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Building for Birds Evaluation Tool: Forest Fragments Used as Stopover Sites by Migrant Birds1

Mark Hostetler and Jan-Michael Archer2

Introduction

The goal of the “Building for Birds” online tool is to provide decision makers with a way to evaluate different development scenarios and how they affect habitat for different species of forest birds that can use fragmented areas. This evaluation tool is most useful for small developments or developments in already fragmented landscapes.

The tool is designed for use when no opportunity is available to conserve large forest areas of 125 acres or more within a proposed development. Developers are sometimes reluctant to conserve trees and forest fragments in subdivided residential/commercial areas because it costs time and money, but there is value in this conservation effort for many different species of forest birds—not to mention future homeowners waking to birdsong in the mornings. Forest fragments and trees conserved in built areas can serve as breeding, wintering, and stopover habitat for a variety of species.

Many bird species use habitat in and around urban areas. The online tool calculates conserved bird habitat scores based on forest fragments and tree canopy cover conserved for a particular development design. To determine bird habitat scores as a result of different development designs, simply enter the amount of conserved forest fragments and conserved tree canopy cover in built areas. Using these inputs, the tool generates a report for a particular scenario, containing a score for each of the bird habitat categories and a list of birds that could be found in each of these habitats. The tool can be found at http://wec.ifas.ufl.edu/buildingforbirds/web/home.html . Below, we describe how this tool can assist with preserving stopover sites for migrating birds.

Migrating Birds

Long-Distance Migrants

In and around urban areas, forest fragments could be used by an important group of birds called Neotropical migrants (Figure 1). These long-distance migrants typically breed during the summer in the United States and Canada, and they migrate south to spend the winter months in Mexico, Caribbean islands, Central America, and South America (Figure 2). Note that although some individuals of a population of Neotropical migrants winter in the United States (e.g., some yellow warblers winter in south Florida), most winter south of the United States. Migrating species make the return trip in the spring back to their breeding grounds. Along the migration route, forest fragments in urban and rural areas can serve as stopover sites where migrants land for anywhere from a few days to a few weeks. These stopover sites provide crucial “rest stops” where Neotropical migrants rest and forage on their long journeys.

Figure 1. 

Neotropical migrants such as the yellow warbler (Setophaga petechia, left) and yellow-throated vireo (Vireo flavifrons, right), migrate during the spring and fall and may use forest fragments as stopover sites during migration.


Credit:

Audubon, www.audubon.org


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 2. 

On their breeding grounds, a few Neotropical migrants use forest edges and open woodlands and are not very sensitive to forest fragmentation (e.g., Baltimore oriole, Icterus galbula). However, many Neotropical migrants are sensitive to fragmentation (e.g., cerulean warbler, Setophaga cerulea) and typically only breed successfully in large patches of forest (greater than 100 acres). Birds that primarily breed in large forest patches are called interior forest specialists. These species are thought to be vulnerable in fragmented landscapes because they are area sensitive, typically build open-cup nests on or near the ground, lay relatively few eggs, and often do not nest again if a nest fails.

In fragmented landscapes containing agriculture and urban areas, a variety of nest predators and brood parasites are more abundant along the edges of forests. Nest predators include mammals and birds, such as raccoons, cats, skunks, blue jays, and crows. The main brood parasite is the brown-headed cowbird that lays eggs in a Neotropical migrant’s nest, tricking the migrant parents into feeding and raising the cowbird chick instead of their own. Cowbirds and nest predators thrive in fragmented forest landscapes containing agriculture fields, pastures, and residential development.

Some interior forest specialists (e.g., Canada warbler, Cardellina Canadensis) breed in dense understory growth in the openings of large forests and use regenerating vegetation (caused by windfalls, fires, and clearcutting). Although they technically breed along edges, they do so in large forest patches, and they are thought to be vulnerable to the increased predation and cowbird parasitism common in forest edges found in fragmented landscapes where urban and agriculture areas are nearby. Overall, interior forest specialists are vulnerable to forest fragmentation and many populations of these species are declining and are in danger of extinction due to human modifications of the landscape.

Short- and Medium-Distance Migrants

Short- and medium-distance migrants are birds that breed in the United States and Canada and winter in the United States. Short-distance migrants move within their breeding range, whereas medium-distance migrants move south of their breeding range but still within the United States. Many of these species are considered both as year-round residents (they breed and winter in the same area) and short- and/or medium-distance migrants. The American robin (Turdus migratorius) is an example because a portion of the robin population breeds in Canada and migrates south to the United States during the winter. Other robins can be seen year-round in most states south of Canada, but of these, a portion of the population will migrate south during the winter, going across state lines. Florida is one state where robins do not breed but they can be found in Florida during the winter because some robins migrate there.

Sometimes, individuals in the same species can either be short/medium-distance or long-distance migrants. For example, cedar waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum) are Neotropical migrants. Most of them are long-distance and spend the winter months in Central America and Caribbean islands, but a portion of the population is medium-distance and winters in Georgia, Texas, Florida, and other southern states of the United States.

Scoring Justification and Species List

Studies we encountered in our review of the literature (Appendix B) have found that many Neotropical migrants, both migrants that breed in the interiors of large forests and migrants that breed in small forest patches and open woodlands, use small forest fragments as stopover sites. Thus, small forest fragments may not be appropriate as breeding habitat for many interior forest Neotropical migrant species but could serve as stopover habitat. Short/medium-distance migrants also use forest fragments as stopover sites. Some studies have indicated that Neotropical and short-distance migrants were found in early and late successional forest fragments. Therefore, we count both early and late successional forest patches as stopover habitat. Early successional forest fragments are defined here as 1) shrublands composed primarily of shrubs with some scattering of trees and grassland patches, and 2) very young forests primarily composed of planted pine saplings and/or pioneer species such as black cherry (Prunus sp.), trees that are 0–15 years old, and tree height is typically less than 30 ft. In late successional forest fragments, most of the trees that form the canopy are over 30 ft tall, including both relatively young forests with trees 15–50 years old and mature forests with trees 50 years old or older. (To be considered a forest fragment, the minimum size is 1 acre of forest. Any groupings of trees less than 1 acre do not count as forest fragments.)

From the scientific literature, we generated a list of migrant birds that were observed in small forest fragments during the spring and fall migration seasons, indicating these species could use small urban forest remnants as stopover habitat (Appendix A). We included only forest birds that are in order Passeriformes (i.e., perching birds) and Piciformes (i.e., woodpeckers); we excluded raptors, waterbirds, etc. from the lists. Because of study locations reported in the literature, this list does not cover all North American migrant species. In other words, bird species may be missing because they were not adequately studied. However, we suspect that any forest-dwelling migrant bird could use small forest fragments as stopover sites along its migration route.

A majority of the species in Appendix A were from studies that surveyed migrating species in one or several similar-sized, small forest fragments. These studies listed migrant bird species that used these patches during the fall or spring. They did not explicitly compare forest fragments of different sizes. However, a few studies conducted surveys across a range of small forest fragments, and these studies found that relatively larger forest fragments contained more Neotropical migrants (Cox 1988, Somershoe et al. 2004). Because of these studies, we gave more points for conserving relatively larger forest fragments, and we divided forest fragments into 5 patch-size categories (Table 1).

We note that the scores are only relative for one design versus another. A higher score on one site than another may indicate more individuals or bird species on that site, but a higher score on a given site does not necessarily indicate that a similar—or even a nearly identical—site will have a similarly high score. Habitat selection by wildlife is notoriously difficult to predict. There are many other variables, such as habitat quality and surrounding landscapes (e.g., whether the development located next to forest land or agricultural land). Thus, the scores do not translate into an exact measure of increased habitat that leads to an increase in the abundance or species richness of forest birds—e.g., if forest fragment cover were increased by 10%, then that would mean one would find 2 more birds per acre or an increase in species diversity by 10%. The tool only can be interpreted in this way: a higher score means that there is more available bird habitat on the site, and it could attract more individuals or more species if that design were adopted.

Scoring Examples

To score stopover habitat, start at the largest forest patch category (larger than 17 acres) and work your way down, counting each patch only once. Here, we give an example on how to score stopover habitat for a hypothetical development scenario. In this example, the developer has conserved forest patches of various acreages in the different size categories for a total of 100 acres (Figure 3). The total score for this scenario is 124 points (Table 2).

Figure 3. 

Conserved forest patches of different sizes conserved for a hypothetical development scenario.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

In order to count a forest patch (both early and late successional, as defined above), the area contained within the forest patch must be primarily composed of native trees and must be managed as natural habitat. In other words, a majority of the trees cannot be cultivated fruit trees or exotic trees, and the understory of the forest patch cannot contain mowed lawns and significant impervious surfaces (e.g., asphalt parking lots). In forest patches that have such human-made features and large areas of exotic trees, simply subtract the number of acres occupied by these artificial structures. The rationale here is that these types of heavily modified areas are lower-quality habitat for birds and would not typically support a diversity of species. However, for calculating the score of tree canopy conserved in the built matrix, do count the tree canopy cover in conserved areas that contain a significant amount of human modified landscapes such as mowed grass or rangeland for cattle. In some situations, land set aside that will be restored through planting or natural forest regeneration could also be counted.

If you have patches that are just under the category cutoffs, do not round up when placing into a category. For example, if 6 patches are measured at 4.9 acres each, these patches belong to in the category of 1 to 5 acres. The total number of acres conserved for this category is 6 X 4.9 acres = 29.4 acres. Here, you would round total number of acres conserved; in this case 29.4 acres is 29 acres conserved for this 1- to 5-acre category.

Improving a score: A developer can improve the score for stopover habitat by conserving larger patches of forest and/or by increasing the amount of forest conserved. In the aforementioned example, the developer could significantly improve the score by clustering the development and saving larger patches. For example, the development could build only on the east side of the property and conserve two larger patches on the west side (Figure 4). In this second scenario, 100 acres of forest patches are still conserved, but the total score is now 168 (Table 3). This is a 36% increase in the score for stopover habitat.

Figure 4. 

In this development scenario, two large fragments and three smaller ones are conserved. The total amount of forest conserved is 100 acres.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Determining Which Bird Species May Be Using the Forest Patches within a Development as Stopover Habitat

Answering this question takes a little investigation because the geographic location of your development may or may not be along the migratory route of a particular species. Appendix A gives a list of migrant species that could use forest patches as stopover sites. Not all of these species will appear within a given development during a given migration, even if that development has a very high score. A development must be within the migratory route of a bird species for that bird to appear in the development. As an example, the cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea) breeds in the northern states of eastern United States, migrates through the southern states, and winters in South America (Figure 5). Thus, if your development is located in Indiana, you might see cerulean warblers in it because Indiana falls within the breeding range of the cerulean warbler. Spotting the birds would still be possible even if there are only small forest fragments in your development because although the birds will not use small forest fragments as nesting habitat (cerulean warblers are interior forest specialists), they might well use those forest fragments as stopover habitat during their migration. Developments in areas outside of the birds’ breeding range, such as Georgia, can still host cerulean warblers using conserved forest fragments as stopover habitat. A development site located in the West would not have Cerulean warblers passing through no matter how high its preservation score because that area is outside the birds’ migratory and breeding ranges.

Figure 5. 

Range map of the Cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea).


Credit:

www.allaboutbirds.org


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

For short-distance migrants, a site could serve as a breeding habitat, stopover habitat, and wintering habitat for the same species. For example, a site containing forest fragments in Indiana could have some robins residing there all year round, some that pass through the area and use the fragments as stopover habitat, and some that migrate to the area and overwinter there. For range maps of all the migrant birds, visit https://www.allaboutbirds.org.

Long-Term Functionality: Managing Conserved Habitat for Birds

Aside from conserving remnant forest fragments, several other strategies can improve the suitability of the forest fragments for bird habitat during the breeding/winter season. Most important is to maintain the quality of the habitat over the long term. Although we mentioned above that forest fragments overrun with exotics or artificial structures such as maintained turfgrass are lower-quality habitat, even natural forest fragments need to be managed appropriately over time. Typically, in urban/agriculture landscapes, forest fragments host a few invasive exotic plants. Further, invasive exotic vegetation planted in yards can escape and invade nearby forest areas. Developments with conserved forest fragments should have funding and a management plan and an educational strategy to engage residents in order to reduce/minimize impacts stemming from nearby urban areas. In particular, we recommend the following:

  1. Educational Signage Program: Because many impacts from nearby residential areas stem from individual homeowner decisions, we recommend raising awareness about these impacts and actions that would retain the biological integrity of the forest fragments and even enhance the habitat values of yards and neighborhoods. Installing neighborhood educational kiosks with environmental panels is one way to raise awareness. This type of education program can impact homeowner knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (Hostetler et al. 2008). See neighborhood signage example at http://www.thenatureofcities.com/2015/06/14/how-can-we-engage-residents-to-conserve-urban-biodiversity-talk-to-them/, and http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw407.

  2. Management Plan and Funding: A management plan should address how the built and conserved areas will be managed to protect biodiversity. Create a funding source to help with the management of natural areas. Funds can be collected from homeowner association dues, home sales (even resales), property taxes, and the sale of large, natural areas to land trusts with some of the funds retained for management.

  3. Codes, Covenants, and Restrictions (CCRs): Implement CCRs that address environmental practices and long-term management of yards, homes, and neighborhoods. These CCRs should describe environmental features installed on lots and shared spaces and appropriate measures to maintain these. An example of an environmental CCR can be found at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw248.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Renewable Resources Extension Act, UF/IFAS project 1000606.

Literature Cited

Cox, James. 1988. “The influence of forest size on transient and resident bird species occupying maritime hammocks of northeastern Florida.” Florida Field Naturalist 16.2 (1988): 25–34.

Hostetler, M., E. Swiman, A. Prizzia, and K. Noiseux. 2008. “Reaching residents of green communities: Evaluation of a unique environmental education program.” Appl. Environ. Edu. Commun. 7, 114–124.

Somershoe, Scott G., and C. Ray Chandler. 2004. “Use of oak hammocks by Neotropical migrant songbirds: the role of area and habitat.” The Wilson Bulletin 116.1 (2004): 56–63.

Tables

Table 1. 

Forest fragment categories and points assigned to each forest fragment category.

Forest fragment categories

Number of acres conserved

Score per acre

Total score per patch category

17 acres or larger

Estimate how many acres are occupied by forest patches 17 acres or larger ______ (whole number)

1.8 points

# acres X 1.8

13 to 17 acres

Estimate how many acres are occupied by forest patches ranging in size from 13 to less than 17 acres. ______ (whole number)

1.6 points

# acres X 1.6

9 to 13 acres

Estimate how many acres are occupied by forest patches ranging in size from 9 to less than 13 acres. ______ (whole number)

1.4 points

# acres X 1.4

5 to 9 acres

Estimate how many acres are occupied by forest patches ranging in size from 5 to less than 9 acres. ______ (whole number)

1.2 points

# acres X 1.2

1 to 5 acres

Estimate how many acres are occupied by forest patches ranging in size from 1 to less than 5 acres. ______ (whole number)

1.0 points

# acres X 1.0

Table 2. 

In this development scenario, some large and small forest fragments are conserved. The total amount of forest conserved is 100 acres.

Forest patch categories

Number of acres conserved

Score per acre

Total score per patch category

17 acres and larger

20

1.8 points

36

13 to less than 17 acres

0

1.6 points

0

9 to less than 13 acres

20

1.4 points

28

5 to less than 9 acres

0

1.2 points

0

1 to less than 5 acres

60

1.0 points

60

Total overall score

   

124

Table 3. 

In this development scenario, most of the conserved forest is in two large patches. The total amount forest conserved is 100 acres.

Forest patch categories

Number of acres conserved

Score per acre

Total score per patch category

larger than 17 acres

85

1.8 points

153

13 to 17 acres

0

1.6 points

0

9 to 13 acres

20

1.4 points

0

5 to 9 acres

0

1.2 points

0

1 to 5 acres

15

1.0 points

15

Total overall score

   

168

Appendix A. 

This list gives species identification, life history, results from all three systematic reviews of the literature, and expected occurrence for all 219 forest bird species recorded in studies conducted throughout the United States and Canada. The Breeding Review covered 12 published studies that surveyed birds in forests, ranging from small fragments to very large forests. The Stopover Review covered 18 published studies that surveyed birds in relatively small forest fragments, ranging from 0.7 ha to 20 ha. The Built Environment Review covered 18 published studies that surveyed birds in residential areas. Species are sorted alphabetically by order and then by common name.

Species

Life History

Breeding Review

Stopover Review

Built Environment Review

Synanthropic Analysis

Occurrence10

Order

Common Name

Scientific Name

IUCN CODE1

Habitat Type2

Migrant Status3

Locality4

Breeds in Late-Successional Forest5

Breeds in Early-Successional Forest6

Confidence in Interior-Forest Specialist Assignment7

No. of Studies from Breeding Review

Total no. of Studies That Observed Species in Small Forest Fragments during Migration Seasons

No. of Studies That Observed Species in the Built Environment during the Breeding

No. of Studies That Observed Species in the Built Environment during the Spring or Fall Migration Seasons

No. of Studies that Observed Species during Breed-Migration8

Confidence in Synanthropic Species Assignment9

Total Number of Studies from Synanthropic Analysis

Breeds in Forest Fragment

Stopover in Forest Fragment

Breeds in Residential Area

Stopover in Residential Area

Apodiformes

Allen's Hummingbird

Selasphorus sasin

LC

OW

LD

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

--

 

?

 

?

Apodiformes

Anna's Hummingbird

Calypte anna

LC

OW

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

4

0

3

High (3)

3

yes

 

yes

 

Apodiformes

Black-chinned Hummingbird

Archilochus alexandri

LC

OW

MD/ LD

W

--

--

--

--

1

2

0

3

High (1)

1

yes

yes

yes

yes

Apodiformes

Broad-billed Hummingbird

Cynanthus latirostris

LC

SC

SD

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

--

 

?

 

?

Apodiformes

Calliope Hummingbird

Selasphorus calliope

LC

OW

LD

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

--

 

?

 

?

Apodiformes

Costa's Hummingbird

Calypte costae

LC

D

YR/ SD

W

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

2

--

--

?

?

 

?

Apodiformes

Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Archilochus colubris

LC

OW

MD/ LD

E

yes

yes

Med (1)

2

2

3

1

0

High (1)

1

yes

yes

yes

yes

Apodiformes

Rufous Hummingbird

Selasphorus rufus

LC

OW

LD

W

--

--

--

--

--

3

1

1

High (2)

2

yes

yes

yes

yes

Columbiformes

Common Ground-dove

Columbina passerina

LC

SC

YR/ SD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

1

--

--

?

?

?

?

Columbiformes

Eurasian Collared-dove

Streptopelia decaocto

LC

T

YR

E/ W

--

--

--

--

--

2

0

0

--

--

?

?

?

?

Columbiformes

Inca Dove

Columbina inca

LC

T

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

2

0

3

--

--

yes

 

yes

 

Columbiformes

Mourning Dove

Zenaida macroura

LC

OW

YR/ LD

E/ W

yes

yes

No (0)

2

3

8

0

3

High (3)

3

yes

yes

yes

yes

Columbiformes

Northern Band-tailed Pigeon

Patagioenas fasciata

LC

F

YR/ MD

W

--

--

--

--

--

3

0

0

High (2)

2

yes

yes

yes

yes

Columbiformes

White-winged Dove

Zenaida asiatica

LC

OW

YR/ SD

W

--

--

--

--

1

3

0

2

--

--

yes

yes

yes

yes

Cuculiformes

Black-billed Cuckoo

Coccyzus erythropthalmus

LC

F

LD

E

yes

no

Med (1)

2

1

1

1

0

--

--

 

?

 

?

Cuculiformes

Yellow-billed Cuckoo

Coccyzus americanus

LC

OW

LD

E

yes

yes

Low (1)

4

2

2

2

0

--

--

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Abert's Towhee

Melozone aberti

LC

D

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

2

--

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Acadian Flycatcher

Empidonax virescens

LC

F

LD

E

yes

no

High (6)

6

1

2

1

0

No (0)

1

X

?

X

?

Passeriformes

American Crow

Corvus brachyrhynchos

LC

OW

YR/ SD

E/ W

yes

yes

Low (1)

3

--

7

1

1

High (4)

4

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

American Dusky Flycatcher

Empidonax oberholseri

LC

OW

LD

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

American Goldfinch

Carduelis tristis

LC

OW

YR/ SD

E/ W

no

yes

No (0)

2

3

7

1

1

Med (2)

3

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

LC

F

LD

E/ W

yes

no

Med (2)

3

12

2

2

0

--

--

X

yes

X

yes

Passeriformes

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

LC

OW

YR/ SD

E/ W

yes

yes

No (0)

5

2

8

0

2

Low (1)

3

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

American Treecreeper

Certhia americana

LC

F

YR/ SD

E/ W

yes

no

No (0)

1

4

4

0

0

No (0)

2

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Ash-throated Flycatcher

Myiarchus cinerascens

LC

OW

LD

W

--

--

--

--

1

3

0

0

No (0)

2

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Baltimore Oriole

Icterus galbula

LC

OW

MD/ LD

E

yes

yes

Low (1)

3

3

5

2

1

--

--

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Barn Swallow

Hirundo rustica

LC

T

LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

--

4

0

1

High (1)

1

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Bay-breasted Warbler

Dendroica castanea

LC

F

LD

E

--

--

--

--

4

0

1

0

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Bell's Vireo

Vireo bellii

NT

SC

MD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

0

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Bendire's Thrasher

Toxostoma bendirei

VU

D

YR/ SD

W

--

--

--

--

--

2

0

1

--

--

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Bewick's Wren

Thryomanes bewickii

LC

OW

YR

E/ W

--

--

--

--

--

2

1

3

Med (2)

3

yes

 

yes

 

Passeriformes

Black Phoebe

Sayornis nigricans

LC

OW

YR/SD

W

yes

yes

No (0)

1

--

--

--

--

High (2)

2

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Black-and-white Warbler

Mniotilta varia

LC

F

YR/ SD/ LD

E

yes

no

High (3)

3

5

2

1

0

No (0)

1

X

yes

X

?

Passeriformes

Blackburnian Warbler

Dendroica fusca

LC

F

LD

E

--

--

--

--

7

--

--

--

--

--

 

yes

   

Passeriformes

Black-capped Chickadee

Parus atricapillus

LC

F

YR/ IR

E/ W

yes

yes

No (0)

3

3

5

1

0

High (2)

2

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Black-headed Grosbeak

Pheucticus melanocephalus

LC

F

MD/ LD

W

--

--

--

--

1

5

1

2

Med (2)

3

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Blackpoll Warbler

Dendroica striata

LC

F

LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

11

2

2

0

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Black-tailed Gnatcatcher

Polioptila melanura

LC

SC

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

3

0

2

--

--

yes

 

yes

 

Passeriformes

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

LC

F

LD

E

yes

no

High (2)

2

9

1

1

0

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

LC

F

LD

E

yes

no

Med (1)

2

6

1

1

0

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Black-throated Grey Warbler

Dendroica nigrescens

LC

F

LD

W

--

--

--

--

--

2

0

1

No (0)

2

 

yes

 

yes

Passeriformes

Black-throated Sparrow

Amphispiza bilineata

LC

SC

LD

W

--

--

--

--

--

3

0

2

--

--

 

yes

 

yes

Passeriformes

Black-whiskered Vireo

Vireo altiloquus

LC

F

LD

E

--

--

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

--

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Blue Grosbeak

Passerina caerulea

LC

OW

LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

1

2

1

0

No (0)

1

yes

?

yes

?

Passeriformes

Blue Jay

Cyanocitta cristata

LC

F

YR/ SD

E

yes

yes

No (0)

3

4

5

1

0

High (1)

1

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Blue-grey Gnatcatcher

Polioptila caerulea

LC

F

YR/ LD

E/ W

yes

no

High (4)

4

7

3

2

2

No (0)

1

X

yes

X

yes

Passeriformes

Blue-headed Vireo

Vireo solitarius

LC

F

LD

E

--

--

--

--

7

0

2

1

--

--

 

yes

 

yes

Passeriformes

Blue-winged Warbler

Vermivora cyanoptera

LC

OW

LD

E

no

yes

No (0)

1

3

1

1

0

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Boat-tailed Grackle

Quiscalus major

LC

MSW

YR

E

--

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Brewer's Blackbird

Euphagus cyanocephalus

LC

T

YR/ MD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

--

--

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Brewer's Sparrow

Spizella breweri

LC

SC

YR/ SD

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

2

--

--

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Bronzed Cowbird

Molothrus aeneus

LC

T

LD

W

--

--

--

--

--

2

0

2

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Brown Thrasher

Toxostoma rufum

LC

SC

YR/ SD

E

no

no

High (1)

1

1

5

1

0

No (0)

1

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Brown-headed Cowbird

Molothrus ater

LC

FE

YR/ SD

E/ W

yes

yes

No (0)

3

5

9

0

3

High (4)

4

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Brown-headed Nuthatch

Sitta pusilla

LC

F

YR

E

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

No (0)

1

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Bullock's Oriole

Icterus bullockii

LC

OW

MD

W

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

1

Med (1)

2

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Bushtit

Psaltriparus minimus

LC

SC

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

2

1

2

High (3)

3

yes

 

yes

 

Passeriformes

Cactus Wren

Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus

LC

D

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

4

0

3

--

--

yes

 

yes

 

Passeriformes

California Thrasher

Toxostoma redivivum

LC

SC

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

No (0)

1

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

California Towhee

Melozone crissalis

LC

SC

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

High (1)

1

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Canada Warbler

Wilsonia canadensis

LC

F

LD

E

yes

no

High (2)

2

6

0

2

0

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Canyon Towhee

Melozone fuscus

LC

SC

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

2

--

--

yes

 

yes

 

Passeriformes

Cape May Warbler

Dendroica tigrina

LC

F

LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

4

0

1

0

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Carolina Chickadee

Parus carolinensis

LC

F

YR

E

yes

yes

No(0)

1

--

4

0

0

High (1)

1

yes

 

yes

 

Passeriformes

Carolina Wren

Thryothorus ludovicianus

LC

OW

YR

E

yes

yes

Med (1)

2

--

3

1

0

No (0)

1

yes

 

yes

 

Passeriformes

Cassin's Finch

Carpodacus cassinii

NT

F

YR/ MD

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Cassin's Kingbird

Tyrannus vociferans

LC

OW

MD

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Cassin's Vireo

Vireo cassinii

LC

F

LD

W

--

--

--

--

--

3

0

0

High (2)

2

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Cedar Waxwing

Bombycilla cedrorum

LC

OW

YR/ SD/ LD

E/ W

yes

yes

No(0)

2

5

6

1

0

High (2)

2

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Cerulean Warbler

Dendroica cerulea

VU

F

LD

E

yes

no

High (4)

4

1

--

--

--

--

--

X

?

X

 

Passeriformes

Chestnut-backed Chickadee

Parus rufescens

LC

F

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

No (0)

2

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

LC

OW

LD

E

yes

yes

Med (1)

2

8

0

1

0

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Chipping Sparrow

Spizella passerina

LC

OW

YR/ SD

E/ W

no

no

No(0)

1

2

7

0

1

--

--

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Clark's Nutcracker

Nucifraga columbiana

LC

F

YR/ SD

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Clay-coloured Sparrow

Spizella pallida

LC

SC

MD/ LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

--

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Common Grackle

Quiscalus quiscula

LC

OW

YR/ SD

E/ W

yes

yes

No (0)

3

2

5

0

0

High (1)

1

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Common Raven

Corvus corax

LC

MTW

YR

E/ W

yes

yes

No (0)

1

--

1

0

3

High (1)

1

yes

 

yes

 

Passeriformes

Common Starling

Sturnus vulgaris

LC

T

YR/ SD

E/ W

yes

yes

No (0)

4

1

8

0

2

High (4)

4

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Common Yellowthroat

Geothlypis trichas

LC

SC

YR/ LD

E/ W

no

yes

No (0)

2

8

3

1

2

Med (1)

2

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Connecticut Warbler

Oporornis agilis

LC

F

LD

E

yes

no

High (1)

1

2

0

0

1

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Curve-billed Thrasher

Toxostoma curvirostre

LC

SC

YR

E/ W

--

--

--

--

--

4

0

2

--

--

yes

 

yes

 

Passeriformes

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

LC

F

YR/ MD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

2

2

0

2

No (0)

2

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Dickcissel

Spiza americana

LC

FE

LD

E

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Eastern Bluebird

Sialia sialis

LC

FE

YR/ MD

E

--

--

--

--

--

4

0

0

High (1)

1

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Eastern Kingbird

Tyrannus tyrannus

LC

FE

LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

--

4

2

0

--

--

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Eastern Phoebe

Sayornis phoebe

LC

OW

YR/ SD/ MD

E

--

--

--

--

5

5

0

0

High (1)

1

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Eastern Towhee

Pipilo erythrophthalmus

LC

SC

YR/ SD

E

yes

yes

No (0)

2

2

4

0

1

No (0)

1

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Eastern Wood-pewee

Contopus virens

LC

F

LD

E

yes

yes

No (0)

5

7

6

1

0

No (0)

1

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Evening Grosbeak

Coccothraustes vespertinus

LC

F

IR

E/ W

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

0

High (1)

1

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Field Sparrow

Spizella pusilla

LC

SC

YR/ MD

E

--

--

--

--

2

2

0

0

Med (1)

2

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Fish Crow

Corvus ossifragus

LC

shoreline

YR/ SD

E

yes

yes

No (0)

1

1

--

--

--

--

--

?

?

   

Passeriformes

Fox Sparrow

Passerella iliaca

LC

F

YR/ SD/ LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

0

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Golden-crowned Kinglet

Regulus satrapa

LC

F

YR/ MD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

4

3

1

0

No (0)

1

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Golden-winged Warbler

Vermivora chrysoptera

NT

OW

LD

E

--

--

--

--

3

--

--

--

--

--

 

yes

   

Passeriformes

Great Crested Flycatcher

Myiarchus crinitus

LC

OW

MD/ LD

W

yes

yes

Low (1)

7

6

4

2

0

No (0)

1

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Great-tailed Grackle

Quiscalus mexicanus

LC

T

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

3

0

1

--

--

yes

 

yes

 

Passeriformes

Green-tailed Towhee

Pipilo chlorurus

LC

SC

YR/ SD/ MD

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Grey Catbird

Dumetella carolinensis

LC

OW

YR/ MD

E

yes

yes

No (0)

2

8

6

2

0

High (1)

1

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Grey Flycatcher

Empidonax wrightii

LC

OW

LD

W

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

1

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Grey Jay

Perisoreus canadensis

LC

F

YR

E/W

--

--

No (0)

1

--

--

--

--

High (1)

1

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Grey Kingbird

Tyrannus dominicensis

LC

OW

LD

E

--

--

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

--

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Grey-cheeked Thrush

Catharus minimus

LC

F

LD

E

--

--

--

--

5

--

--

--

--

--

 

yes

   

Passeriformes

Hammond's Flycatcher

Empidonax hammondii

LC

F

LD

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

No (0)

1

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Harris's Sparrow

Zonotrichia querula

LC

F

MD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

--

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

LC

OW

YR/ SD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

3

2

1

1

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Hermit Warbler

Dendroica occidentalis

LC

F

LD

W

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

1

No (0)

1

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Hooded Oriole

Icterus cucullatus

LC

F

LD

E

--

--

--

--

2

1

0

0

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Hooded Warbler

Wilsonia citrina

LC

F

LD

E

yes

no

Med (2)

3

1

2

1

1

No (0)

1

X

?

X

?

Passeriformes

House Finch

Carpodacus mexicanus

LC

T

YR/ SD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

--

10

0

3

High (4)

4

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

House Sparrow

Passer domesticus

LC

T

YR

E/ W

--

--

--

--

--

9

0

1

High (1)

1

yes

 

yes

 

Passeriformes

House Wren

Troglodytes aedon

LC

OW

YR/ SD/ MD

E/ W

yes

yes

No (0)

2

3

6

0

2

High (2)

2

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Hutton's Vireo

Vireo huttoni

LC

F

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

2

0

1

No (0)

3

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Indigo Bunting

Passerina cyanea

LC

OW

LD

E

yes

yes

No (0)

4

7

5

2

0

No (0)

1

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Kentucky Warbler

Oporornis formosus

LC

F

LD

E

yes

no

High (3)

4

--

1

2

0

--

--

X

?

X

?

Passeriformes

Lark Sparrow

Chondestes grammacus

LC

FE

MD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

--

0

0

2

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Lazuli Bunting

Passerina amoena

LC

OW

LD

W

--

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

High (1)

1

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Le Conte's Thrasher

Toxostoma lecontei

LC

SC

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

LC

F

LD

E/ W

yes

yes

High (1)

1

6

1

1

0

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Lesser Goldfinch

Carduelis psaltria

LC

OW

YR/ SD

W

--

--

--

--

--

3

0

3

Med (1)

2

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Lincoln's Sparrow

Melospiza lincolnii

LC

SC

LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

4

0

0

2

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Loggerhead Shrike

Lanius ludovicianus

LC

OW

YR/MD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

--

--

?

   

?

Passeriformes

Louisiana Waterthrush

Parkesia motacilla

LC

RF

LD

E

yes

no

High (2)

2

4

0

1

0

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Lucy's Warbler

Vermivora luciae

LC

OW

MD

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

2

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

MacGillivray's Warbler

Oporornis tolmiei

LC

OW

LD

W

--

--

--

--

--

3

1

1

High (2)

2

yes

yes

yes

yesü

Passeriformes

Magnolia Warbler

Dendroica magnolia

LC

F

LD

E/ W

yes

no

No (0)

1

12

0

2

0

--

--

 

yes

   

Passeriformes

Marsh Wren

Cistothorus palustris

LC

MSW

YR/MD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Mountain Chickadee

Parus gambeli

LC

F

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

LC

F

LD

E

yes

no

High (1)

1

6

--

--

--

--

--

 

yes

   

Passeriformes

Nashville Warbler

Vermivora ruficapilla

LC

F

LD

E

--

--

--

--

10

1

0

1

No (0)

1

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Northern Cardinal

Cardinalis cardinalis

LC

OW

YR

E

yes

yes

No (0)

5

--

9

1

2

High (1)

1

yes

 

yes

 

Passeriformes

Northern Mockingbird

Mimus polyglottos

LC

T

YR

E/ W

--

--

--

--

--

6

1

3

High (2)

2

yes

 

yes

 

Passeriformes

Northern Parula

Parula americana

LC

F

LD

E

yes

no

High (4)

4

9

1

1

0

No (0)

1

X

yes

X

?

Passeriformes

Northern Waterthrush

Parkesia noveboracensis

LC

F

LD

E/ W

yes

no

High (3)

3

8

0

1

0

--

--

X

yes

X

?

Passeriformes

North-western Crow

Corvus caurinus

LC

OW

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

--

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Oak Titmouse

Baeolophus inornatus

LC

OW

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

No (0)

1

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Olive-sided Flycatcher

Contopus cooperi

NT

OW

LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

2

3

1

0

High (2)

2

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Orange-crowned Warbler

Vermivora celata

LC

F

MD/ LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

4

3

1

3

High (2)

2

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Orchard Oriole

Icterus spurius

LC

OW

LD

E

--

--

--

--

2

0

1

0

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

LC

F

LD

E/ W

yes

no

High (6)

6

11

3

2

0

--

--

X

yes

X

 

Passeriformes

Pacific-slope Flycatcher

Empidonax difficilis

LC

F

LD

W

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

1

No (0)

3

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Painted Bunting

Passerina ciris

NT

SC

MD

E/W

--

--

--

--

2

0

0

0

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Palm Warbler

Dendroica palmarum

LC

OW

LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

5

0

1

0

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Phainopepla

Phainopepla nitens

LC

SC

MD

W

--

--

--

--

2

2

0

3

--

--

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Philadelphia Vireo

Vireo philadelphicus

LC

F

LD

E

--

--

--

--

5

--

--

--

--

--

 

yes

   

Passeriformes

Pine Grosbeak

Pinicola enucleator

LC

OW

YR

E/ W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

High (1)

1

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Pine Siskin

Carduelis pinus

LC

OW

IR

E/ W

--

--

--

--

2

3

1

0

High (1)

1

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Pine Warbler

Dendroica pinus

LC

F

MD

E

yes

--

Med (1)

2

5

1

0

0

No (0)

1

 

yes

   

Passeriformes

Prairie Warbler

Dendroica discolor

LC

OW

MD

E

yes

yes

No (0)

1

3

1

1

0

No (0)

1

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Prothonotary Warbler

Protonotaria citrea

LC

F

LD

E

yes

no

No (0)

1

2

0

1

0

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Purple Finch

Carpodacus purpureus

LC

F

YR/ SD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

3

3

0

0

High (2)

2

 

yes

 

yes

Passeriformes

Purple Martin

Progne subis

LC

LPF/T

LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Pygmy Nuthatch

Sitta pygmaea

LC

F

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Pyrrhuloxia

Cardinalis sinuatus

LC

SC

YR

E/ W

--

--

--

--

--

3

0

1

--

--

 

yes

   

Passeriformes

Red Crossbill

Loxia curvirostra

LC

F

MD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

--

2

1

0

High (1)

1

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Red-breasted Nuthatch

Sitta canadensis

LC

F

YR/ SD/ IR

E/ W

--

--

--

--

3

3

1

1

No (0)

2

 

yes

 

yes

Passeriformes

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

LC

F

LD

E/ W

yes

no

Med (4)

7

11

4

2

0

High (1)

1

X

yes

X

?

Passeriformes

Red-winged Blackbird

Agelaius phoeniceus

LC

MSW

YR/ SD

E/ W

yes

yes

No (0)

4

2

7

0

2

High (2)

2

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Rose-breasted Grosbeak

Pheucticus ludovicianus

LC

F

LD

E

yes

no

High (3)

4

7

2

2

0

--

--

X

yes

X

?

Passeriformes

Ruby-crowned Kinglet

Regulus calendula

LC

F

YR/ SD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

8

0

1

2

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Rufous-crowned Sparrow

Aimophila ruficeps

LC

SC

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Rufous-winged Sparrow

Peucaea carpalis

LC

SC

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

2

0

0

--

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Sage Thrasher

Oreoscoptes montanus

LC

SC

YR/ SD

W

--

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Sagebrush Sparrow

Artemisiospiza nevadensis

LC

SC

YR/ SD

W

--

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Scarlet Tanager

Piranga olivacea

LC

F

LD

E

yes

no

High (7)

7

8

5

1

0

No (0)

1

X

yes

X

?

Passeriformes

Song Sparrow

Melospiza melodia

LC

OW

YR/ MD

E/ W

yes

yes

No (0)

1

2

8

0

2

High (3)

4

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Spotted Towhee

Pipilo maculatus

LC

SC

YR/ SD

W

--

--

--

--

--

2

1

0

No (0)

3

?

     

Passeriformes

Steller's Jay

Cyanocitta stelleri

LC

F

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

No (0)

2

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Summer Tanager

Piranga rubra

LC

OW

LD

E/ W

yes

no

High (2)

2

2

2

2

0

No (0)

1

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Swainson's Thrush

Catharus ustulatus

LC

F

LD

E/ W

no

no

High (1)

1

10

--

--

--

No (0)

2

 

yes

   

Passeriformes

Swainson's Warbler

Limnothlypis swainsonii

LC

F

MD

E

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

0

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Swamp Sparrow

Melospiza georgiana

LC

MSW

LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

3

0

1

0

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Tennessee Warbler

Vermivora peregrina

LC

F

LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

7

1

1

0

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Townsend's Solitaire

Myadestes townsendi

LC

OW

LD

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Townsend's Warbler

Dendroica townsendi

LC

F

LD

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

No (0)

1

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Tree Swallow

Tachycineta bicolor

LC

LPF

LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

1

5

1

0

--

--

 

yes

 

yes

Passeriformes

Tropical Kingbird

Tyrannus melancholicus

LC

OW

LD

W

--

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Tufted Titmouse

Baeolophus bicolor

LC

F

YR

E

yes

yes

Low (1)

5

--

4

1

0

High (1)

1

yes

 

yes

 

Passeriformes

Varied Thrush

Zoothera naevia

LC

F

YR/ SD

W

--

--

--

--

--

0

1

0

--

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Veery

Catharus fuscescens

LC

F

LD

E/ W

yes

no

High (4)

4

5

2

2

0

--

--

 

yes

   

Passeriformes

Verdin

Auriparus flaviceps

LC

SC

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

4

0

2

--

--

 

yes

   

Passeriformes

Violet-green Swallow

Tachycineta thalassina

LC

OW

LD

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

High (2)

2

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Warbling Vireo

Vireo gilvus

LC

OW

MD/ LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

4

5

0

0

High (2)

2

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Western Bluebird

Sialia mexicana

LC

OW

YR/MD

W

--

--

No (0)

1

--

0

0

0

No (0)

1

?

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Western Kingbird

Tyrannus verticalis

LC

FE

MD/ LD

W

--

--

--

--

1

2

0

2

No (0)

1

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Western Scrub-jay

Aphelocoma californica

LC

SC

YR

W

yes

yes

No (0)

1

--

0

0

1

High (2)

2

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Western Tanager

Piranga ludoviciana

LC

F

LD

W

--

--

--

--

--

3

1

1

No (0)

2

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Western Wood-pewee

Contopus sordidulus

LC

OW

LD

W

--

--

--

--

--

3

1

1

High (2)

2

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

White-breasted Nuthatch

Sitta carolinensis

LC

F

YR

E/ W

yes

no

Med (2)

3

--

7

1

1

Med (2)

3

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

White-crowned Sparrow

Zonotrichia leucophrys

LC

SC

YR/ MD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

2

High (1)

1

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

White-eyed Vireo

Vireo griseus

LC

SC

MD

E

yes

yes

No (0)

2

4

1

2

0

No (0)

1

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

LC

F

SD/ MD

E/ W

yes

yes

No (0)

1

3

--

--

--

--

--

 

yes

   

Passeriformes

White-winged Crossbill

Loxia leucoptera

LC

OW

YR/ SD

W

--

--

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

--

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Willow Flycatcher

Empidonax traillii

LC

MSW

LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

5

4

1

0

High (1)

1

yes

yes

yes

yes

Passeriformes

Wilson's Warbler

Wilsonia pusilla

LC

SC

LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

8

3

1

2

No (0)

3

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Winter Wren

Troglodytes troglodytes

LC

F

LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

2

1

1

0

No (0)

2

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Wood Thrush

Hylocichla mustelina

NT

F

LD

E

yes

no

Med (5)

8

7

5

1

0

No (0)

1

X

yes

X

?

Passeriformes

Worm-eating Warbler

Helmitheros vermivorum

LC

F

LD

E

yes

no

High (2)

2

3

0

1

0

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Wrentit

Chamaea fasciata

LC

SC

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Yellow Warbler

Dendroica petechia

LC

OW

LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

7

6

2

2

Med (1)

2

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher

Empidonax flaviventris

LC

F

YR/ SD/ LD

E

--

--

--

--

5

0

1

0

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Yellow-breasted Chat

Icteria virens

LC

SC

LD

E/ W

yes

yes

No (0)

2

3

0

1

1

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Yellow-rumped Warbler

Dendroica coronata

LC

F

YR/ SD/ LD

E/ W

--

--

--

--

11

2

0

1

--

--

 

yes

 

?

Passeriformes

Yellow-throated Vireo

Vireo flavifrons

LC

OW

LD

E

yes

no

High (3)

4

2

2

1

0

No (0)

1

X

?

X

?

Passeriformes

Yellow-throated Warbler

Dendroica dominica

LC

F

LD

E

yes

no

Med (1)

2

2

0

1

0

--

--

X

?

X

?

Piciformes

Acorn Woodpecker

Melanerpes formicivorus

LC

OW

YR

W

yes

yes

No (0)

1

--

0

0

1

High (4)

4

yes

 

yes

 

Piciformes

Downy Woodpecker

Dryobates pubescens

LC

F

YR

E/ W

yes

no

No (0)

3

--

8

2

1

Low (1)

4

yes

 

yes

 

Piciformes

Gila Woodpecker

Melanerpes uropygialis

LC

D

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

4

0

2

--

--

yes

 

yes

 

Piciformes

Gilded Flicker

Colaptes chrysoides

LC

D

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

--

?

 

?

 

Piciformes

Hairy Woodpecker

Leuconotopicus villosus

LC

F

YR

E/ W

yes

no

High (4)

4

--

7

1

0

Low (1)

3

X

 

X

 

Piciformes

Ladder-backed Woodpecker

Dryobates scalaris

LC

D

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

2

0

2

--

--

?

 

?

 

Piciformes

Nuttall's Woodpecker

Dryobates nuttallii

LC

OW

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

No (0)

1

?

 

?

 

Piciformes

Pileated Woodpecker

Hylatomus pileatus

LC

F

YR

E/ W

yes

no

High (3)

3

--

2

0

0

No (0)

2

X

 

X

 

Piciformes

Red-bellied Woodpecker

Melanerpes carolinus

LC

F

YR

E

yes

no

Med (3)

5

--

6

1

0

High (1)

1

X

 

X

 

Piciformes

Red-breasted Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus ruber

LC

F

MD

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

No (0)

1

 

?

 

?

Piciformes

Red-headed Woodpecker

Melanerpes erythrocephalus

NT

OW

YR/ SD

E

yes

no

No (0)

1

1

3

1

0

No (0)

1

yes

yes

yes

yes

Piciformes

White-headed Woodpecker

Leuconotopicus albolarvatus

LC

F

YR

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

--

?

 

?

 

Piciformes

Williamson's Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus thyroideus

LC

F

YR/ SD

W

--

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

--

?

 

?

 

Piciformes

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

LC

F

LD/MD

E/ W

yes

no

No (0)

1

2

0

1

1

--

--

 

?

 

?

Piciformes

Yellow-shafted Flicker

Colaptes auratus

LC

OW

YR/ SD

E/ W

yes

yes

No (0)

1

4

10

1

1

High (3)

4

yes

yes

yes

yes

1 The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) identifies the conservation status of species all over the world. Least Concern (LC) represents species that have the lowest risk of becoming endangered in the wild. Near Threatened (NT) represents species that are likely to become threatened in the near future (e.g. due to increasing trends in habitat loss). Vulnerable (VU) represents species that are at high risk of becoming endangered in the wild (due to current and ongoing threats).

2 Habitat Types: Forest (F) = mature, forest fragments; Open woodland (OW) = disturbed or regrowing forest; Scrub (SC) = dense shrubbery, including abandoned farm fields, clearcuts, powerline corridors, fencerows, forest edges and openings, swamps, and edges of streams and ponds; Marsh woods (MSW) = various wetlands, including freshwater and tidal marshes, bogs, meadows, and swamps; Mountain Woods (MTW) = ; Forest edge (FE) = disturbed habitat, similar to early successional forest, at the edge of a forest; Riparian forest (RF) = forest buffer along a river or waterway; Lake/Pond Forest (LPF) = forest surrounding a body of water; [Allaboutbirds.org, Cornell Bird Lab]. Note that if a species is not an interior forest specialist and it breeds in mature forest, that means it would either breed along edges of forest and/or in small forest patches.

3 Migrant Statuses: LD = Long distance migration, typically birds breed during the summer in the U.S. and Canada and they migrate south to spend the winter months in Mexico, Caribbean islands, Central America, and South America; MD = medium-distance, typically birds move south of their breeding range but still within the United States.; SD = short-distance, typically birds move within their breeding range; YR = year-round resident; IR = irregular/irruptive migrant [Allaboutbirds.org, Cornell Bird Lab]

4 Regional Occurrence: East (E) = Occurs east of the 100th meridian, West (W) = occurs west of the 100th meridian

5 Late-Successional Forest = late successional forests where most of the trees that form the canopy are over 30 ft. tall, including both relatively young forests with trees 15–50 years old and mature forests with trees 50+ years or older. This indicates the most likely breeding habitat, but is not an indication of likelihood of breeding in small patches. For example, if interior forest specialist confidence is “high” and a “yes” for breeding in mature forest, then this species only breeds successfully in large mature forest patches (> 50 ha).

6 Early-Successional Forest = Composed primarily of shrubs (with some scattering of trees and grassland patches) and/or very young planted pine saplings and pioneer species such as black cherry (Prunus sp.). Trees are generally 0–15 years old and tree height is typically less than 30 ft. 6 For example, if interior forest specialist confidence is “high” and a “yes” for breeding in early-successional forest, then this species only breeds successfully in early-successional forest that is embedded in continuous forest patches (> 50 ha).

7 This column indicates whether the species is considered an interior forest specialist during breeding season. “High”, “Med”, and “Low” refer to the confidence on whether the bird is considered an interior forest specialist. “High” means more that 66% of the reviewed studies indicated that a species was an interior forest specialist, “Med” means between 66% and 33% of studies indicated that a species was an interior forest specialist, and “Low” means that less than 33% of studies indicated that a species was an interior forest specialist. “No” means that the species is not an interior forest specialist and is likely to breed in small forest fragments. Numbers in parentheses represent the number of supporting papers used in analysis. Values in parentheses represent the number of studies that determined a species to be an Interior Forest Specialist.

8 “Breeding-Migration” represents the transitional period between breeding and migration seasons (either spring transitioning to summer or summer transitioning to fall). Some studies in our review did not clearly define when bird observations were recorded and counted species sightings from these studies in this column.

9 We reviewed four studies that identified synanthropic birds—species that have adapted to living in urban areas. “High”, “Med”, and “Low” refer to the confidence on whether the bird is considered synanthropic. “High” means more that 66% of the reviewed studies indicated that a species was synanthropic, “Med” means between 66% and 33% of studies indicated that a species was synanthropic, and “Low” means that less than 33% of studies indicated that a species was synanthropic. “No” means that the species is not synanthropic and is unlikely to occur to breed in within urban areas. Values in parentheses represent the number of studies that determined a species to be an synanthropic.

10 Marks in these four columns are an indication of using the habitat based on looking across the three reviews. A (yes) in this column indicates our findings reliably showed a species to occur under the given habitat category and are based on three or more studies. A migrant (regardless of interior forest status) received a (yes) for stopover in forest fragments and residential areas if it was found in 3 or more built environment studies. The rationale here was that the migrant was seen often enough in built environment studies that it most likely was using fragmented areas as stopover sites. If it was year-round resident and a short-distance or medium-distance migrant and it had three or more built environments, breeding studies, we placed a (yes) in the breeding forest fragment and residential category. The rationale is that for these year-round resident and short- or medium-distance migrant species, most of the studies were conducted within their year-round range and was assumed they were actually breeding in residential areas and by default, in forest fragments as well.

An (x) indicates that this species does not occur under the given habitat category and are based on three or more studies. In the case of migrants, medium to high confidence interior forest specialists were given an (x) for breeding in residential and forest fragments.

Several species had occurred in less than three studies and some had contradictory results across reviews. We gave a (?) for the following situations:

  1. For long-distance, medium-distance migrants, and short-distance migrants (with no year-round status in the United States or Canada and fewer than three breeding studies in forest fragments), if a species appeared in three or more built environments, breeding studies, we were conservative and gave a (?) to indicate that this species may be able to use forest fragments as stopover sites both in and outside of cities. The rationale here is that these built environment, breeding studies may be picking up these migrants that are still passing through the area and using it primarily as a stopover site. If a migrant was labeled as a high or medium confidence as an interior-forest specialist (fewer than three studies) and fewer than three breeding built environment studies, we gave a (?) for using forest fragments and residential areas as stopover sites. If a migrant was a high-confidence interior-forest specialist (three or more studies) and it had two or fewer built environment, breeding or stopover studies, we gave it a (?) for stopover in residential and forest fragments.(The rationale here is that at least one study indicated that the species was an interior-forest specialist and it may only use forest fragments as stopover sites in most situations.)

  2. For year-round residents, if a species appeared in a built environment breeding study (2 or fewer studies), we gave a (?) to indicate that this species may be able to use forest fragments as breeding sites both in and outside of cities. The rationale is that at least three studies were needed to achieve a (yes). If a year-round species had medium- or high confidence interior-forest status (three or more studies), but three or more built environments, breeding studies, then we gave a (?) for breeding in forest fragments and residential areas.

  3. If at least one synanthropic analysis indicated that it was not synanthropic, then for migrants we gave a (?) in the use of forest fragments as stopover sites only. Year-round residents were not given a (?) for residential areas but were given a (?) for breeding in forest fragments.

Overall, a (?) is an indication that this species could possibly be found in a given habitat category, but warrants further investigation.

For a given habitat category, cells left blank indicate that our review either did not find any studies for this habitat; if a migrant, it had fewer than three studies in the breeding review; and if it was not a migrant, the stopover habitat was blank because it was not applicable.

Appendix B. 

Peer-reviewed literature from systematic review of North American birds in fragmented forests during the migration seasons. These 18 studies were used (in part) to generate avian species occurrences across the different seasons and habitats in Appendix A.

Source

Journal

Study Location

Cox (1988)

Florida Field Naturalist

Florida, USA

Liu and Swanson (2013)

Physiological and Biochemical Zoology

South Dakota, USA

Matthews and Rodewald (2010a)

Landscape Ecology

Ohio, USA

Matthews and Rodewald (2010b)

The Condor

Ohio, USA

Rodewald and Brittingham (2002)

The Wilson Bulletin

Pennsylvania, USA

Rodewald et al. (2004)

The Auk

Pennsylvania, USA

Rodewald et al. (2007)

The Auk

Pennsylvania, USA

Rotenberry and Chandler (1999)

The Auk

Pennsylvania, USA

Rush et al. (2014)

Southeastern Naturalist

Tennessee, USA

Seewagen (2008)

Northeastern Naturalist

New York, USA

Seewagen and Slayton (2008)

Wilson Journal of Ornithology

New York, USA

Seewagen et al. (2010)

Acta Oecologica – Int’l Journal of Ecology

New York, USA

Somershoe and Chandler (2004)

The Wilson Bulletin

South Carolina, USA

Suomala et al. (2010)

Wilson Journal of Ornithology

Maine/New Hampshire, USA

Swanson et al. (2003)

American Midland Naturalist

South Dakota, USA

Weisbrod et al. (1993)

The Wilson Bulletin

Minnesota, USA

Winker et al. (1992)

The Wilson Bulletin

Minnesota, USA

Woodrey and Moore (1997)

The Auk

Alabama, USA

Footnotes

1.

This document is WEC371, one of a series of the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date December 2016. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Mark Hostetler, professor and Extension specialist, Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611-0430; and Jan-Michael Archer, graduate student, Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.


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U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.