xylem or phloem tissue. Except for fosetyl-Al (Aliette®), which is translocated in xylem and phloem (primarily phloem) tissue, systemic fungicides are xylem limited.

In general, systemic fungicides have curative and protective properties with extended residual activity. Because systemic fungicides are absorbed by the plants, they work inside the plant to 1) control pathogenic fungi that have already entered the plant and initiated a disease (curative action), and 2) inhibit fungi that enter the plant from initiating a disease (preventive action). Their residual activity is also due to the fact that the plant absorbs them. Once a systemic fungicide is inside the plant, it cannot be removed by water or degraded by sunlight. Newly emerged plant tissue may contain sufficient concentrations of the fungicide to protect it from fungal infection. Therefore, systemic fungicides do not need to be applied as often as contact fungicides; usually 21–30-day intervals are adequate.

Systemic fungicides usually have a very specific mode of action and do not have as broad a spectrum of disease control as contact fungicides. However, they control both foliar and root pathogens. When attempting to control root diseases, systemic fungicides may need to be watered into the root zone for maximum effectiveness. As indicted above, the majority of systemic fungicides are xylem limited. If the fungicides are only applied to the leaf tissue, the compounds may never reach their root target in the amount needed for control.

Local-penetrant fungicides

Local-penetrant fungicides are capable of penetrating the plant surface, but they only move very short distances within the plant and do not enter the xylem or phloem tissue. The majority of the fungicide remains on or near the plant surface. Included in this group of fungicides are iprodione and vinclozolin. These fungicides are considered protective/preventive fungicides. The discussion on contact fungicides applies to this group of fungicides also.

Mesostemic fungicides

Mesostemic fungicides are a new group of fungicides that includes trifloxystrobin (e.g., Compass™). This fungicide is strongly attracted to the plant surface and is absorbed by the waxy plant layers. It appears to continuously penetrate the leaf surface. However, it is not translocated in the plant vascular system (xylem or phloem), and so is not truly systemic. The fungicide is able to redistribute itself on the plant surface via localized vapor movement and surface moisture. This fungicide works best as a preventive fungicide. Because the fungicide is not directly exposed to weathering factors, reapplication intervals are 14–21 days.

Chemical Names and Classes

Each fungicide has three different names. Each has only one chemical name (a long technical name based on its chemistry) and only one common name (a simpler one-word name), but the fungicide can have multiple trade or brand names. Fungicides are also divided into chemical groups based on their chemical properties and activities. Table 1 lists fungicides based on chemical groups and provides the common names of turfgrass fungicides and a trade name example. For a homeowner's guide to turfgrass fungicides, see http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_pp154.

To prevent fungicide resistance from developing in a pathogen population, it is important to know which fungicides belong to the same chemical group. Fungicides in the same chemical group have the same mode of action. Fungicides should be periodically alternated or used in mixtures with fungicides belonging to different chemical groups to prevent fungicide resistance. For example, alternating between Bayleton® (triadimefon) and Banner® MAXX (propiconazole) does not mean you have alternated between chemical groups because both fungicides belong to the same chemical group, the demethylation inhibitors.

Read Labels!

It is extremely important to read and follow the instructions on the label. Almost all pesticide failures are due to either misidentification of the problem or misapplication of the pesticide. Don't waste your money, become a safety risk, or pollute the environment by using a product incorrectly. Remember that following labels is the law. They are considered legal documents.

Except for chemicals used to buffer the water pH, do NOT add any additive (e.g., surfactants) to a fungicide unless the label specifically states this is acceptable. The majority of fungicides already have a surfactant as part of the fungicide formulation. NEVER mix fertilizer solutions with fungicides, especially fungicides that contain metals (e.g., mancozeb, fosetyl-Al, and chlorothalonil with zinc) without determining compatibility. It has taken years of research to produce the fungicides currently on the market. Please take advantage of that knowledge by reading the label and asking questions of university and chemical company employees.

Biological Control Practices

Microorganisms naturally present in the turfgrass ecosystem help reduce disease potential or disease damage, but only if they are allowed to flourish. They accomplish these tasks by 1) competing with the pathogens for food sources, 2) producing chemicals that inhibit the growth of the pathogens, or 3) physically excluding the pathogens from the plant by occupying the space first. Therefore, it is just as critical to keep the soil microbial population healthy as it is the turfgrass. Reducing pesticide use is one way this may be accomplished. Although many products (sugars, enzymes, carbohydrates, etc.) on the market claim to increase natural microbial populations, there is no documentation that this occurs in home lawns or landscapes in Florida.

Microorganisms not naturally present in the turfgrass environment can be introduced in an attempt to control diseases. This can be done by applying organic materials that have natural microbial populations (composts) or have had microbial populations added to them (natural organic fertilizers with microbial supplements). However, there is little documentation that these products consistently prevent diseases. For both types of products, they must be applied prior to disease development because they work preventively, not curatively. Natural organic fertilizers should be used for their nutrient value (nitrogen and potassium) and not for any possible secondary effects.

There are many products composed of living organisms, primarily bacteria and fungi, on the market that claim they increase turfgrass health. However, for any material to be considered a biological fungicide or microbial biopesticide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must register it. EPA registration indicates that the safety of the product to humans, nonhumans (e.g., fish), and the environment has been determined. Materials that have not been approved by the EPA should be used with caution. Many naturally occurring bacteria and fungi are also secondary human pathogens, especially for people with weak immune systems. As part of the natural ecosystem, they cause few problems. However, when concentrated formulations of these organisms are applied through a pesticide sprayer to create aerosols, caution should be exercised. Also, many of these products have not been evaluated using proper experimental protocols.

Summary

  • A disease is an interaction between the plant and a pathogen that disrupts the normal growth and appearance of the plant. Diseases are the exception and not the rule for lawns.

  • The three steps to disease management include 1) correctly identifying the disease, 2) identifying the conditions promoting disease development, and 3) identifying the management techniques that can alter or eliminate these conducive conditions.

  • Management techniques should rely on cultural practices first, with fungicides applied only when necessary.

  • Cultural practices include selecting the proper turfgrass, mowing at the correct height, irrigating only as needed and at the correct time, balancing nitrogen and potassium in quantity and source, avoiding or reducing excessive thatch accumulation, and preventing or reducing compacted soils.

  • Every maintenance practice, fertilizer application, and chemical (especially herbicide) application has an impact on turfgrass health.

Additional Resources

For fact sheets about specific turfgrass diseases as well as lawn care, refer to the Florida Lawn Handbook at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_book_florida_lawn_handbook.

Couch, H. B. 1995. Diseases of Turfgrasses. Melbourne, FL: Krieger.

Smiley, R. W., P. H. Dernoeden, and B. B. Clarke. 2005. Compendium of Turfgrass Diseases. 3rd ed. St. Paul, MN: APS Press.

Tani, T., and J. B. Beard. 1997. Color Atlas of Turfgrass Diseases. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishers.

Vargas, J. 1994. Management of Turfgrass Diseases. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers.

Tables

Table 1. 

Turfgrass fungicides listed by chemical group for use in Florida

Chemical group

Common name1 (trade name example2)

Location of activity

Mode of action

Mode of action

FRAC codes3

       

Acylalanines (phenylamides)

Mefenoxam (Subdue® Maxx)

Systemic; upward movement

Nucleic acid synthesis

4

       

Acylpicolides

Fluopicolide (Stellar®)

Systemic; upward movement

Delocalization of spectrin-like proteins

43

       

Aromatic hydrocarbons

Chloroneb (Tersan)

Etridiazole (=ethazole) (Terrazole®)

Contact

Lipids and membrane synthesis

14

       

Carbamates

Propamocarb (Banol®)

Systemic; upward movement

Lipids and membrane synthesis

28

       

Carboxamides

Boscalid (Emerald®)

Flutolanil (ProStar®)

Systemic; upward movement

Respiration (complex II)

7

       

Chloronitriles

Chlorothalonil (Daconil®)

Contact

Multisite contact activity

M5

       

Demethylation inhibitors

Fenarimol (Rubigan®)

Metconazole (Tourney®)

Myclobutanil (Eagle)

Propiconazole (Banner® MAXX)

Triadimefon (Bayleton®)

Triticonazole (Trinity®, Chipco Triton®)

Systemic; upward movement

Sterol biosynthesis in membranes

3

       

Dicarboximides

Iprodione (Chipco® 26GT, Iprodione Pro)

Vinclozolin (Curalan®)

Local penetrant

Signal transduction

2

       

Dithiocarbamates

Mancozeb (Dithane®, Fore®)

Thiram (Defiant®)

Contact

Multisite contact activity

M3

       

Inorganic metals

Copper hydroxide (Kocide®)

Contact

Multisite contact activity

M1

       

Phosphonates

Fosetyl-Al (Chipco Aliette® Signature)

Phosphorous acid (Alude, Resyst, Magellan®)

Systemic; upward and downward movement

Unknown

33

       

Polyoxins

Polyoxin D zinc salt (Endorse)

Systemic; upward movement

Glucan and cell wall synthesis

19

       

PhenylPyrroles

Fludioxonil (Medallion®)

Contact

Signal transduction

12

       

QoI quinone outside inhibitors

Azoxystrobin (Heritage®)

Fluoxastrobin (Disarm®)

Pyraclostrobin (Insignia®)

Trifloxystrobin (Compass)

Systemic; upward movement

Mesostemic

Respiration (complex III)

11

QiI quinone inside inhibitor

Cyazofamid (Segway®)

Limited systemic

Respiration (complex III)

21

Thiophanates (MBC fungicides)

Thiophanate methyl (3336)

Systemic; upward movement

Mitosis and cell division

1

1Read all labels to determine the specific site where it is legal to use the products on turfgrass. For example, some products can only be used on golf courses, whereas others can be used on all turf sites except residential turfgrass.

2Specific products are listed for example only. Neither inclusion of products nor omission of similar alternative products in this publication is meant to imply any endorsement or criticism.

3FRAC = Fungicide Resistance Action Committee. Codes indicate the biochemical target site. M1, M3, and M5 indicate multisite inhibitor (broad mode of action) with no significant risk of resistance. See www.frac.info/frac/index.htm for further information. When considering rotation and tank mixes, be sure to use materials that do not have the same mode of action.

Footnotes

1.

This document is SS-PLP-14, one of a series of the Plant Pathology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date July 1991. Revised February 2011. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

M. L. Elliott, professor, Plant Pathology, Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center; and P. F. Harmon, associate professor, Plant Pathology Department, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.