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Publication #PP268

Black Spot of Rose1

Jozer Mangandi and Natalia A. Peres2

Introduction

Black spot is a fungal disease that affects nearly all rose cultivars worldwide. It is a frequent problem for roses grown outdoors and reduces the quality and life span of the plants. However, the poor performance of roses in Florida can also be associated with various factors such as inadequate fertilization and water deficiency during the warm season, as well as the use of root stocks and scions not well-adapted to Florida's conditions.

Causal Agent and Geographical Distribution

The black spot pathogen, Marssonina rosae (Diplocarpon rosae, sexual stage), is a parasite specific to roses and is considered the most serious disease of roses in Florida. The disease was first reported in Sweden in 1815 and in the United States in 1830. Since then, it has been reported in South America, Canada, Australia, and China, among other countries.

Different genotypes or races of M. rosae, i.e., isolates that infect a specific cultivar or group of cultivars have been identified. Certain species of roses and cultivars of old garden roses are considered more resistant to the disease than modern cultivars. Modern roses and especially the popular hybrid teas are not only more susceptible to the disease, but also are considered high maintenance roses in Florida requiring more attention to disease control, fertilization, and irrigation.

Symptoms

M. rosae produces black spots of about two to 12 mm in diameter usually in the upper surface of the leaves (Fig. 1a). Often, those spots may have irregular, radiate, feathery borders (Fig. 1b). In older lesions, black spore-bearing structures, called acervuli, can be observed as well as white, slimy masses of conidia (Fig. 2a). Yellowing around the lesions on infected leaves can occur, and severe defoliation occurs in the most susceptible cultivars. While leaves are the most susceptible part of the plant, stipules and pedicels can also be infected. Spots can also be found also in peduncles, fruits, and sepals. Symptoms of black spot are usually confused with those of Cercospora leaf spot (See EDIS publication Cercospora Leaf Spot of Rose at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP267).

Figure 1a. 

Leaves of 'Old Blush' rose infected with Marsonina rosae.


Credit:

J. Mangandi, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 1b. 

Typical lesion of black spot on a rose leaf.


Credit:

J. Mangandi, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

The infection cycle starts when spores are spread by rain or overhead irrigation from leaves or canes infected from the previous season. The conidia must be wet for several hours to infect plant tissues. Symptoms begin to appear in three to 16 days after infection. Mature conidia can be produced 10 to 18 days after infection and initiate a new cycle. Conidia are colorless and two-celled (Fig. 2b). A temperature of 64°F is optimal for black spot development, but conidia germination still occurs from 59 to 81°F. This wide temperature range allows the disease to continue to develop as long as the moisture is adequate during the season.

Figure 2a. 

Black acervuli on a lesion caused by Marsonina rosae. Note the white masses of conidia (arrows), 50x.


Credit:

J. Mangandi, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 2b. 

Microscopic view of two-celled conidia of Marsonina rosae, 400x.


Credit:

J. Mangandi, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Control

Black spot can be controlled by planting cultivars with resistance to the disease such as WEKcisbako (HomeRun®) or RADrazz (Knock Out®). These cultivars are, however, susceptible to Cercospora leaf spot. Old garden roses 'Mrs. B.R. Cant' and 'Spice' have shown good levels of resistance to both diseases in our trials. Sanitation practices, such as removal and burning of fallen leaves and pruning of canes late in the winter before new shoots are produced, help reduce the amount of inoculum. Plants should not be allowed to remain wet for long periods of time and overhead irrigation should be avoided or minimized. If this is not possible, plants should be irrigated early in the morning to allow leaves to dry.

For chemical control, an initial application of a protectant fungicide should be made at bud break, followed by bimonthly applications until leaves are completely expanded. During the summer, applications every 7–14 days may be necessary to successfully manage the disease. Fungicides labeled for the control of black spot of roses in Florida are listed in Tables 1 and 2. For managing fungicide resistance, the best strategy is to rotate among products with different modes of action. All fungicides within the same group (with the same number or letter) have the same active ingredient or a similar mode of action. Fungicide resistance is usually low with multi-site inhibitor fungicides group (M).

Tables

Table 1. 

Fungicide products marketed for use by professional pesticide applicators for control of black spot on roses.

Trade name

Active ingredient

Fungicide group

Heritage Strobe 2L

Azoxystrobin

11

Captan 50 WP, Captan 50 W, Captec 4L

Captan

M4

Spectro 90 WDG

Chlorothalonil + thiophanate-methyl

M5 + 1

Many brands available:

Chlorothalonil

M5

ArmorTech CLT 720, ArmorTech CLT 825, Chlorothalonil 720, Daconil Ultrex Turf Care, Docket DF, Echo 720 Turf and Ornamental, Echo ZN T&O, Esign 82.5, Initiate 720 Flowable Fungicide, Legend, Phoenix Pegasus 6L

Champ Formula 2 Flowable, CuPRO 2005 T/N/O

Copper hydroxide

M1

COC DF, COC WP, Badge SC

Copper hydroxide + Copper oxychloride

M1

C-O-C-S WDG

Copper oxychloride sulfate

M1

Junction

Copper + Mancozeb

M1 + M3

Dithane 75 DF Rainshield, Koverall, Fore 80WP Rainshield, Manzate Max T&O

Mancozeb

M3

Maneb 75 DF, Maneb 80 WP

Maneb

M3

AmTide, Banner Maxx, Dorado, Procon Z, Propensity 1.3 ME

Propiconazole

3

Clearscape T&O, Offset 3.6F, VIBE

Tebuconazole

3

Fungo Flo, Helena T-Methyl 4.5 F, Incognito85 WDG, Nufarm T-Methyl SPC 4.5 F, OHP 6672 4.5 F, Tm 85 WGD

Thiophanate-methyl

1

Armada 50 WDG

Trifloxystrobin + Triadimefon

3 + 11

Cosavet DF, Drexwl Sulfur 90W, Kumulus DF, Micro Sulf, Microthiol Dispers, Thiofix 80 DF

Sulfur

M2

Ziram 76 DF, Ziram granuflo

Ziram

M3

Fungicide Group (FRAC Code): Numbers (1-37) and letters (M) are used to distinguish the fungicidal mode of action groups. All fungicides within the same group (with same number or letter) indicate same active ingredient or similar mode of action. This information must be considered in making decisions about how to manage fungicide resistance. M=Multi-site inhibitors, fungicide resistance is low. Source: http://www.frac.info/ (Fungicide Resistance Action Committee, FRAC). Not all legally available products sold in Florida are listed. For such a list, contact the Florida Department of Agriculture. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemicals.

Table 2. 

Fungicide products marketed toward homeowners for control of black spot on roses.

Trade name

Active ingredient

Fungicide group

Hi-Yield Captan Fungicide, Bonide Captan Fruit and Ornamental

Captan

M4

Ferti-lome Liquid Fungicide, Bonide Fung-onil Multipurpose Fungicide, Monterey Bravado Fungicide, Ortho Garden Disease Control

Chlorothalonil

M5

Monterey Liqui-Cop

Copper ammonium complex

M1

Ferti-lome Blackspot Powdery Mildew Control, Hi-Yield Copper Fungicide

Copper hydroxide

M1

Bonide Copper Dust or Spray, Dexol Bordeaux Powder

Copper sulfate

M1

Bonide Mancozeb Flowable

Mancozeb

M3

Spectracide Immunox Multipurpose Fungicide

Myclobutanil

3

Bonide Rose Rx 3-in-1, Ferti-lome Triple Action Plus, Monterey 70% Neem oil

Neem Oil

NC

Bonide Remedy

Potassium bicarbonate

NC

Ferti-lome Systematic Fungicide, Bonide Infuse

Propiconazole

3

Bonide Sulfur Plant Fungicide, Ferti-lome Dusting Sulfur, Green Light Wettable Dusting Sulfur, Hi-Yield Dusting Wettable Sulfur, Safer Garden Fungicide

Sulfur

M2

Bayer Advanced Garden Disease Control for Roses, Flowers, & Shrubs

Tebuconazole

3

Ferti-lome Halt Systemic Fungicide, Green Light Systemic Fungicide

Thiophanate-methyl

1

Ortho Rose Pride Rose & Shrub Disease Control

Triforine

3

Ziram 76 DF, Ziram granuflo

Ziram

M3

Fungicide Group (FRAC Code): Numbers (1-37) and letters (M) are used to distinguish the fungicidal mode of action groups. All fungicides within the same group (with same number or letter) indicate same active ingredient or similar mode of action. This information must be considered in making decisions about how to manage fungicide resistance. M=Multi-site inhibitors, fungicide resistance is low; NC= not classified. Source: http://www.frac.info/ (Fungicide Resistance Action Committee, FRAC). Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemicals.

Footnotes

1.

This document is PP268, one of a series of the Plant Pathology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date May 2009. Revised July 2012 and December 2015. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Jozer Mangandi, graduate student, Department of Horticultural Sciences; and Natalia A. Peres, associate professor, Department of Plant Pathology, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication does not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition. All chemicals should be used in accordance with directions on the manufacturer's label.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.