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Publication #WEC373

Building for Birds Evaluation Tool: Built Areas as Habitat for Forest Birds1

Mark Hostetler and Jan-Michael Archer2

Introduction

Figure 1. 

Birds that use bushes and trees in built areas, such as the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis, top photo) and the Carolina Chickadee (Poecile carolinensis, bottom photo) can often be found in residential areas throughout the year.


Credit:

Audubon, www.audubon.org


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

A variety of forest birds will use trees and shrubs in built areas (i.e., urban residential and commercial areas) as summer breeding sites and as foraging/shelter sites during the winter and spring/fall migration seasons. The purpose of this article is to explain the mechanics of an online evaluation tool that allows one to input different development plans and assess the extent of impacts to bird habitat by different designs. Essentially the tool gives bird habitat scores for each development scenario after the user inputs the amounts of tree canopy cover remaining in residential areas after development. Thus, decision makers can explore different designs to determine which may be best in terms of bird habitat conservation.

For the purposes of evaluating different development scenarios, we restrict the online analysis to forest birds in the order Passeriformes (i.e., perching birds) and woodpeckers in order Piciformes because trees are important habitat for these birds during the breeding season. For example, woodpeckers are primary cavity nesters, often creating their own nesting cavities in trees. Secondary cavity nesters, such as the Carolina Chickadee, utilize natural holes in trees or cavities made by woodpeckers. Other species, such as the Northern Cardinal, make open cup nests in the branches of trees and bushes. Thus, trees and shrubs are essential to birds in urban areas, allowing many species to acquire food, such as insects, fruits, tree sap, nectar, and seeds.

Not all birds can breed successfully in residential areas, which retain tree canopy cover but underneath contain buildings, roads, and lawns. Some birds, such as several species of Neotropical migrants (e.g., Cerulean warbler, Setophaga cerulea) are sensitive to forest fragmentation and typically only breed successfully in large patches of forest (e.g., greater than 100 acres). Birds that primarily breed in large forest patches are called interior forest specialists. It is hypothesized that these species are vulnerable in fragmented landscapes because they cannot successfully reproduce. Interior forest specialists are typically open-cup nesters on or near the ground, have small clutch sizes, and often do not nest again if a nest fails. In fragmented landscapes containing agriculture and urban areas, a variety of nest predators and brood parasites are more abundant along the edges of forests. Nest predators include mammals and birds, such as raccoons, cats, skunks, blue jays, and crows. The main brood parasite is the brown-headed cowbird, which lays eggs in a Neotropical migrant’s nest and tricks the parents into feeding and raising the cowbird chick instead of their own. Cowbirds and nest predators thrive in fragmented forest landscapes containing agriculture fields, pastures, and residential development.

Overall, interior forest specialists are vulnerable to forest fragmentation and many populations of these species are declining and are in danger of extinction due to human modifications of the landscape. Note, some interior forest specialists (e.g., Canada Warbler, Cardellina canadensis) breed in dense understory growth in the openings of large forests and use regenerating vegetation (caused by windfalls, fires, and clearcutting). Although they technically breed along edges, they do so in large forest patches. They are thought to be vulnerable to forest edges found in fragmented landscapes where urban and agriculture areas are nearby because of increased predation and cowbird parasitism in fragmented landscapes containing agriculture and cities. This is important to understand, as some species will never successfully breed in residential areas. However, there is stopover habitat for interior forest specialists, because they can use small forest patches and residential areas as habitat during migration (see Appendix A). A variety of species can use trees as habitat in residential areas during breeding, migrating, and wintering seasons. Every tree counts!

In the case of large development sites, where an opportunity exists to conserve patches of 125 acres or more, every effort should be made to conserve large patches and to have compact built areas. This is because large forest patches could serve as breeding areas for interior forest specialists. However, this document focuses on how to use the tool for evaluating residential areas where opportunities exist to conserve trees. Often, when land is subdivided, it costs time and money to conserve trees and other vegetation within residential/commercial areas, but there is value for many different species of forest birds. Many would say that the design and maintenance of trees in residential areas are not important because little bird habitat exists because of homes and roads in the neighborhoods. However, residential areas with extensive tree canopy cover can serve as breeding, wintering, and stopover habitat for a variety of species.

Scoring Justification and Species List

This evaluation tool should primarily be used to evaluate the relative worth of a different development plans for the same site. Residential areas with trees provide important habitat during breeding, migrating, and winter seasons. In fact, interior forest specialists, during the migration season, can use trees in built areas as stopover sites. From our review of the literature (Appendix B), we developed a list of bird species that could benefit from conservation of trees in residential areas (Appendix A). Based on the inputs from a user, the online tool assigns points based on the acreage of trees conserved in designated residential areas (Table 1).

Table 1. 

Tree canopy cover categories and points assigned to each category.

Tree Canopy: number of acres conserved

Score per acre

Total Score

Estimate how many acres are occupied by remaining tree canopy cover within all built areas.

1.0 points

# acres X 1.0

In determining the input variable, one looks within areas that are to be built and estimates the amount of tree canopy cover that will remain after construction.

From the literature, we generated a list of forest birds that were observed in surveys conducted in residential areas during the summer and migration seasons, indicating these species could use built areas as breeding and stopover habitat (Appendix A). Most studies were conducted during the breeding season and only a few studies were conducted during spring/fall migration. However, many of the birds that breed in built areas are short-distance migrants or are found year-round in a given location. For these species, we assumed that if they breed in residential/commercial areas, then they would also use these areas during the winter.

As indicated above, we only included forest birds that are in order Passeriformes (i.e., perching birds) and Piciformes (i.e., woodpeckers); we excluded raptors, waterbirds, etc. from the lists. Because of study locations reported in the literature, this list does not cover all North American forest species. In other words, bird species may be missing because they were not adequately studied.

We note that the scores are only relative for one design versus another. When comparing across different sites, a higher score on one site versus another may indicate the potential of having more individual birds or more species of birds, but this does not necessarily mean this is true for every situation. Habitat selection by wildlife is notoriously difficult to predict. There are many other variables, such as habitat quality and surrounding landscapes (e.g., is the development situated by forest land or agriculture land?). Thus, the scores do not translate into exact predictions of numbers of individuals or numbers of species. The tool only can be interpreted in this way: a higher score means that there is more available bird habitat on the site and it could attract more individuals or more species if that design is adopted.

Scoring Examples

For scoring built-area habitat, one must first determine the areas that will be built, i.e., containing buildings and roads. Then, one has to realistically estimate which trees will be conserved and measure the remaining tree canopy cover across all built areas. Here, we give an example on how to score bird habitat within built areas for a hypothetical development scenario. In this example, the developer has conserved various amounts of tree canopy cover for a total of 100 acres (Figure 2). The total score for this scenario is 100 points (Table 2).

Figure 2. 

Tree canopy cover conserved in built areas (dashes outline designated perimeter of the residential areas). Circles represent tree canopy cover within residential areas. Remember roads and homes occupy areas encompassed by the dashed lines, as it is a planned residential area. Outside of these dashed lines is conserved areas such as buffer containing trees. The trees in the buffers are not counted because they do not occupy the residential areas and this analysis is only counting trees conserved in residential areas.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Table 2. 

In this development scenario, some large and small amounts of tree canopy were conserved in the planned residential area. The total amount of forest conserved is 100 acres (80 acres occupied by sixteen 5-acre canopy patches, one 15-acre canopy patch, and 5 acres occupied by five 1-acre canopy patches).

Tree Canopy: number of acres conserved

Score per acre

Total Score

100

1.0 points

100

Improving a score: A developer can improve the score for built area bird habitat by simply increasing the amount of tree canopy cover conserved. One good way to achieve this is to require the protection of large trees and homes and roads are constructed around them.

Which Bird Species are Possible Using the Trees within Built Areas as Breeding/Wintering and Stopover Habitat?

This question takes a little investigation because the geographic location of your development may or may not be in the breeding/wintering range of a particular species. Appendix A gives a list of species that could use trees within the built areas. Only a portion of these species could have the possibility of appearing within a development, depending if the location of the development overlaps with the breeding/wintering range of a species and/or is along the migration route. As an example, the Carolina Chickadee (Poecile carolinensis) primarily breeds in the southern states of eastern US (Figure 3). Thus, if a development is located in Wisconsin, it would not have the Carolina Wren. For range maps of all birds, visit https://www.allaboutbirds.org.

Figure 3. 

Range map of the Carolina Chickadee (Poecile carolinensis).


Credit:

www.allaboutbirds.org


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Long-Term Functionality: Managing Habitat for Birds in Built Areas

In addition to conserving tree canopy cover in built areas, several other factors play a role in the suitability of these areas as bird habitat. Most notably is whether the quality of the habitat is maintained over the long term. In addition to tree canopy cover, planting landscape areas with native vegetation can benefit birds by providing food and shelter. Further, the design and management of yards varies widely by individual homeowners. Even if a developer conserved tree canopy and installed native vegetation on the lots, homeowners could decide not to keep this vegetation. Homeowners could even plant invasive exotics which escape and invade nearby forests. Developments that have conserved forest fragments and have conserved trees/native vegetation in built areas should have funds allocated to manage these areas. In particular, a neighborhood educational program should be implemented that helps to raise awareness among residents about conservation. Management and education would reduce/minimize impacts stemming from built areas, such as invasive species spreading into natural areas. In particular, we recommend the following:

  1. Educational Signage Program: Because many impacts originate from nearby residential and individual homeowner decisions, we suggest raising awareness about these impacts. We also recommend actions that would retain the biological integrity of the forest fragments and even enhance the habitat values of yards and neighborhoods. Installing neighborhood educational kiosks with environmental panels is one way to raise awareness. This type of education program can impact homeowner knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (Hostetler et al. 2008). See neighborhood signage example at http://www.thenatureofcities.com/2015/06/14/how-can-we-engage-residents-to-conserve-urban-biodiversity-talk-to-them/, and http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw407.

  2. Management Plan and Funding: A management plan should address how the built and conserved areas will be managed to protect biodiversity. Consider the creation of a funding source to help with the management of natural areas. Funds can be collected from homeowner association dues, home sales (even resales), property taxes, and the sale of large, natural areas to land trusts with some of the funds retained for management.

  3. Codes, Covenants, and Restrictions (CCRs): Implementing CCRs that address environmental practices and long-term management of yards, homes, and neighborhoods can help towards long-term protection of trees in residential areas. These CCRs should describe environmental features installed on lots and shared spaces and appropriate measures to maintain these. An example of an environmental CCR can be found at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw248.

  4. Provide Snags for Cavity-nesting birds: Consider leaving dead and dying trees standing as "snags." Many bird species use snags for feeding and nesting. While nest boxes supply homes for many species, some woodpeckers will only use cavities they excavated themselves; thus, the need for snags. Also, many of the insects that occur in snags are food for woodpeckers and other bird species. If safety is a concern in leaving snags standing, ask a tree surgeon to cut the snag to about 15 feet tall. This snag will still be valuable to wildlife.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Renewable Resources Extension Act, UF/IFAS project 1000606.

Literature Cited

Hostetler, M., Swiman, E., Prizzia, A., and Noiseux, K. 2008. Reaching residents of green communities: Evaluation of a unique environmental education program. Appl. Environ. Edu. Commun. 7, 114–124.

Tables

Appendix A. 

This species list gives species identification, life history, results from three systematic reviews of the literature, and expected occurrence for 219 forest bird species recorded in studies conducted throughout the United States and Canada. The Breeding Review columns show which species will breed in late or early successional forest fragments as well as which species are Interior-Forest Specialists (birds that do not breed in forest fragments). The Stopover Review column lists which species were observed small forest fragments by studies conducted during the spring and fall migration seasons. The Built Environment Review columns show which species were observed within residential areas and gives the season of the observation. The Synanthropic Review columns show which species are synanthropic (urban-adapted species commonly found within the built matrix). Species are listed alphabetically by Order, Locality, and Common Name.

Species

Life History

Breeding

Stop-

over

Built Environment

Synan-thropic Analysis

Occurrence10

Order

Common Name

Scientific Name

Locality1

IUCN CODE2

Habitat Type3

Migrant Status4

Breeds in Late-Successional Forest5

Breeds in Early-Successional Forest6

Confidence in Interior-Forest Specialist Assignment7

Total no. of Studies That Observed Species in Small Forest Fragments during Migration Seasons

No. of Studies That Observed Species in the Built Environment during the Breeding Season

No. of Studies That Observed Species in the Built Environment during the Spring or Fall Migration Seasons

No. of Studies that Observed Species during Breed-Migration8

Confidence in Synanthropic Species Assignment9

Breeds in Forest Fragment

Stopover in Forest Fragment

Breeds in Residential Area

Stopover in Residential Area

Apodiformes

Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Archilochus colubris

E

LC

OW

MD/ LD

yes

yes

(1/2)

2

3

1

0

(1/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Apodiformes

Allen's Hummingbird

Selasphorus sasin

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Apodiformes

Anna's Hummingbird

Calypte anna

W

LC

OW

YR

--

--

--

--

4

0

3

High (3/3)

ü

 

ü

 

Apodiformes

Black-chinned Hummingbird

Archilochus alexandri

W

LC

OW

MD/ LD

--

--

--

1

2

0

3

(1/1)

?

ü

?

ü

Apodiformes

Broad-billed Hummingbird

Cynanthus latirostris

W

LC

SC

SD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Apodiformes

Calliope Hummingbird

Selasphorus calliope

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Apodiformes

Costa's Hummingbird

Calypte costae

W

LC

D

YR/ SD

--

--

--

1

1

0

2

--

?

?

?

?

Apodiformes

Rufous Hummingbird

Selasphorus rufus

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

3

1

1

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Columbiformes

Common Ground-dove

Columbina passerina

E/ W

LC

SC

YR/ SD

--

--

--

1

1

0

1

--

?

?

?

?

Columbiformes

Eurasian Collared-dove

Streptopelia decaocto

E/ W

LC

T

YR

--

--

--

--

2

0

0

--

?

 

?

 

Columbiformes

Mourning Dove

Zenaida macroura

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ LD

yes

yes

(0/2)

3

8

0

3

High (3/3)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Columbiformes

Inca Dove

Columbina inca

W

LC

T

YR

--

--

--

--

2

0

3

--

ü

 

ü

 

Columbiformes

Northern Band-tailed Pigeon

Patagioenas fasciata

W

LC

F

YR/ MD

--

--

--

--

3

0

0

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Columbiformes

White-winged Dove

Zenaida asiatica

W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

--

--

--

1

3

0

2

--

ü

ü

ü

ü

Cuculiformes

Black-billed Cuckoo

Coccyzus erythropthalmus

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(1/2)

1

1

1

0

--

?

?

 

?

Cuculiformes

Yellow-billed Cuckoo

Coccyzus americanus

E

LC

OW

LD

yes

yes

Low (1/4)

2

2

2

0

--

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Acadian Flycatcher

Empidonax virescens

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

High (6/6)

1

2

1

0

(0/1)

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

Baltimore Oriole

Icterus galbula

E

LC

OW

MD/ LD

yes

yes

Low (1/3)

3

5

2

1

--

ü

ü

?

ü

Passeriformes

Bay-breasted Warbler

Dendroica castanea

E

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

4

0

1

0

--

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Black-and-white Warbler

Mniotilta varia

E

LC

F

YR/ SD/ LD

yes

no

High (3/3)

5

2

1

0

(0/1)

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

Blackburnian Warbler

Dendroica fusca

E

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

7

--

--

--

--

 

ü

   

Passeriformes

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(2/2)

9

1

1

0

--

ü

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(1/2)

6

1

1

0

--

ü

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Black-whiskered Vireo

Vireo altiloquus

E

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Blue Jay

Cyanocitta cristata

E

LC

F

YR/ SD

yes

yes

No (0/3)

4

5

1

0

(1/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Blue-headed Vireo

Vireo solitarius

E

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

7

0

2

1

--

 

ü

   

Passeriformes

Blue-winged Warbler

Vermivora cyanoptera

E

LC

OW

LD

no

yes

(0/1)

3

1

1

0

--

?

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Boat-tailed Grackle

Quiscalus major

E

LC

MSW

YR

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Brown Thrasher

Toxostoma rufum

E

LC

SC

YR/ SD

no

no

(1/1)

1

5

1

0

(0/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Brown-headed Nuthatch

Sitta pusilla

E

LC

F

YR

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

(0/1)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Canada Warbler

Wilsonia canadensis

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(2/2)

6

0

2

0

--

ü

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Carolina Chickadee

Parus carolinensis

E

LC

F

YR

yes

yes

(0/1)

--

4

0

0

(1/1)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Carolina Wren

Thryothorus ludovicianus

E

LC

OW

YR

yes

yes

(1/2)

--

3

1

0

(0/1)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Cerulean Warbler

Dendroica cerulea

E

VU

F

LD

yes

no

High (4/4)

1

--

--

--

--

X

?

X

 

Passeriformes

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

E

LC

OW

LD

yes

yes

(1/2)

8

0

1

0

--

ü

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Connecticut Warbler

Oporornis agilis

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(1/1)

2

0

0

1

--

?

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Dickcissel

Spiza americana

E

LC

FE

LD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Eastern Bluebird

Sialia sialis

E

LC

FE

YR/ MD

--

--

--

--

4

0

0

(1/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Eastern Phoebe

Sayornis phoebe

E

LC

OW

YR/ SD/ MD

--

--

--

5

5

0

0

(1/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Eastern Towhee

Pipilo erythrophthalmus

E

LC

SC

YR/ SD

yes

yes

(0/2)

2

4

0

1

(0/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Eastern Wood-pewee

Contopus virens

E

LC

F

LD

yes

yes

No (0/5)

7

6

1

0

(0/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Field Sparrow

Spizella pusilla

E

LC

SC

YR/ MD

--

--

--

2

2

0

0

(1/2)

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Fish Crow

Corvus ossifragus

E

LC

SL

YR/ SD

yes

yes

(0/1)

1

--

--

--

--

?

?

   

Passeriformes

Golden-winged Warbler

Vermivora chrysoptera

E

NT

OW

LD

--

--

--

3

--

--

--

--

 

ü

   

Passeriformes

Great Crested Flycatcher

Myiarchus crinitus

E

LC

OW

MD/ LD

yes

yes

Low (1/7)

6

4

2

0

(0/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Grey Catbird

Dumetella carolinensis

E

LC

OW

YR/ MD

yes

yes

(0/2)

8

6

2

0

(1/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Grey Kingbird

Tyrannus dominicensis

E

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Grey-cheeked Thrush

Catharus minimus

E

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

5

--

--

--

--

 

ü

   

Passeriformes

Hooded Oriole

Icterus cucullatus

E

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

2

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Hooded Warbler

Wilsonia citrina

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

Med (2/3)

1

2

1

1

(0/1)

X

?

X

 

Passeriformes

Indigo Bunting

Passerina cyanea

E

LC

OW

LD

yes

yes

No (0/4)

7

5

2

0

No (0/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Kentucky Warbler

Oporornis formosus

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

High (3/4)

--

1

2

0

--

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

Louisiana Waterthrush

Parkesia motacilla

E

LC

RF

LD

yes

no

(2/2)

4

0

1

0

--

?

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Mourning Warbler

Oporornis philadelphia

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(1/1)

6

--

--

--

--

?

ü

   

Passeriformes

Nashville Warbler

Vermivora ruficapilla

E

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

10

1

0

1

(0/1)

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Northern Cardinal

Cardinalis cardinalis

E

LC

OW

YR

yes

yes

No (0/5)

--

9

1

2

(1/1)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Northern Parula

Parula americana

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

High (4/4)

9

1

1

0

(0/1)

X

ü

X

?

Passeriformes

Orchard Oriole

Icterus spurius

E

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

2

0

1

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Philadelphia Vireo

Vireo philadelphicus

E

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

5

--

--

--

--

 

ü

   

Passeriformes

Pine Warbler

Dendroica pinus

E

LC

F

MD

yes

--

(1/2)

5

1

0

0

(0/1)

ü

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Prairie Warbler

Dendroica discolor

E

LC

OW

MD

yes

yes

(0/1)

3

1

1

0

(0/1)

ü

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Prothonotary Warbler

Protonotaria citrea

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(0/1)

2

0

1

0

--

?

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Rose-breasted Grosbeak

Pheucticus ludovicianus

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

High (3/4)

7

2

2

0

--

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

Scarlet Tanager

Piranga olivacea

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

High (7/7)

8

5

1

0

(0/1)

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

Swainson's Warbler

Limnothlypis swainsonii

E

LC

F

MD

--

--

--

1

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Tufted Titmouse

Baeolophus bicolor

E

LC

F

YR

yes

yes

Low (1/5)

--

4

1

0

(1/1)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

White-eyed Vireo

Vireo griseus

E

LC

SC

MD

yes

yes

(0/2)

4

1

2

0

(0/1)

?

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Wood Thrush

Hylocichla mustelina

E

NT

F

LD

yes

no

Med (5/8)

7

5

1

0

(0/1)

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

Worm-eating Warbler

Helmitheros vermivorum

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(2/2)

3

0

1

0

--

?

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher

Empidonax flaviventris

E

LC

F

YR/ SD/ LD

--

--

--

5

0

1

0

--

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Yellow-throated Vireo

Vireo flavifrons

E

LC

OW

LD

yes

no

High (3/4)

2

2

1

0

(0/1)

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

Yellow-throated Warbler

Dendroica dominica

E

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(1/2)

2

0

1

0

--

?

ü

?

?

Passeriformes

American Crow

Corvus brachyrhynchos

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

yes

yes

Low (1/3)

--

7

1

1

High (4/4)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

American Goldfinch

Carduelis tristis

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

no

yes

(0/2)

3

7

1

1

Med (2/3)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

E/ W

LC

F

LD

yes

no

Med (2/3)

12

2

2

0

--

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

yes

yes

No (0/5)

2

8

0

2

Low (1/3)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

American Treecreeper

Certhia americana

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ SD

yes

no

(0/1)

4

4

0

0

(0/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Barn Swallow

Hirundo rustica

E/ W

LC

T

LD

--

--

--

--

4

0

1

(1/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Bell's Vireo

Vireo bellii

E/ W

NT

SC

MD

--

--

--

1

1

0

0

--

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Bewick's Wren

Thryomanes bewickii

E/ W

LC

OW

YR

--

--

--

--

2

1

3

Med (2/3)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Black-capped Chickadee

Parus atricapillus

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ IR

yes

yes

No (0/3)

3

5

1

0

(2/2)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Blackpoll Warbler

Dendroica striata

E/ W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

11

2

2

0

--

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Blue Grosbeak

Passerina caerulea

E/ W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

1

2

1

0

(0/1)

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Blue-grey Gnatcatcher

Polioptila caerulea

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ LD

yes

no

High (4/4)

7

3

2

2

(0/1)

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

Brewer's Blackbird

Euphagus cyanocephalus

E/ W

LC

T

YR/ MD

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

--

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Brown-headed Cowbird

Molothrus ater

E/ W

LC

FE

YR/ SD

yes

yes

No (0/3)

5

9

0

3

High (4/4)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Cape May Warbler

Dendroica tigrina

E/ W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

4

0

1

0

--

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Cedar Waxwing

Bombycilla cedrorum

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ SD/ LD

yes

yes

(0/2)

5

6

1

0

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Chipping Sparrow

Spizella passerina

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

no

no

(0/1)

2

7

0

1

--

ü

ü

ü

?

Passeriformes

Clay-coloured Sparrow

Spizella pallida

E/ W

LC

SC

MD/ LD

--

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Common Grackle

Quiscalus quiscula

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

yes

yes

No (0/3)

2

5

0

0

(1/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Common Raven

Corvus corax

E/ W

LC

MTW

YR

yes

yes

(0/1)

--

1

0

3

(1/1)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Common Starling

Sturnus vulgaris

E/ W

LC

T

YR/ SD

yes

yes

No (0/4)

1

8

0

2

High (4/4)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Common Yellowthroat

Geothlypis trichas

E/ W

LC

SC

YR/ LD

no

yes

(0/2)

8

3

1

2

(1/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Curve-billed Thrasher

Toxostoma curvirostre

E/ W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

4

0

2

--

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ MD

--

--

--

2

2

0

2

(0/2)

?

ü

?

ü

Passeriformes

Eastern Kingbird

Tyrannus tyrannus

E/ W

LC

FE

LD

--

--

--

--

4

2

0

--

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Evening Grosbeak

Coccothraustes vespertinus

E/ W

LC

F

YR/IR

--

--

--

1

1

0

0

(1/1)

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Fox Sparrow

Passerella iliaca

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ SD/ LD

--

--

--

1

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Golden-crowned Kinglet

Regulus satrapa

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ MD

--

--

--

4

3

1

0

(0/1)

ü

ü

ü

 

Passeriformes

Harris's Sparrow

Zonotrichia querula

E/ W

LC

F

MD

--

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

--

--

--

3

2

1

1

--

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

House Finch

Carpodacus mexicanus

E/ W

LC

T

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

10

0

3

High (4/4)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

House Sparrow

Passer domesticus

E/ W

LC

T

YR

--

--

--

--

9

0

1

(1/1)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

House Wren

Troglodytes aedon

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ SD/ MD

yes

yes

(0/2)

3

6

0

2

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Lark Sparrow

Chondestes grammacus

E/ W

LC

FE

MD

--

--

--

--

0

0

2

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

E/ W

LC

F

LD

yes

yes

(1/1)

6

1

1

0

--

ü

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Lincoln's Sparrow

Melospiza lincolnii

E/ W

LC

SC

LD

--

--

--

4

0

0

2

--

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Loggerhead Shrike

Lanius ludovicianus

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/MD

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

--

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Magnolia Warbler

Dendroica magnolia

E/ W

LC

F

LD

yes

no

(0/1)

12

0

2

0

--

?

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Marsh Wren

Cistothorus palustris

E/ W

LC

MSW

YR/MD

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Northern Mockingbird

Mimus polyglottos

E/ W

LC

T

YR

--

--

--

--

6

1

3

(2/2)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Northern Waterthrush

Parkesia noveboracensis

E/ W

LC

F

LD

yes

no

High (3/3)

8

0

1

0

--

X

ü

X

?

Passeriformes

Olive-sided Flycatcher

Contopus cooperi

E/ W

NT

OW

LD

--

--

--

2

3

1

0

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Orange-crowned Warbler

Vermivora celata

E/ W

LC

F

MD/ LD

--

--

--

4

3

1

3

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapilla

E/ W

LC

F

LD

yes

no

High (6/6)

11

3

2

0

--

X

ü

X

ü

Passeriformes

Palm Warbler

Dendroica palmarum

E/ W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

5

0

1

0

--

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Pine Grosbeak

Pinicola enucleator

E/ W

LC

OW

YR

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

(1/1)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Pine Siskin

Carduelis pinus

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/IR

--

--

--

2

3

1

0

(1/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Purple Finch

Carpodacus purpureus

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ SD

--

--

--

3

3

0

0

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Purple Martin

Progne subis

E/ W

LC

LPF/T

LD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Pyrrhuloxia

Cardinalis sinuatus

E/ W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

3

0

1

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Red Crossbill

Loxia curvirostra

E/ W

LC

F

MD

--

--

--

--

2

1

0

(1/1)

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Red-breasted Nuthatch

Sitta canadensis

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ SD/ IR

--

--

--

3

3

1

1

(0/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

E/ W

LC

F

LD

yes

no

Med (4/7)

11

4

2

0

(1/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Red-winged Blackbird

Agelaius phoeniceus

E/ W

LC

MSW

YR/ SD

yes

yes

No (0/4)

2

7

0

2

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Ruby-crowned Kinglet

Regulus calendula

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ SD

--

--

--

8

0

1

2

--

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Song Sparrow

Melospiza melodia

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ MD

yes

yes

(0/1)

2

8

0

2

High (3/4)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Summer Tanager

Piranga rubra

E/ W

LC

OW

LD

yes

no

(2/2)

2

2

2

0

No (0/1)

?

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Swainson's Thrush

Catharus ustulatus

E/ W

LC

F

LD

no

no

(1/1)

10

--

--

--

No (0/2)

?

ü

   

Passeriformes

Swamp Sparrow

Melospiza georgiana

E/ W

LC

MSW

LD

--

--

--

3

0

1

0

--

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Tennessee Warbler

Vermivora peregrina

E/ W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

7

1

1

0

--

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Tree Swallow

Tachycineta bicolor

E/ W

LC

LPF

LD

--

--

--

1

5

1

0

--

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Veery

Catharus fuscescens

E/ W

LC

F

LD

yes

no

High (4/4)

5

2

2

0

--

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Warbling Vireo

Vireo gilvus

E/ W

LC

OW

MD/ LD

--

--

--

4

5

0

0

(2/2)

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

White-breasted Nuthatch

Sitta carolinensis

E/ W

LC

F

YR

yes

no

Med (2/3)

--

7

1

1

Med (2/3)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

White-crowned Sparrow

Zonotrichia leucophrys

E/ W

LC

SC

YR/ MD

--

--

--

1

0

0

2

(1/1)

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

E/ W

LC

F

SD/ MD

yes

yes

(0/1)

3

--

--

--

--

?

ü

   

Passeriformes

Willow Flycatcher

Empidonax traillii

E/ W

LC

MSW

LD

--

--

--

5

4

1

0

(1/1)

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Wilson's Warbler

Wilsonia pusilla

E/ W

LC

SC

LD

--

--

--

8

3

1

2

No (0/3)

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Winter Wren

Troglodytes troglodytes

E/ W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

2

1

1

0

(0/2)

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Yellow Warbler

Dendroica petechia

E/ W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

7

6

2

2

(1/2)

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Yellow-breasted Chat

Icteria virens

E/ W

LC

SC

LD

yes

yes

(0/2)

3

0

1

1

--

?

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Yellow-rumped Warbler

Dendroica coronata

E/ W

LC

F

YR/ SD/ LD

--

--

--

11

2

0

1

--

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Grey Jay

Perisoreus canadensis

E/W

LC

F

YR

--

--

(0/1)

--

--

--

--

(1/1)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Painted Bunting

Passerina ciris

E/W

NT

SC

MD

--

--

--

2

0

0

0

--

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Abert's Towhee

Melozone aberti

W

LC

D

YR

--

--

--

--

1

0

2

--

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

American Dusky Flycatcher

Empidonax oberholseri

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Ash-throated Flycatcher

Myiarchus cinerascens

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

1

3

0

0

(0/2)

ü

ü

?

ü

Passeriformes

Bendire's Thrasher

Toxostoma bendirei

W

VU

D

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

2

0

1

--

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Black Phoebe

Sayornis nigricans

W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

yes

yes

(0/1)

--

--

--

1

(2/2)

ü

ü

?

?

Passeriformes

Black-headed Grosbeak

Pheucticus melanocephalus

W

LC

F

MD/ LD

--

--

--

1

5

1

2

Med (2/3)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Black-tailed Gnatcatcher

Polioptila melanura

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

3

0

2

--

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Black-throated Grey Warbler

Dendroica nigrescens

W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

--

2

0

1

No (0/2)

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Black-throated Sparrow

Amphispiza bilineata

W

LC

SC

LD

--

--

--

--

3

0

2

--

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Brewer's Sparrow

Spizella breweri

W

LC

SC

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

1

0

2

--

?

ü

?

ü

Passeriformes

Bronzed Cowbird

Molothrus aeneus

W

LC

T

LD

--

--

--

--

2

0

2

--

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Bullock's Oriole

Icterus bullockii

W

LC

OW

MD

--

--

--

1

1

0

1

(1/2)

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Bushtit

Psaltriparus minimus

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

2

1

2

High (3/3)

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Cactus Wren

Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus

W

LC

D

YR

--

--

--

--

4

0

3

--

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

California Thrasher

Toxostoma redivivum

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

(0/1)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

California Towhee

Melozone crissalis

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

(1/1)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Canyon Towhee

Melozone fuscus

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

1

0

2

--

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Cassin's Finch

Carpodacus cassinii

W

NT

F

YR/ MD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Cassin's Kingbird

Tyrannus vociferans

W

LC

OW

MD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Cassin's Vireo

Vireo cassinii

W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

--

3

0

0

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Chestnut-backed Chickadee

Parus rufescens

W

LC

F

YR

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

(0/2)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Clark's Nutcracker

Nucifraga columbiana

W

LC

F

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Great-tailed Grackle

Quiscalus mexicanus

W

LC

T

YR

--

--

--

--

3

0

1

--

ü

 

ü

 

Passeriformes

Green-tailed Towhee

Pipilo chlorurus

W

LC

SC

YR/ SD/ MD

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

--

 

ü

 

?

Passeriformes

Grey Flycatcher

Empidonax wrightii

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

1

0

0

1

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Hammond's Flycatcher

Empidonax hammondii

W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

(0/1)

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Hermit Warbler

Dendroica occidentalis

W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

1

1

0

1

(0/1)

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Hutton's Vireo

Vireo huttoni

W

LC

F

YR

--

--

--

--

2

0

1

No (0/3)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Lazuli Bunting

Passerina amoena

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

(1/1)

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Le Conte's Thrasher

Toxostoma lecontei

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Lesser Goldfinch

Carduelis psaltria

W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

3

0

3

(1/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Lucy's Warbler

Vermivora luciae

W

LC

OW

MD

--

--

--

--

1

0

2

--

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

MacGillivray's Warbler

Oporornis tolmiei

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

3

1

1

(2/2)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Mountain Chickadee

Parus gambeli

W

LC

F

YR

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

North-western Crow

Corvus caurinus

W

LC

OW

YR

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Oak Titmouse

Baeolophus inornatus

W

LC

OW

YR

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

(0/1)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Pacific-slope Flycatcher

Empidonax difficilis

W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

1

1

0

1

No (0/3)

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Phainopepla

Phainopepla nitens

W

LC

SC

MD

--

--

--

2

2

0

3

--

ü

ü

ü

ü

Passeriformes

Pygmy Nuthatch

Sitta pygmaea

W

LC

F

YR

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Rufous-crowned Sparrow

Aimophila ruficeps

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Rufous-winged Sparrow

Peucaea carpalis

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

2

0

0

--

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Sage Thrasher

Oreoscoptes montanus

W

LC

SC

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Sagebrush Sparrow

Artemisiospiza nevadensis

W

LC

SC

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Spotted Towhee

Pipilo maculatus

W

LC

SC

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

2

1

0

(0/3)

?

?

?

?

Passeriformes

Steller's Jay

Cyanocitta stelleri

W

LC

F

YR

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

(0/2)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Townsend's Solitaire

Myadestes townsendi

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

1

1

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Townsend's Warbler

Dendroica townsendi

W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

(0/1)

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Tropical Kingbird

Tyrannus melancholicus

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Varied Thrush

Zoothera naevia

W

LC

F

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

0

1

0

--

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Verdin

Auriparus flaviceps

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

4

0

2

--

ü

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Violet-green Swallow

Tachycineta thalassina

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

1

0

1

(2/2)

 

?

 

?

Passeriformes

Western Bluebird

Sialia mexicana

W

LC

OW

YR/MD

--

--

(0/1)

--

0

0

0

(0/1)

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Western Kingbird

Tyrannus verticalis

W

LC

FE

MD/ LD

--

--

--

1

2

0

2

No (0/1)

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Western Scrub-jay

Aphelocoma californica

W

LC

SC

YR

yes

yes

(0/1)

--

0

0

1

(2/2)

?

 

?

 

Passeriformes

Western Tanager

Piranga ludoviciana

W

LC

F

LD

--

--

--

--

3

1

1

(0/2)

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

Western Wood-pewee

Contopus sordidulus

W

LC

OW

LD

--

--

--

--

3

1

1

(2/2)

 

ü

 

ü

Passeriformes

White-winged Crossbill

Loxia leucoptera

W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

--

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

 

?

   

Passeriformes

Wrentit

Chamaea fasciata

W

LC

SC

YR

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

?

 

?

 

Piciformes

Red-bellied Woodpecker

Melanerpes carolinus

E

LC

F

YR

yes

no

Med (3/5)

--

6

1

0

(1/1)

ü

 

ü

 

Piciformes

Red-headed Woodpecker

Melanerpes erythrocephalus

E

NT

OW

YR/ SD

yes

no

(0/1)

1

3

1

0

(0/1)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Piciformes

Downy Woodpecker

Dryobates pubescens

E/ W

LC

F

YR

yes

no

No (0/3)

--

8

2

1

Low (1/4)

ü

 

ü

 

Piciformes

Hairy Woodpecker

Leuconotopicus villosus

E/ W

LC

F

YR

yes

no

High (4/4)

--

7

1

0

Low (1/3)

ü

 

ü

 

Piciformes

Pileated Woodpecker

Hylatomus pileatus

E/ W

LC

F

YR

yes

no

High (3/3)

--

2

0

0

(0/2)

X

 

X

 

Piciformes

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

E/ W

LC

F

MD/ LD

yes

no

(0/1)

2

0

1

1

--

 

ü

 

?

Piciformes

Yellow-shafted Flicker

Colaptes auratus

E/ W

LC

OW

YR/ SD

yes

yes

(0/1)

4

10

1

1

High (3/4)

ü

ü

ü

ü

Piciformes

Acorn Woodpecker

Melanerpes formicivorus

W

LC

OW

YR

yes

yes

(0/1)

--

0

0

1

High (4/4)

ü

 

ü

 

Piciformes

Gila Woodpecker

Melanerpes uropygialis

W

LC

D

YR

--

--

--

--

4

0

2

--

ü

 

ü

 

Piciformes

Gilded Flicker

Colaptes chrysoides

W

LC

D

YR

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

--

?

 

?

 

Piciformes

Ladder-backed Woodpecker

Dryobates scalaris

W

LC

D

YR

--

--

--

--

2

0

2

--

ü

 

ü

 

Piciformes

Nuttall's Woodpecker

Dryobates nuttallii

W

LC

OW

YR

--

--

--

--

0

0

1

(0/1)

?

 

?

 

Piciformes

Red-breasted Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus ruber

W

LC

F

MD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

(0/1)

 

?

 

?

Piciformes

White-headed Woodpecker

Leuconotopicus albolarvatus

W

LC

F

YR

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

?

 

?

 

Piciformes

Williamson's Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus thyroideus

W

LC

F

YR/ SD

--

--

--

--

1

0

0

--

?

 

?

 

1 Locality (Regional Occurrence): East (E) = Occurs east of the 100th meridian, West (W) = occurs west of the 100th meridian

2 The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) identifies the conservation status of species all over the world. Least Concern (LC) represents species that have the lowest risk of becoming endangered in the wild. Near Threatened (NT) represents species that are likely to become threatened in the near future (e.g. due to increasing trends in habitat loss). Vulnerable (VU) represents species that are at high risk of becoming endangered in the wild (due to current and ongoing threats).

3 Habitat Types: Forest (F) = mature, forest fragments; Open woodland (OW) = disturbed or regrowing forest; Scrub (SC) = dense shrubbery, including abandoned farm fields, clearcuts, powerline corridors, fencerows, forest edges and openings, swamps, and edges of streams and ponds; Marsh woods (MSW) = various wetlands, including freshwater and tidal marshes, bogs, meadows, and swamps; Mountain Woods (MTW) = mountain forests; Forest edge (FE) = disturbed habitat, similar to early successional forest, at the edge of a forest; Riparian forest (RF) = forest buffer along a river or waterway; Lake/Pond Forest (LPF) = forest surrounding a body of water; [Allaboutbirds.org, Cornell Bird Lab]. Note that if a species is not an interior forest specialist and it breeds in mature forest, that means it would either breed along edges of forest and/or in small forest patches.

4 Migrant Statuses: LD = Long distance migration, typically birds breed during the summer in the U.S. and Canada and they migrate south to spend the winter months in Mexico, Caribbean islands, Central America, and South America; MD = medium-distance, typically birds move south of their breeding range but still within the U.S.; SD = short-distance, typically birds move within their breeding range; YR = year-round resident; IR = irregular/irruptive migrant [Allaboutbirds.org, Cornell Bird Lab]

5 Late-Successional Forest = late successional forests where most of the trees that form the canopy are over 30 ft. tall, including both relatively young forests with trees 15 – 50 years old and mature forests with trees 50+ years or older. This indicates the most likely breeding habitat, but is not an indication of likelihood of breeding in small patches. For example, if interior forest specialist confidence is “high” and a “yes” for breeding in mature forest, then this species only breeds successfully in large mature forest patches (> 50 ha).

6 Early-Successional Forest = Composed primarily of shrubs (with some scattering of trees and grassland patches) and/or very young planted pine saplings and pioneer species such as black cherry (Prunus sp.). Trees are generally 0-15 years old and tree height is typically less than 30 ft. 6 For example, if interior forest specialist confidence is “high” and a “yes” for breeding in early-successional forest, then this species only breeds successfully in early-successional forest that is embedded in continuous forest patches (> 50 ha).

7 This column indicates whether the species is considered an interior forest specialist during breeding season. “High”, “Med”, and “Low” refer to the confidence on whether the bird is considered an interior forest specialist. “High” means more that 66% of the reviewed studies indicated that a species was an interior forest specialist, “Med” means between 66% and 33% of studies indicated that a species was an interior forest specialist, and “Low” means that less than 33% of studies indicated that a species was an interior forest specialist. “No” means that the species is not an interior forest specialist because three or greater studies consistently found no area sensitivity; thus, it is likely to breed in small forest fragments. A lack of any of these classifications indicates that fewer than three studies were found for this species in Breeding Review, and thus could not be assigned one way or the other as an interior-forest species. Further, a “—“ in this column represents that the species was not observed in any of the Breeding Review studies. Numbers in parentheses represent the number of studies that determined a species to be an interior forest specialist. Numbers in parentheses represent how many studies noted the species to be an interior-forest specialist out of the total number of studies that observed said species.

8 “Breeding-Migration” represents the transitional period between breeding and migration seasons (either spring transitioning to summer or summer transitioning to fall). Some studies in our review did not clearly define when bird observations were recorded and counted species sightings from these studies in this column.

9 We reviewed four studies that identified Synanthropic birds—species that have adapted to living in urban areas. “High”, “Med”, and “Low” refer to the confidence on whether the bird is considered synanthropic. “High” means more that 66% of at least three reviewed studies indicated that a species was synanthropic, “Med” means between 66% and 33% of studies indicated that a species was synanthropic, and “Low” means that less than 33% of studies indicated that a species was synanthropic. “No” means that the species is not synanthropic because three or more studies found that the species did not display synanthropic behavior and is unlikely to breed in within urban areas. Numbers in parentheses represent the number of studies that determined a species to be synanthropic out of the total number of studies that observed said species.

10 Marks in these four columns are an indication of using the habitat based on looking across the three reviews. For ease of interpretation, we created four “overall” columns at the end of the bird list. These were “Breeds in Forest Fragment”; “Stopover in Forest Fragment”; “Breeds in Residential Area”; and “Stopover in Residential Area.” For a given species, a checkmark (ü) indicates likelihood of occurrence in each columnar habitat category, an (X) indicates that it does not occur in this habitat category, a (?) indicates that a species may occur in this habitat category but results were not convincing enough to assign a (ü) or (X), and a blank indicates no information available.

First, for species only found in the Breeding Review, if they had three or more studies and were given a High/Med confidence level as an interior-forest specialist, then is it was assigned an (X) in the Breeds in Forest Fragment and Breeds in Residential Area categories; it does not breed in forest fragments in rural and urban areas. Low confidence or a total of two or fewer papers in the Breeding Review, we assigned a (?) to indicate that this species may or may not breed in forest fragments in urban and rural areas.

For species found only in the Stopover Review, if a migrant had three or more studies, then we assigned (ü) under the Stopover in Forest Fragment category. If a migrant had fewer than three studies in the Stopover Review, then we assigned (?) under the Stopover in Forest Fragment category.

For migrants found in both the Stopover Review and Built Environment Review, if Stopover Review studies combined with two or fewer Built Environment Review studies (stopover, breeding, and breeding-stopover studies), which brought the total to three or greater, then we assigned a (ü) for Stopover in Forest Fragment and a (?) for Stopover in Residential Area categories. The rationale here is that migrants seen in two or fewer Built Environment studies receive a (?) for Stopover in Residential Area because that is not enough studies to confidently assign them as using residential areas as stopover sites

For species found in the Breeding Review, Built Environment Review, and Synanthropy Analysis, we compared results to determine what to assign in each habitat category. If a species was a High/Medium confidence interior-forest specialist, but it was observed in three or more studies in the Built Environments Review during the breeding season and was shown to have at least one synanthropic study, we assigned a (ü) for this species as Breeding in Forest Fragment and Breeding in Residential Area. If a migrant, we also assigned a (ü) for Stopover in Forest Fragments and Stopover in Residential Area because if it breeds in residential areas we assumed it would use urban forest fragments and trees in residential areas as stopover sites.

For species found in Breeding Review, Built Environment Review, but not in the Synanthropy Analysis, a High/Medium/Low or unassigned confidence level for interior-forest specialist that was a year-round resident and/or a SD migrant, and it occurred in three or more Built Environment breeding studies, we assigned a (ü) as Breeding in Forest Fragment and Breeding in Residential Area. Because they were not migratory, we were confident that the residential studies actually reflected breeding individuals. If a High/Medium or unassigned confidence level for interior-forest specialist was a long-distance and/or medium-distance migrant species (even if a portion of the population is considered year-round) and occurred in three or more Built Environment breeding surveys, we were conservative and assumed these individuals were passing through cities. We assigned a (ü) for them under Stopover in Residential Area and Stopover in Forest Fragments. However, if a migrant species was determined to be a Low confidence interior-forest specialist and occurred in three or more Built Environment Review breeding studies, we assigned a (ü) for the Breeds in Residential Area and Breeds in Forest Fragment categories because the combination indicates that they may also breed in residential areas. In turn, because they breed in residential areas then they would also tolerate fragmented forests.

For species that occurred only in the Built Environment Review and had three or more total studies (combined stopover, breeding, and breeding-stopover studies), we interpreted the likelihood of this species breeding in residential areas in the following way. If they were observed within the built environment during the breeding season and were shown to have at least one synanthropic study, then we assigned a (ü) for Breeding in Forest Fragment and Breeding in Residential Area. If a migrant, we also assigned a (ü) for Stopover in Forest Fragments and Stopover in Residential Area because if they breed in residential areas they would use forest fragments and residential areas as stopover sites. If species were only observed in the breeding season surveys (not in stopover and breeding-stopover studies), we assigned a (ü) only for year-round residents and SD migrants under Breeds in Forest Fragment and Breeds in Residential categories. All long-distance and medium-distance migrants were considered to be individuals that were passing through and were most likely using the areas as a stopover site. Here, we assigned a (ü) for these species for Stopover in Forest Fragment and Stopover in Residential Area categories. Additionally, for long-distance and medium-distance migrants that had three or more combined stopover, breeding, and breeding-stopover studies under the Built Environment Review, we assigned a (ü) for these species for Stopover in Forest Fragment and Stopover in Residential Area categories.

For species that occurred only in the Built Environment Review and had fewer than three total studies, we interpreted the likelihood of this species breeding in residential areas in the following way. For year-round resident species and/or SD migrants, we assigned a (?) in the corresponding Breeds in Forest Fragment and Breeds in Residential categories. All long-distance and medium-distance migrants were assumed to be passing through and may be using residential areas as stopover sites. We assigned a (?) for these species for Stopover in Forest Fragment and Stopover in Residential Area categories.

Appendix B. 

Peer-reviewed literature from systematic review of North American birds in residential areas during the breeding and migration seasons. These 18 studies were used (in part) to generate avian species occurrences across the different seasons and habitats in Appendix A.

Source

Journal

Study Location

Belaire et al. (2014)

Ecological Applications

Chicago, Illinois, US

Burghardt et al. (2009)

Conservation Biology

Southeastern Pennsylvania, US

Donnelly & Marzluff (2006)

Urban Ecosystems

Seattle, Washington, US

Germaine et al. (1998)

Ecological Applications

Tucson, Arizona, US

Green & Baker (2003)

Landscape and Urban Planning

Phoenix, Arizona, US

Hostetler & Holling (2000)

Landscape and Urban Planning

Amherst/Springfield, MA; Austin, TX; Blacksburg, VA; Chicago, IL; Seattle, WA; Vancouver, B.C.

Hostetler & Knowles-Yanez (2003)

Landscape and Urban Planning

Phoenix, Arizona, US

Hostetler et al. (2005)

Southeastern Naturalist

Gainesville, Florida, US

Kohut et al. (2009)

Urban Ecosystems

Raleigh/Cary, North Carolina, US

Lerman et al. (2011)

Ecological Applications

Phoenix, Arizona, US

Loss et al. (2009)

Biological Conservation

Chicago, Illinois, US

Luther et al. (2008)

Biodiversity and Conservation

Sonoma County, California, US

McCaffrey et al. (2012)

Landscape and Urban Planning

Tucson, Arizona, US

Mills et al. (1989)

The Condor

Tucson, Arizona, US

Nilon et al. (2011)

Urban Habitats

Baltimore, Maryland, US

Oneal & Rotenberry (2009)

Landscape and Urban Planning

Orange County, California, US

Parrish &

Hepinstall-Cymerman (2012)

Urban Ecosystems

Athens, Georgia, US

Schlesinger et al. (2008)

Ecology

Lake Tahoe Basin, California/Nevada, US

Footnotes

1.

This document is WEC373, one of a series of the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date November 2017. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Mark Hostetler, professor and Extension specialist; and Jan-Michael Archer, graduate student, Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611

This work is/was supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture [Hatch/Evans-Allen/McIntire Stennis] project [accession number 1009618].


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.