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Building for Birds Evaluation Tool: Breeding and Wintering Habitat for Forest Birds1

Mark Hostetler and Jan-Michael Archer2

Figure 1. 

Forest- and tree-dwelling birds such as the red-bellied woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus, left photo) and the tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor, right photo) can often be found in forest fragments during the summer and winter.


Credit:

Audubon, www.audubon.org


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Introduction

The goal of the “Building for Birds” online tool is to provide decision makers with a way to evaluate different development scenarios and how they affect habitat for different species of forest birds that use fragmented areas. This evaluation tool is most useful for small developments or developments in already fragmented landscapes. Fragmented landscapes are typically dominated by urban and agricultural areas with small fragments of natural areas such as forests.

The tool is designed for use when no opportunity is available to conserve large forest areas of 125 acres or more within a proposed development. Developers are sometimes reluctant to conserve trees and forest fragments in subdivided residential/commercial areas because it costs time and money, but there is value in this conservation effort for many different species of forest birds—not to mention future homeowners waking to birdsong in the mornings. Forest fragments and trees conserved in built areas can serve as breeding, wintering, and stopover habitat for a variety of species.

Many bird species use habitat in and around urban areas (Faeth et al., 2011). The online tool calculates conserved bird habitat scores based on forest fragments and tree canopy cover conserved for a particular development design. To determine bird habitat scores as a result of different development designs, simply enter the amount of conserved forest fragments and conserved tree canopy cover in built areas. Using these inputs, the tool generates a report for a particular scenario, containing a score for each of the bird habitat categories and a list of birds that could be found in each of these habitats. The tool can be found at http://wec.ifas.ufl.edu/buildingforbirds/web/home.html. Below, we describe how this tool can be used for forest birds in fragmented landscapes in any part of the United States.

Forest Birds in Urban Forest Fragments

A variety of forest birds will use fragmented forests as breeding sites during the summer and as foraging/shelter sites during the winter. For the purposes of evaluating different development scenarios, we restrict the analysis to forest birds in the order Passeriformes (i.e., perching birds) and woodpeckers in order Piciformes. Woodpeckers are primary cavity nesters, often creating their own nesting cavities in trees. Secondary cavity nesters, such as the tufted titmouse, use natural holes in trees or cavities made by woodpeckers. Other species, such as the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), make open-cup nests in the branches of trees and bushes. Fragmented forests provide food for many species of birds, who consume vast amounts of insects, fruits, tree sap, nectar, and seeds. Forest bird species prefer woodlots and forests to open rangeland and open bodies of water. Trees are important habitat for forest birds year-round during both the breeding and non-breeding seasons.

However, some birds, such as several species of Neotropical migrants (e.g., cerulean warbler, Setophaga cerulea), are sensitive to forest fragmentation and typically only breed successfully in large patches of forest (e.g., greater than 125 acres) (Robbins et al., 1989). Birds that primarily breed in large forest patches are called interior forest specialists. These species are thought to be vulnerable in fragmented landscapes because they are area sensitive, typically build open-cup nests on or near the ground, lay relatively few eggs, and often do not nest again if a nest fails (Austen et al., 2001; Betts et al., 2006). In fragmented landscapes containing agriculture and urban areas, a variety of nest predators and brood parasites are more abundant along the edges of forests. Nest predators include mammals and birds, such as raccoons, cats, skunks, blue jays, and crows. The main brood parasite is the brown-headed cowbird. This species lays eggs in a Neotropical migrant’s nest, tricking the migrant bird parents into feeding and raising the cowbird chick instead of their own. Cowbirds and nest predators thrive in fragmented forest landscapes containing agriculture fields, pastures, and residential development.

Some interior forest specialists (e.g., Canada warbler, Cardellina Canadensis) breed in dense understory growth in the openings of large forests and use regenerating vegetation (caused by windfalls, fires, and clearcutting). Although they technically breed along edges, they do so in large forest patches, and they are thought to be vulnerable to the increased predation and cowbird parasitism common in forest edges found in fragmented landscapes where urban and agriculture areas are nearby. Overall, interior forest specialists are vulnerable to forest fragmentation and many populations of these species are declining and are in danger of extinction due to human modifications of the landscape.

Scoring Justification and Species List

After our review of the literature (Appendix B), we elected to award more points to conserved late successional forest fragments and fewer points to conserved early successional forest fragments (Table 1). Early successional forest fragments (Figure 2) are defined here as 1) shrublands composed primarily of shrubs with some scattering of trees and grassland patches, and 2) very young forests primarily composed of planted pine saplings and/or pioneer species such as black cherry (Prunus sp.), trees that are 0–15 years old, and tree height is typically less than 30 ft. In late successional forest fragments (Figure 3), most of the trees that form the canopy are over 30 ft. tall, including both relatively young forests with trees 15–50 years old and mature forests with trees 50 years old or older. (To be considered a forest fragment, the minimum size is 1 acre of forest. Any groupings of trees less than 1 acre do not count as forest fragments.)

The rationale for the scoring difference between late and early successional forests is that in early successional forest, very few large trees would be available for nesting cavities to support primary and secondary cavity nesters (e.g., woodpeckers). More mature forest fragments have both early successional habitat (along the edge) and mature trees, which together support a greater diversity of birds. However, in certain regions of the United States, large fragments of shrublands may be relatively desired and highly valued; in these cases, early successional forest fragments may warrant a score that is equal to or greater than the score of late successional forest fragments.

Figure 2. 

Shrubland/early successional forest example from Vermont. Note that there are very few large trees and very little tree canopy.


Credit:

http://lindenlandgroup.com


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 3. 

Late successional forest example. This is a Florida hammock. Note the dominance of large trees and a closed tree canopy.


Credit:

http://floridahikes.com


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

From the scientific literature, we generated a list of forest birds that were observed in small forest fragments during the summer, indicating these species could use small urban forest remnants as breeding habitat (Appendix A). Most studies were conducted during the breeding season and only a few studies were conducted during the winter. However, many of the birds that breed successfully in forest fragments are short-distance migrants or are found year-round in a given location. For these species, we assumed that if they breed in a forest fragment then they would also use forest fragments during the winter.

For breeding studies, we explicitly searched for studies that compared bird richness and abundance for species found in small and large forest fragments. During the breeding season, forest species that declined in abundance (or were absent) as the forest fragments got smaller, we defined as interior forest specialists. Most likely, these species would not breed successfully in fragmented areas.

As indicated above, we included only forest birds that are in order Passeriformes (i.e., perching birds) and Piciformes (i.e., woodpeckers); we excluded raptors, waterbirds, etc. from the lists. Because of study locations reported in the literature, this list does not cover all North American forest species. In other words, bird species may be missing because they were not adequately studied.

We note that the scores are only relative for one design versus another. A higher score on one site than another may indicate more individuals or bird species on that site, but a higher score on a given site does not necessarily indicate that a similar—or even a nearly identical—site will have a similarly high score. Habitat selection by wildlife is notoriously difficult to predict. There are many other variables, such as habitat quality and surrounding landscapes (e.g., whether the development is located next to forest land or agricultural land). Thus, the scores do not translate into an exact measure of increased habitat that leads to an increase in the abundance or species richness of forest birds—e.g., if forest fragment cover were increased by 10%, then that would mean one would find 2 more birds per acre or an increase in species richness by 10%. The tool only can be interpreted in this way: a higher score means that there is more available bird habitat on the site, and it could attract more individuals or more species if that design were adopted.

Scoring Examples

To score breeding/wintering habitat, first differentiate between early and late successional forest (as defined above). For forest fragments larger than 1 acre, simply add up the amount of forest fragments conserved. Here, we give an example on how to score breeding/wintering habitat for a hypothetical development scenario. In this example, the developer has conserved various amounts of early and late successional forest fragments for a total of 100 acres (Figure 4). The total score for this scenario is 124 points (Table 2).

Figure 4. 

Conserved forest patches of different sizes conserved for a hypothetical development scenario. E = early successional forest and L = late successional forest. All of the 5 acres forest fragments are early successional forest fragments.


Credit:

UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

In order to count a forest fragment (both early and late successional, as defined above), the area contained within the forest patch must be primarily composed of native trees and must be managed as natural habitat. In other words, a majority of the trees cannot be cultivated fruit trees or exotic trees, and the understory of the forest patch cannot contain mowed lawns and significant impervious surfaces (e.g., asphalt parking lots). In forest patches that have such human-made features and large areas of exotic trees, simply subtract the number of acres occupied by these artificial/exotic structures. The rationale here is that these types of heavily modified areas are lower-quality habitat for birds and would not typically support a diversity of species. However, for calculating the score of tree canopy conserved in the built areas, do count the tree canopy cover in conserved areas that contain a significant amount of human-modified landscapes such as mowed grass or rangeland for cattle. In some situations, land set aside that will be restored through planting or natural forest regeneration could also be counted.

If you have forest fragments that have fractions of an acre, do not round up each fragment but first total the amount of forest fragments and then round up. For example, if 6 late successional forest fragments are measured at 4.9 acres each, the total number of acres conserved for this category is 6 X 4.9 acres = 29.4 acres. Here, you would round total number of acres conserved; in this case 29.4 acres is 29 acres conserved for this forest fragment category.

Improving a score: A developer can improve the score for breeding/habitat by conserving more fragments of forest and/or by increasing the amount of late successional forest conserved. In the aforementioned example, the developer could significantly improve the score by clustering the built areas and conserving more forest. Also, the developer could position the built areas in a way that conserves more late successional forest. Both adjustments would increase the breeding/wintering habitat score.

Determining Which Bird Species May Be Breeding or Wintering in the Forest Patches within a Development

Answering this question takes a little investigation because the geographic location of your development may or may not be in the breeding/wintering range of a particular species. Appendix A gives a list of species that could use forest patches as breeding/wintering sites. Not all of the species listed will appear in a given development over a given year, even if that development has a very high score. The location of the development must overlap with the breeding/wintering range of a species for that species to appear. As an example, the Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis) primarily breeds in the southeastern United States (Figure 5), so a development in Wisconsin would not have the Carolina chickadee. For range maps of all birds, visit https://www.allaboutbirds.org .

Figure 5. 

Range map of the Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis).


Credit:

www.allaboutbirds.org


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Long-Term Functionality: Managing Conserved Habitat for Birds

Aside from conserving remnant forest fragments, several other strategies can improve the suitability of the forest fragments for bird habitat during the breeding/winter season. Most important is to maintain the quality of the habitat over the long term. Although we mentioned above that forest fragments overrun with exotics or artificial structures such as maintained turfgrass are lower quality habitat, even natural forest fragments need to be managed appropriately over time. Typically, in urban/agriculture landscapes, forest fragments host a few invasive exotic plants. Further, invasive exotic vegetation planted in yards can escape and invade nearby forest areas. Developments with conserved forest fragments should have funding and a management plan and an educational strategy to engage residents in order to reduce/minimize impacts stemming from nearby urban areas. In particular, we recommend the following:

  1. Educational Signage Program: Because many impacts stemming from nearby residential areas result from individual homeowner decisions, we recommend raising awareness about these impacts and actions that would retain the biological integrity of the forest fragments and even enhance the habitat values of yards and neighborhoods. Installing neighborhood educational kiosks with environmental panels is one way to raise awareness. This type of education program can impact homeowner knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. See neighborhood signage example at http://www.thenatureofcities.com/2015/06/14/how-can-we-engage-residents-to-conserve-urban-biodiversity-talk-to-them/ and http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw407.

  2. Management Plan and Funding: A management plan should address how the built and conserved areas will be managed to protect biodiversity. Create a funding source to help with the management of natural areas. Funds can be collected from homeowner association dues, home sales (even resales), property taxes, and the sale of large, natural areas to land trusts with some of the funds retained for management.

  3. Codes, Covenants, and Restrictions (CCRs): Implement CCRs that address environmental practices and long-term management of yards, homes, and neighborhoods. These CCRs should describe environmental features installed on lots and shared spaces and appropriate measures to maintain these. An example of an environmental CCR can be found at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw248.

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Renewable Resources Extension Act, UF/IFAS project 1000606

References

Austen, M. J., Francis, C. M., Burke, D. M., & Bradstreet, M. S. (2001). Landscape context and fragmentation effects on forest birds in southern Ontario. The Condor, 103(4), 701–714.

Betts, M. G., Forbes, G. J., Diamond, A. W., & Taylor, P. D. (2006). Independent effects of fragmentation on forest songbirds: an organism-based approach. Ecological Applications, 16(3), 1076–1089.

Faeth, S. H., Bang, C., & Saari, S. (2011). Urban biodiversity: patterns and mechanisms. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1223(1), 69–81.

Robbins, C. S., Dawson, D. K., & Dowell, B. A. (1989). Habitat area requirements of breeding forest birds of the Middle Atlantic States. Wildlife Monographs, 3–34.

Tables

Table 1. 

Forest fragment categories and points assigned to each category.

Forest fragment categories

Number of acres conserved

Score per acre

Total score per category

Late successional

Estimate how many acres are occupied by forest patches 1 acre or larger ______ (whole number)

1.5 points

# acres X 1.5

Early successional

Estimate how many acres are occupied by forest patches 1 acre or larger. ______ (whole number)

1.0 points

# acres X 1.0

Table 2. 

In this hypothetical development scenario, some large and small forest fragments are conserved. The total amount forest conserved is 100 acres.

Forest fragment categories

Number of acres conserved

Score per acre

Total score per forest category

Late successional

20

1.5 points

30

Early successional

80

1.0 points

80

Total overall score

 

110

Appendix A. 

This species list gives species identification, life history, results from three systematic reviews of the literature, and expected occurrence for 219 forest bird species recorded in studies conducted throughout the United States and Canada. The Breeding Review columns show which species will breed in late or early successional forest fragments as well as which species are Interior-Forest Specialists (birds that do not breed in forest fragments). The Stopover Review column lists which species were observed in small forest fragments by studies conducted during the spring and fall migration seasons. The Built Environment Review columns show which species were observed within residential areas and gives the season of the observation. The Synanthropic Review columns show which species are synanthropic (urban-adapted species commonly found within the built matrix). Species are listed alphabetically by Order, Locality, and Common Name.

Species

Life History

Breeding

Stop Over Review

Built Environment

Synanthropic Review

Occurrence10

Order

Common Name

Scientific Name

Locality1

IUCN CODE2

Habitat Type3

Migrant Status4

Breeds in Late-Successional Forest5

Breeds in Early-Successional Forest6

Confidence in Interior-Forest Specialist Assignment7

Total no. of Studies That Observed Species in Small Forest Fragments during Migration Seasons

No. of Studies That Observed Species in the Built Environment during the Breeding Season

No. of Studies That Observed Species in the Built Environment during the Spring or Fall Migration Seasons

No. of Studies that Observed Species during Breed-Migration8

Confidence in Synanthropic Species Assignment9

Breeds in Forest Fragment

Stopover in Forest Fragment

Breeds in Residential Area

Stopover in Residential Area

Apodiformes

Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Archilochus colubris

E

LC

OW

MD/ LD

yes

yes

(1/2)

2

3

1

0

(1/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Apodiformes

Allen's Hummingbird

Selasphorus sasin

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Apodiformes

Anna's Hummingbird

Calypte anna

W

LC

OW

YR

--

--

--

--

4

0

3

High (3/3)

ü

 

ü

 

Apodiformes

Black-chinned Hummingbird

Archilochus alexandri

W

LC

OW

MD/ LD

--

--

--

1

2

0

3

(1/1)

?

ü

?

ü

Apodiformes

Broad-billed Hummingbird

Cynanthus latirostris

W

LC

SC

SD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Apodiformes

Calliope Hummingbird

Selasphorus calliope

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Apodiformes

Costa's Hummingbird

Calypte costae

W

LC

D

YR/ SD

--

--

--

1

1

0

2

--

?

?

?

?

Apodiformes

Rufous Hummingbird

Selasphorus rufus

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

3

1

1

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Columbiformes

Common Ground-dove

Columbina passerina

E/ W

LC

SC

YR/ SD

--

--

--

1

1

0

1

--

?

?

?

?

Columbiformes

Eurasian Collared-dove

Streptopelia decaocto

E/ W

LC

T

YR

--

--

--

--

2

0

0

--

?

 

?

 

Columbiformes

Mourning Dove

Zenaida macroura

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ LD

yes

yes

(0/2)

3

8

0

3

High (3/3)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Columbiformes

Inca Dove

Columbina inca

W

LC

T

YR

--

--

--

--

2

0

3

--

ü

 

ü

 

Columbiformes

Northern Band-tailed Pigeon

Patagioenas fasciata

W

LC

F

YR/ MD

--

--

--

--

3

0

0

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Columbiformes

White-winged Dove

Zenaida asiatica

W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

--

--

--

1

3

0

2

--

ü

ü

ü

ü

Cuculiformes

Black-billed Cuckoo

Coccyzus erythropthalmus

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(1/2)

1

1

1

0

--

?

?

 

?

Cuculiformes

Yellow-billed Cuckoo

Coccyzus americanus

E

LC

OW

LD

yes

yes

Low (1/4)

2

2

2

0

--

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Acadian Flycatcher

Empidonax virescens

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

High (6/6)

1

2

1

0

(0/1)

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

Baltimore Oriole

Icterus galbula

E

LC

OW

MD/ LD

yes

yes

Low (1/3)

3

5

2

1

--

ü

ü

?

ü

Passeriformes

Bay-breasted Warbler

Dendroica castanea

E

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

4

0

1

0

--

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Black-and-white Warbler

Mniotilta varia

E

LC

F

YR/ SD/ LD

yes

no

High (3/3)

5

2

1

0

(0/1)

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

Blackburnian Warbler

Dendroica fusca

E

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

7

--

--

--

--

 

ü

   

Passeriformes

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(2/2)

9

1

1

0

--

ü

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(1/2)

6

1

1

0

--

ü

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Black-whiskered Vireo

Vireo altiloquus

E

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Blue Jay

Cyanocitta cristata

E

LC

F

YR/ SD

yes

yes

No (0/3)

4

5

1

0

(1/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Blue-headed Vireo

Vireo solitarius

E

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

7

0

2

1

--

 

ü

   

Passeriformes

Blue-winged Warbler

Vermivora cyanoptera

E

LC

OW

LD

no

yes

(0/1)

3

1

1

0

--

?

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Boat-tailed Grackle

Quiscalus major

E

LC

MSW

YR

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Brown Thrasher

Toxostoma rufum

E

LC

SC

YR/ SD

no

no

(1/1)

1

5

1

0

(0/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Brown-headed Nuthatch

Sitta pusilla

E

LC

F

YR

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

(0/1)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Canada Warbler

Wilsonia canadensis

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(2/2)

6

0

2

0

--

ü

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Carolina Chickadee

Parus carolinensis

E

LC

F

YR

yes

yes

(0/1)

--

4

0

0

(1/1)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Carolina Wren

Thryothorus ludovicianus

E

LC

OW

YR

yes

yes

(1/2)

--

3

1

0

(0/1)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Cerulean Warbler

Dendroica cerulea

E

VU

F

LD

yes

no

High (4/4)

1

--

--

--

--

X

?

X

 

Passeriformes

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

E

LC

OW

LD

yes

yes

(1/2)

8

0

1

0

--

ü

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Connecticut Warbler

Oporornis agilis

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(1/1)

2

0

0

1

--

?

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Dickcissel

Spiza americana

E

LC

FE

LD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Eastern Bluebird

Sialia sialis

E

LC

FE

YR/ MD

--

--

--

--

4

0

0

(1/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Eastern Phoebe

Sayornis phoebe

E

LC

OW

YR/ SD/ MD

--

--

--

5

5

0

0

(1/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Eastern Towhee

Pipilo erythrophthalmus

E

LC

SC

YR/ SD

yes

yes

(0/2)

2

4

0

1

(0/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Eastern Wood-pewee

Contopus virens

E

LC

F

LD

yes

yes

No (0/5)

7

6

1

0

(0/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Field Sparrow

Spizella pusilla

E

LC

SC

YR/ MD

--

--

--

2

2

0

0

(1/2)

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Fish Crow

Corvus ossifragus

E

LC

SL

YR/ SD

yes

yes

(0/1)

1

--

--

--

--

?

?

   

Passeriformes

Golden-winged Warbler

Vermivora chrysoptera

E

NT

OW

LD

--

--

--

3

--

--

--

--

 

ü

   

Passeriformes

Grey Catbird

Dumetella carolinensis

E

LC

OW

YR/ MD

yes

yes

(0/2)

8

6

2

0

(1/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Grey Kingbird

Tyrannus dominicensis

E

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Grey-cheeked Thrush

Catharus minimus

E

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

5

--

--

--

--

 

ü

   

Passeriformes

Hooded Oriole

Icterus cucullatus

E

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

2

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Hooded Warbler

Wilsonia citrina

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

Med (2/3)

1

2

1

1

(0/1)

X

?

X

 

Passeriformes

Indigo Bunting

Passerina cyanea

E

LC

OW

LD

yes

yes

No (0/4)

7

5

2

0

No (0/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Kentucky Warbler

Oporornis formosus

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

High (3/4)

--

1

2

0

--

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

Louisiana Waterthrush

Parkesia motacilla

E

LC

RF

LD

yes

no

(2/2)

4

0

1

0

--

?

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(1/1)

6

--

--

--

--

?

ü

   

Passeriformes

Nashville Warbler

Vermivora ruficapilla

E

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

10

1

0

1

(0/1)

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Northern Cardinal

Cardinalis cardinalis

E

LC

OW

YR

yes

yes

No (0/5)

--

9

1

2

(1/1)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Northern Parula

Parula americana

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

High (4/4)

9

1

1

0

(0/1)

X

ü

X

?

Passeriformes

Orchard Oriole

Icterus spurius

E

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

2

0

1

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Philadelphia Vireo

Vireo philadelphicus

E

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

5

--

--

--

--

 

ü

   

Passeriformes

Pine Warbler

Dendroica pinus

E

LC

F

MD

yes

--

(1/2)

5

1

0

0

(0/1)

ü

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Prairie Warbler

Dendroica discolor

E

LC

OW

MD

yes

yes

(0/1)

3

1

1

0

(0/1)

ü

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Prothonotary Warbler

Protonotaria citrea

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(0/1)

2

0

1

0

--

?

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Rose-breasted Grosbeak

Pheucticus ludovicianus

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

High (3/4)

7

2

2

0

--

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

Scarlet Tanager

Piranga olivacea

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

High (7/7)

8

5

1

0

(0/1)

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

Swainson's Warbler

Limnothlypis swainsonii

E

LC

F

MD

--

--

--

1

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Tufted Titmouse

Baeolophus bicolor

E

LC

F

YR

yes

yes

Low (1/5)

--

4

1

0

(1/1)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

White-eyed Vireo

Vireo griseus

E

LC

SC

MD

yes

yes

(0/2)

4

1

2

0

(0/1)

?

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Wood Thrush

Hylocichla mustelina

E

NT

F

LD

yes

no

Med (5/8)

7

5

1

0

(0/1)

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

Worm-eating Warbler

Helmitheros vermivorum

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(2/2)

3

0

1

0

--

?

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher

Empidonax flaviventris

E

LC

F

YR/ SD/ LD

--

--

--

5

0

1

0

--

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Yellow-throated Vireo

Vireo flavifrons

E

LC

OW

LD

yes

no

High (3/4)

2

2

1

0

(0/1)

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

Yellow-throated Warbler

Dendroica dominica

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(1/2)

2

0

1

0

--

?

ü

?

?

Passeriformes

American Crow

Corvus brachyrhynchos

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

yes

yes

Low (1/3)

--

7

1

1

High (4/4)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

American Goldfinch

Carduelis tristis

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

no

yes

(0/2)

3

7

1

1

Med (2/3)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

E/ W

LC

F

LD

yes

no

Med (2/3)

12

2

2

0

--

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

yes

yes

No (0/5)

2

8

0

2

Low (1/3)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

American Treecreeper

Certhia americana

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ SD

yes

no

(0/1)

4

4

0

0

(0/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Barn Swallow

Hirundo rustica

E/ W

LC

T

LD

--

--

--

--

4

0

1

(1/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Bell's Vireo

Vireo bellii

E/ W

NT

SC

MD

--

--

--

1

1

0

0

--

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Bewick's Wren

Thryomanes bewickii

E/ W

LC

OW

YR

--

--

--

--

2

1

3

Med (2/3)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Black-capped Chickadee

Parus atricapillus

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ IR

yes

yes

No (0/3)

3

5

1

0

(2/2)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Blackpoll Warbler

Dendroica striata

E/ W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

11

2

2

0

--

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Blue Grosbeak

Passerina caerulea

E/ W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

1

2

1

0

(0/1)

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Blue-grey Gnatcatcher

Polioptila caerulea

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ LD

yes

no

High (4/4)

7

3

2

2

(0/1)

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

Brewer's Blackbird

Euphagus cyanocephalus

E/ W

LC

T

YR/ MD

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

--

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Brown-headed Cowbird

Molothrus ater

E/ W

LC

FE

YR/ SD

yes

yes

No (0/3)

5

9

0

3

High (4/4)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Cape May Warbler

Dendroica tigrina

E/ W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

4

0

1

0

--

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Cedar Waxwing

Bombycilla cedrorum

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ SD/ LD

yes

yes

(0/2)

5

6

1

0

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Chipping Sparrow

Spizella passerina

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

no

no

(0/1)

2

7

0

1

--

ü

ü

ü

?

Passeriformes

Clay-coloured Sparrow

Spizella pallida

E/ W

LC

SC

MD/ LD

--

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Common Grackle

Quiscalus quiscula

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

yes

yes

No (0/3)

2

5

0

0

(1/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Common Raven

Corvus corax

E/ W

LC

MTW

YR

yes

yes

(0/1)

--

1

0

3

(1/1)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Common Starling

Sturnus vulgaris

E/ W

LC

T

YR/ SD

yes

yes

No (0/4)

1

8

0

2

High (4/4)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Common Yellowthroat

Geothlypis trichas

E/ W

LC

SC

YR/ LD

no

yes

(0/2)

8

3

1

2

(1/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Curve-billed Thrasher

Toxostoma curvirostre

E/ W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

4

0

2

--

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ MD

--

--

--

2

2

0

2

(0/2)

?

ü

?

ü

Passeriformes

Eastern Kingbird

Tyrannus tyrannus

E/ W

LC

FE

LD

--

--

--

--

4

2

0

--

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Evening Grosbeak

Coccothraustes vespertinus

E/ W

LC

F

YR/IR

--

--

--

1

1

0

0

(1/1)

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Fox Sparrow

Passerella iliaca

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ SD/ LD

--

--

--

1

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Golden-crowned Kinglet

Regulus satrapa

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ MD

--

--

--

4

3

1

0

(0/1)

ü

ü

ü

 

Passeriformes

Harris's Sparrow

Zonotrichia querula

E/ W

LC

F

MD

--

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

--

--

--

3

2

1

1

--

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

House Finch

Carpodacus mexicanus

E/ W

LC

T

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

10

0

3

High (4/4)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

House Sparrow

Passer domesticus

E/ W

LC

T

YR

--

--

--

--

9

0

1

(1/1)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

House Wren

Troglodytes aedon

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ SD/ MD

yes

yes

(0/2)

3

6

0

2

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Lark Sparrow

Chondestes grammacus

E/ W

LC

FE

MD

--

--

--

--

0

0

2

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

E/ W

LC

F

LD

yes

yes

(1/1)

6

1

1

0

--

ü

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Lincoln's Sparrow

Melospiza lincolnii

E/ W

LC

SC

LD

--

--

--

4

0

0

2

--

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Loggerhead Shrike

Lanius ludovicianus

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/MD

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

--

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Magnolia Warbler

Dendroica magnolia

E/ W

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(0/1)

12

0

2

0

--

?

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Marsh Wren

Cistothorus palustris

E/ W

LC

MSW

YR/MD

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Northern Mockingbird

Mimus polyglottos

E/ W

LC

T

YR

--

--

--

--

6

1

3

(2/2)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Northern Waterthrush

Parkesia noveboracensis

E/ W

LC

F

LD

yes

no

High (3/3)

8

0

1

0

--

X

ü

X

?

Passeriformes

Olive-sided Flycatcher

Contopus cooperi

E/ W

NT

OW

LD

--

--

--

2

3

1

0

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Orange-crowned Warbler

Vermivora celata

E/ W

LC

F

MD/ LD

--

--

--

4

3

1

3

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

E/ W

LC

F

LD

yes

no

High (6/6)

11

3

2

0

--

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

Palm Warbler

Dendroica palmarum

E/ W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

5

0

1

0

--

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Pine Grosbeak

Pinicola enucleator

E/ W

LC

OW

YR

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

(1/1)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Pine Siskin

Carduelis pinus

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/IR

--

--

--

2

3

1

0

(1/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Purple Finch

Carpodacus purpureus

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ SD

--

--

--

3

3

0

0

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Purple Martin

Progne subis

E/ W

LC

LPF/T

LD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Pyrrhuloxia

Cardinalis sinuatus

E/ W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

3

0

1

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Red Crossbill

Loxia curvirostra

E/ W

LC

F

MD

--

--

--

--

2

1

0

(1/1)

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Red-breasted Nuthatch

Sitta canadensis

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ SD/ IR

--

--

--

3

3

1

1

(0/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

E/ W

LC

F

LD

yes

no

Med (4/7)

11

4

2

0

(1/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Red-winged Blackbird

Agelaius phoeniceus

E/ W

LC

MSW

YR/ SD

yes

yes

No (0/4)

2

7

0

2

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Ruby-crowned Kinglet

Regulus calendula

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ SD

--

--

--

8

0

1

2

--

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Song Sparrow

Melospiza melodia

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ MD

yes

yes

(0/1)

2

8

0

2

High (3/4)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Summer Tanager

Piranga rubra

E/ W

LC

OW

LD

yes

no

(2/2)

2

2

2

0

No (0/1)

?

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Swainson's Thrush

Catharus ustulatus

E/ W

LC

F

LD

no

no

(1/1)

10

--

--

--

No (0/2)

?

ü

   

Passeriformes

Swamp Sparrow

Melospiza georgiana

E/ W

LC

MSW

LD

--

--

--

3

0

1

0

--

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Tennessee Warbler

Vermivora peregrina

E/ W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

7

1

1

0

--

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Tree Swallow

Tachycineta bicolor

E/ W

LC

LPF

LD

--

--

--

1

5

1

0

--

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Veery

Catharus fuscescens

E/ W

LC

F

LD

yes

no

High (4/4)

5

2

2

0

--

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Warbling Vireo

Vireo gilvus

E/ W

LC

OW

MD/ LD

--

--

--

4

5

0

0

(2/2)

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

White-breasted Nuthatch

Sitta carolinensis

E/ W

LC

F

YR

yes

no

Med (2/3)

--

7

1

1

Med (2/3)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

White-crowned Sparrow

Zonotrichia leucophrys

E/ W

LC

SC

YR/ MD

--

--

--

1

0

0

2

(1/1)

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

E/ W

LC

F

SD/ MD

yes

yes

(0/1)

3

--

--

--

--

?

ü

   

Passeriformes

Willow Flycatcher

Empidonax traillii

E/ W

LC

MSW

LD

--

--

--

5

4

1

0

(1/1)

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Wilson's Warbler

Wilsonia pusilla

E/ W

LC

SC

LD

--

--

--

8

3

1

2

No (0/3)

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Winter Wren

Troglodytes troglodytes

E/ W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

2

1

1

0

(0/2)

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Yellow Warbler

Dendroica petechia

E/ W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

7

6

2

2

(1/2)

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Yellow-breasted Chat

Icteria virens

E/ W

LC

SC

LD

yes

yes

(0/2)

3

0

1

1

--

?

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Yellow-rumped Warbler

Dendroica coronata

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ SD/ LD

--

--

--

11

2

0

1

--

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Grey Jay

Perisoreus canadensis

E/W

LC

F

YR

--

--

(0/1)

--

--

--

--

(1/1)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Painted Bunting

Passerina ciris

E/W

NT

SC

MD

--

--

--

2

0

0

0

--

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Abert's Towhee

Melozone aberti

W

LC

D

YR

--

--

--

--

1

0

2

--

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

American Dusky Flycatcher

Empidonax oberholseri

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Ash-throated Flycatcher

Myiarchus cinerascens

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

1

3

0

0

(0/2)

ü

ü

?

ü

Passeriformes

Bendire's Thrasher

Toxostoma bendirei

W

VU

D

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

2

0

1

--

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Black Phoebe

Sayornis nigricans

W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

yes

yes

(0/1)

--

--

--

1

(2/2)

ü

ü

?

?

Passeriformes

Black-headed Grosbeak

Pheucticus melanocephalus

W

LC

F

MD/ LD

--

--

--

1

5

1

2

Med (2/3)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Black-tailed Gnatcatcher

Polioptila melanura

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

3

0

2

--

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Black-throated Grey Warbler

Dendroica nigrescens

W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

--

2

0

1

No (0/2)

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Black-throated Sparrow

Amphispiza bilineata

W

LC

SC

LD

--

--

--

--

3

0

2

--

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Brewer's Sparrow

Spizella breweri

W

LC

SC

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

1

0

2

--

?

ü

?

ü

Passeriformes

Bronzed Cowbird

Molothrus aeneus

W

LC

T

LD

--

--

--

--

2

0

2

--

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Bullock's Oriole

Icterus bullockii

W

LC

OW

MD

--

--

--

1

1

0

1

(1/2)

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Bushtit

Psaltriparus minimus

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

2

1

2

High (3/3)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Cactus Wren

Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus

W

LC

D

YR

--

--

--

--

4

0

3

--

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

California Thrasher

Toxostoma redivivum

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

(0/1)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

California Towhee

Melozone crissalis

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

(1/1)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Canyon Towhee

Melozone fuscus

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

1

0

2

--

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Cassin's Finch

Carpodacus cassinii

W

NT

F

YR/ MD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Cassin's Kingbird

Tyrannus vociferans

W

LC

OW

MD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Cassin's Vireo

Vireo cassinii

W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

--

3

0

0

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Chestnut-backed Chickadee

Parus rufescens

W

LC

F

YR

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

(0/2)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Clark's Nutcracker

Nucifraga columbiana

W

LC

F

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Great Crested Flycatcher

Myiarchus crinitus

W

LC

OW

MD/ LD

yes

yes

Low (1/7)

6

4

2

0

(0/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Great-tailed Grackle

Quiscalus mexicanus

W

LC

T

YR

--

--

--

--

3

0

1

--

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Green-tailed Towhee

Pipilo chlorurus

W

LC

SC

YR/ SD/ MD

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

--

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Grey Flycatcher

Empidonax wrightii

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

1

0

0

1

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Hammond's Flycatcher

Empidonax hammondii

W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

(0/1)

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Hermit Warbler

Dendroica occidentalis

W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

1

1

0

1

(0/1)

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Hutton's Vireo

Vireo huttoni

W

LC

F

YR

--

--

--

--

2

0

1

No (0/3)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Lazuli Bunting

Passerina amoena

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

(1/1)

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Le Conte's Thrasher

Toxostoma lecontei

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Lesser Goldfinch

Carduelis psaltria

W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

3

0

3

(1/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Lucy's Warbler

Vermivora luciae

W

LC

OW

MD

--

--

--

--

1

0

2

--

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

MacGillivray's Warbler

Oporornis tolmiei

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

3

1

1

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Mountain Chickadee

Parus gambeli

W

LC

F

YR

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

North-western Crow

Corvus caurinus

W

LC

OW

YR

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Oak Titmouse

Baeolophus inornatus

W

LC

OW

YR

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

(0/1)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Pacific-slope Flycatcher

Empidonax difficilis

W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

1

1

0

1

No (0/3)

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Phainopepla

Phainopepla nitens

W

LC

SC

MD

--

--

--

2

2

0

3

--

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Pygmy Nuthatch

Sitta pygmaea

W

LC

F

YR

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Rufous-crowned Sparrow

Aimophila ruficeps

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Rufous-winged Sparrow

Peucaea carpalis

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

2

0

0

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Sage Thrasher

Oreoscoptes montanus

W

LC

SC

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Sagebrush Sparrow

Artemisiospiza nevadensis

W

LC

SC

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Spotted Towhee

Pipilo maculatus

W

LC

SC

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

2

1

0

(0/3)

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Steller's Jay

Cyanocitta stelleri

W

LC

F

YR

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

(0/2)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Townsend's Solitaire

Myadestes townsendi

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Townsend's Warbler

Dendroica townsendi

W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

(0/1)

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Tropical Kingbird

Tyrannus melancholicus

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Varied Thrush

Zoothera naevia

W

LC

F

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

0

1

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Verdin

Auriparus flaviceps

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

4

0

2

--

ü

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Violet-green Swallow

Tachycineta thalassina

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

(2/2)

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Western Bluebird

Sialia mexicana

W

LC

OW

YR/MD

--

--

(0/1)

--

0

0

0

(0/1)

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Western Kingbird

Tyrannus verticalis

W

LC

FE

MD/ LD

--

--

--

1

2

0

2

No (0/1)

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Western Scrub-jay

Aphelocoma californica

W

LC

SC

YR

yes

yes

(0/1)

--

0

0

1

(2/2)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Western Tanager

Piranga ludoviciana

W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

--

3

1

1

(0/2)

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Western Wood-pewee

Contopus sordidulus

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

3

1

1

(2/2)

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

White-winged Crossbill

Loxia leucoptera

W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

--

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Wrentit

Chamaea fasciata

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

?

 

?

 

Piciformes

Red-bellied Woodpecker

Melanerpes carolinus

E

LC

F

YR

yes

no

Med (3/5)

--

6

1

0

(1/1)

ü

 

ü

 

Piciformes

Red-headed Woodpecker

Melanerpes erythrocephalus

E

NT

OW

YR/ SD

yes

no

(0/1)

1

3

1

0

(0/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Piciformes

Downy Woodpecker

Dryobates pubescens

E/ W

LC

F

YR

yes

no

No (0/3)

--

8

2

1

Low (1/4)

ü

 

ü

 

Piciformes

Hairy Woodpecker

Leuconotopicus villosus

E/ W

LC

F

YR

yes

no

High (4/4)

--

7

1

0

Low (1/3)

ü

 

ü

 

Piciformes

Pileated Woodpecker

Hylatomus pileatus

E/ W

LC

F

YR

yes

no

High (3/3)

--

2

0

0

(0/2)

X

 

X

 

Piciformes

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

E/ W

LC

F

MD/ LD

yes

no

(0/1)

2

0

1

1

--

 

ü

 

?

Piciformes

Yellow-shafted Flicker

Colaptes auratus

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

yes

yes

(0/1)

4

10

1

1

High (3/4)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Piciformes

Acorn Woodpecker

Melanerpes formicivorus

W

LC

OW

YR

yes

yes

(0/1)

--

0

0

1

High (4/4)

ü

 

ü

 

Piciformes

Gila Woodpecker

Melanerpes uropygialis

W

LC

D

YR

--

--

--

--

4

0

2

--

ü

 

ü

 

Piciformes

Gilded Flicker

Colaptes chrysoides

W

LC

D

YR

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

?

 

?

 

Piciformes

Ladder-backed Woodpecker

Dryobates scalaris

W

LC

D

YR

--

--

--

--

2

0

2

--

ü

 

ü

 

Piciformes

Nuttall's Woodpecker

Dryobates nuttallii

W

LC

OW

YR

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

(0/1)

?

 

?

 

Piciformes

Red-breasted Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus ruber

W

LC

F

MD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

(0/1)

 

?

 

?

Piciformes

White-headed Woodpecker

Leuconotopicus albolarvatus

W

LC

F

YR

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

?

 

?

 

Piciformes

Williamson's Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus thyroideus

W

LC

F

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

?

 

?

 

1 Locality (Regional Occurrence): East (E) = Occurs east of the 100th meridian, West (W) = occurs west of the 100th meridian

2 The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) identifies the conservation status of species all over the world. Least Concern (LC) represents species that have the lowest risk of becoming endangered in the wild. Near Threatened (NT) represents species that are likely to become threatened in the near future (e.g., due to increasing trends in habitat loss). Vulnerable (VU) represents species that are at high risk of becoming endangered in the wild (due to current and ongoing threats).

3 Habitat Types: Forest (F) = mature, forest fragments; Open woodland (OW) = disturbed or regrowing forest; Scrub (SC) = dense shrubbery, including abandoned farm fields, clearcuts, powerline corridors, fencerows, forest edges and openings, swamps, and edges of streams and ponds; Marsh woods (MSW) = various wetlands, including freshwater and tidal marshes, bogs, meadows, and swamps; Mountain Woods (MTW) = mountain forests; Forest edge (FE) = disturbed habitat, similar to early successional forest, at the edge of a forest; Riparian forest (RF) = forest buffer along a river or waterway; Lake/Pond Forest (LPF) = forest surrounding a body of water; [Allaboutbirds.org, Cornell Bird Lab]. Note that if a species is not an interior forest specialist and it breeds in mature forest, that means it would either breed along edges of forest and/or in small forest patches.

4 Migrant Statuses: LD = Long distance migration, typically birds breed during the summer in the U.S. and Canada and they migrate south to spend the winter months in Mexico, Caribbean islands, Central America, and South America; MD = medium-distance, typically birds move south of their breeding range but still within the U.S.; SD = short-distance, typically birds move within their breeding range; YR = year-round resident; IR = irregular/irruptive migrant [Allaboutbirds.org, Cornell Bird Lab]

5 Late-Successional Forest = late successional forests where most of the trees that form the canopy are over 30 ft. tall, including both relatively young forests with trees 15 – 50 years old and mature forests with trees 50+ years or older. This indicates the most likely breeding habitat, but is not an indication of likelihood of breeding in small patches. For example, if interior forest specialist confidence is “high” and a “yes” for breeding in mature forest, then this species only breeds successfully in large mature forest patches (> 50 ha).

6 Early-Successional Forest = Composed primarily of shrubs (with some scattering of trees and grassland patches) and/or very young planted pine saplings and pioneer species such as black cherry (Prunus sp.). Trees are generally 0–15 years old and tree height is typically less than 30 ft. For example, if interior forest specialist confidence is “high” and a “yes” for breeding in early-successional forest, then this species only breeds successfully in early-successional forest that is embedded in continuous forest patches (> 50 ha).

7 This column indicates whether the species is considered an interior forest specialist during breeding season. “High”, “Med”, and “Low” refer to the confidence on whether the bird is considered an interior forest specialist. “High” means more that 66% of the reviewed studies indicated that a species was an interior forest specialist, “Med” means between 66% and 33% of studies indicated that a species was an interior forest specialist, and “Low” means that less than 33% of studies indicated that a species was an interior forest specialist. “No” means that the species is not an interior forest specialist because three or greater studies consistently found no area sensitivity; thus, it is likely to breed in small forest fragments. A lack of any of these classifications indicates that fewer than three studies were found for this species in Breeding Review, and thus could not be assigned one way or the other as an interior-forest species. Further, a “—“ in this column represents that the species was not observed in any of the Breeding Review studies. Numbers in parentheses represent the number of studies that determined a species to be an interior forest specialist. Numbers in parentheses represent how many studies noted the species to be an interior-forest specialist out of the total number of studies that observed said species.

8 “Breeding-Migration” represents the transitional period between breeding and migration seasons (either spring transitioning to summer or summer transitioning to fall). Some studies in our review did not clearly define when bird observations were recorded and counted species sightings from these studies in this column.

9 We reviewed four studies that identified Synanthropic birds—species that have adapted to living in urban areas. “High”, “Med”, and “Low” refer to the confidence on whether the bird is considered synanthropic. “High” means more that 66% of at least three reviewed studies indicated that a species was synanthropic, “Med” means between 66% and 33% of studies indicated that a species was synanthropic, and “Low” means that less than 33% of studies indicated that a species was synanthropic. “No” means that the species is not synanthropic because three or more studies found that the species did not display synanthropic behavior and is unlikely to breed in urban areas. Numbers in parentheses represent the number of studies that determined a species to be synanthropic out of the total number of studies that observed said species.

10 Marks in these four columns are an indication of using the habitat based on looking across the three reviews. For ease of interpretation, we created four “overall” columns at the end of the bird list. These were “Breeds in Forest Fragment”; “Stopover in Forest Fragment”; “Breeds in Residential Area”; and “Stopover in Residential Area.” For a given species, a checkmark (ü) indicates likelihood of occurrence in each columnar habitat category, an (X) indicates that it does not occur in this habitat category, a (?) indicates that a species may occur in this habitat category but results were not convincing enough to assign a (ü) or (X), and a blank indicates no information available.

First, for species only found in the Breeding Review, if they had three or more studies and were given a High/Med confidence level as an interior-forest specialist, then is it was assigned an (X) in the Breeds in Forest Fragment and Breeds in Residential Area categories; it does not breed in forest fragments in rural and urban areas. Low confidence or a total of two or fewer papers in the Breeding Review, we assigned a (?) to indicate that this species may or may not breed in forest fragments in urban and rural areas.

For species found only in the Stopover Review, if a migrant had three or more studies, then we assigned (ü) under the Stopover in Forest Fragment category. If a migrant had fewer than three studies in the Stopover Review, then we assigned (?) under the Stopover in Forest Fragment category.

For migrants found in both the Stopover Review and Built Environment Review, if Stopover Review studies combined with two or fewer Built Environment Review studies (stopover, breeding, and breeding-stopover studies), which brought the total to three or greater, then we assigned a (ü) for Stopover in Forest Fragment and a (?) for Stopover in Residential Area categories. The rationale here is that migrants seen in two or fewer Built Environment studies receive a (?) for Stopover in Residential Area because that is not enough studies to confidently assign them as using residential areas as stopover sites.

For species found in the Breeding Review, Built Environment Review, and Synanthropy Analysis, we compared results to determine what to assign in each habitat category. If a species was a High/Medium confidence interior-forest specialist, but it was observed in three or more studies in the Built Environments Review during the breeding season and was shown to have at least one synanthropic study, we assigned a (ü) for this species as Breeding in Forest Fragment and Breeding in Residential Area. If a migrant, we also assigned a (ü) for Stopover in Forest Fragments and Stopover in Residential Area because if it breeds in residential areas we assumed it would use urban forest fragments and trees in residential areas as stopover sites.

For species found in Breeding Review, Built Environment Review, but not in the Synanthropy Analysis, a High/Medium/Low or unassigned confidence level for interior-forest specialist that was a year-round resident and/or a SD migrant, and it occurred in three or more Built Environment breeding studies, we assigned a (ü) as Breeding in Forest Fragment and Breeding in Residential Area. Because they were not migratory, we were confident that the residential studies actually reflected breeding individuals. If a High/Medium or unassigned confidence level for interior-forest specialist was a long-distance and/or medium-distance migrant species (even if a portion of the population is considered year-round) and occurred in three or more Built Environment breeding surveys, we were conservative and assumed these individuals were passing through cities. We assigned a (ü) for them under Stopover in Residential Area and Stopover in Forest Fragments. However, if a migrant species was determined to be a Low confidence interior-forest specialist and occurred in three or more Built Environment Review breeding studies, we assigned a (ü) for the Breeds in Residential Area and Breeds in Forest Fragment categories because the combination indicates that they may also breed in residential areas. In turn, because they breed in residential areas then they would also tolerate fragmented forests.

For species that occurred only in the Built Environment Review and had three or more total studies (combined stopover, breeding, and breeding-stopover studies), we interpreted the likelihood of this species breeding in residential areas in the following way. If they were observed within the built environment during the breeding season and were shown to have at least one synanthropic study, then we assigned a (ü) for Breeding in Forest Fragment and Breeding in Residential Area. If a migrant, we also assigned a (ü) for Stopover in Forest Fragments and Stopover in Residential Area because if they breed in residential areas they would use forest fragments and residential areas as stopover sites. If species were only observed in the breeding season surveys (not in stopover and breeding-stopover studies), we assigned a (ü) only for year-round residents and SD migrants under Breeds in Forest Fragment and Breeds in Residential categories. All long-distance and medium-distance migrants were considered to be individuals that were passing through and were most likely using the areas as a stopover site. Here, we assigned a (ü) for these species for Stopover in Forest Fragment and Stopover in Residential Area categories. Additionally, for long-distance and medium-distance migrants that had three or more combined stopover, breeding, and breeding-stopover studies under the Built Environment Review, we assigned a (ü) for these species for Stopover in Forest Fragment and Stopover in Residential Area categories.

For species that occurred only in the Built Environment Review and had fewer than three total studies, we interpreted the likelihood of this species breeding in residential areas in the following way. For year-round resident species and/or SD migrants, we assigned a (?) in the corresponding Breeds in Forest Fragment and Breeds in Residential categories. All long-distance and medium-distance migrants were assumed to be passing through and may be using residential areas as stopover sites. We assigned a (?) for these species for Stopover in Forest Fragment and Stopover in Residential Area categories.

Appendix B. 

Peer-reviewed literature from systematic review of North American birds in fragmented and continuous forests during the breeding season. These 12 studies were used (in part) to generate avian species occurrences across the different seasons and habitats in Appendix A.

Source

Journal

Study Location

Review

Ambuel & Temple (1983)

Ecology

Pennsylvania, USA

Breeding

Austen et al. (2001)

The Condor

Ontario, Ca

Breeding

Blake & Karr (1984)

Biological Conservation

Illinois, USA

Breeding

Blake & Karr (1987)

Ecology

Illinois, USA

Breeding

Boulinier et al. (2001)

Ecology

BBS*

Breeding

Chan & Ranganathan (2005)

Oikos

Ontario, Ca

Breeding

Galitsky & Lawler (2015)

Landscape Ecology

Oregon, USA

Breeding

Galli et al. (1976)

The Auk

New Jersey, USA

Breeding

Howell et al. (2000)

Landscape Ecology

Missouri, USA

Breeding

Lapin et al. (2013)

The Condor

Minnesota, USA

Breeding

Richmond et al. (2012)

Canadian Journal of Zoology

Maryland/ Pennsylvania/ West Virginia/ Virginia, USA

Breeding

Robbins et al. (1989)

Wildlife Monographs

Ontario, Ca

Breeding

Footnotes

1.

This document is WEC372, one of a series of the Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date December 2016. Revised August 2017. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Mark Hostetler, professor and Extension specialist; and Jan-Michael Archer, graduate student; Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.