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Publication #SP 242

Integrated Management of Nonnative Plants in Natural Areas of Florida1

K. A. Langeland, J. A. Ferrell, B. Sellers, G. E. MacDonald, and R. K. Stocker2

Introduction

Florida's native habitats are protected for historical significance and to protect species, water quality, and water quantity. Setting aside certain lands to be managed for conservation is a method to protect them. According to the Florida Natural Areas Inventory, almost ten million acres of state and federal public lands are currently managed for conservation. Natural areas are conservation lands that have been set aside for the purpose of preserving (or restoring) native plant and animal communities. Natural areas are also maintained by counties and cities in Florida and by private landowners.

Nonnative plants, carried here by humans since European colonization, now threaten the states remaining natural areas. Of the 4,373 plant species growing on their own without cultivation in Florida, 30% are nonnative (Wunderlin, R.P., and B.F. Hansen. 2003. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida, Second Edition. Gainesville: University Press of Florida). Many of these nonnative plants were originally introduced as garden ornamentals or agricultural crops. Other nonnative plants were accidentally introduced. Regardless of how they arrived, these 1,200 or so nonnative plants grew so well in Florida that they naturalized, meaning that they spread on their own without cultivation into managed or natural areas. While some of these naturalized nonnative plants are not a problem, many became weeds, or undesirable plants, in agricultural and forestry areas, yards, and roadways. When these naturalized nonnative plants spread extensively into natural areas and dominate by displacing native plants and disrupting natural processes such as fire or water flow, they are called invasive. Invasive nonnative plants can be thought of as weeds in natural areas.

The Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC) is a nonprofit professional organization founded in 1984 to increase public awareness of the significant threat that nonnative invasive plant species pose to native species, communities, and ecosystems, and to develop integrated management and control strategies to halt the spread of exotic species in natural areas. FLEPPC maintains a list of plant species considered by a committee of botanists, ecologists, and land managers to be invasive in Florida. This list is available on the FLEPPC website (http://www.fleppc.org). The purpose of the FLEPPC list is to alert land managers to plant species that have demonstrated invasiveness in Florida, but the list does not have statutory authority. Plants that are regulated by statute are listed on the Florida Noxious Weed List.

Plant species included in this publication are not limited to either of these lists but are included because they have warranted control measures in at least one natural area in the state and should be viewed as potentially invasive in other natural areas. Some of the plants included here are used in landscaping and are important to the nursery/landscaping industry. Mention of species in this publication does not necessarily mean IFAS recommends limitation of their use. The IFAS Assessment of the Status of Nonnative Plants in Florida is used by IFAS to evaluate the invasiveness of nonnative plants in Florida relative to IFAS recommendations. The results of this assessment can be viewed on the IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants website (http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/assessment/).

Management of invasive vegetation in natural areas requires control methods that will minimize damage to nontarget vegetation and soil. Often this need for caution necessitates more time and effort than does weed management in agricultural, industrial, or right-of-way settings. Some particular types of vegetation, for example woody or sprawling vegetation, may require removal of standing plant material even after it has been killed if its presence increases fire hazard, reduces aesthetic appeal, or could cause harm as it decays and falls. Control methods include manual removal, mechanical removal, physical controls, herbicides, and biological control alone or in combination with another method.

The purpose of this publication is to provide land managers in Florida with current methods being used to manage nonnative plants in the state. Identification of plant species is not included in this publication. For identification, recognition, and other information about many invasive plant species, readers are referred to Identification and Biology of Nonnative Plants in Florida's Natural Areas, 2nd Ed. by K. A. Langeland, H. M. Cherry, C. M. McCormick, and K. A. Craddock Burks (2008), which is available from the IFAS Extension Book Store (800-226-1764 or http://ifasbooks.ifas.ufl.edu).

Regulatory Agencies

Removal of vegetation in certain areas such as public waters and wetlands is regulated by state and local agencies and a permit may be required. For questions regarding permits to control vegetation in public waters, contact one of the following Florida Wildlife Conservation Commission Regional Biologist Offices:

Northwest, (850) 245-2809

Suwannee River, (386) 758-0464

Southwest, (352) 726-8622

North Central, (321) 228-3364

St. Johns River, (407) 275-4004

South Central, (863) 534-7074

South Gulf, (813) 744-6163

South, (772) 871-5407

For regulatory questions regarding vegetation control in wetlands, contact the Water Management District (WMD) in which you are located:

Northwest Florida WMD, (904) 539-5999

Suwannee River WMD, (386) 362-1001

St. Johns River WMD, (386) 329-4500

Southwest Florida WMD, (352) 796-7211

South Florida WMD, (561) 686-8800

Acknowledgements

The following individuals provided information for the Third Edition of Integrated Management of Nonnative Plants in Natural Areas of Florida: Jim Burney, Mathew Cole, Rodell Collins, Jim Cuda, Scott Ditmarsen, Jim Duquesnel, Roger Hammer, Dallas Hazelton, Jeff Hutchinson, Greg Jubinsky, Chris Key, Bill Kline, Mike Link, Mark Ludlow, Joe Maguire, Michael Meisenburg, Vince Miller, Patrick Minogue, Shawn Moore, Romeo Morua, Brian Nelson, Jose Prieto, Jerry Renny, Adolfo Santiago, and Elroy Timmer.

Control Methods

Education and Prevention

The importation and spread of invasive vegetation can be significantly reduced by public education.

It is the responsibility of those who are aware of the problems caused by invasive nonnative plants to educate others about their identity, impacts, and control so that further ecological degradation of native ecosystems can be reduced.

Biological Control

Classical biological control is the introduction of reproducing populations of foreign insects or diseases. In Florida, early efforts in invasive nonnative plants in nonagricultural areas focused on aquatic weeds. The first biocontrol agent introduced was the alligatorweed flea beetle (Agasicles hygrophila) in 1964 for control of alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides). Subsequently, the alligatorweed thrips (Aminothrips andersoni) was released in 1967 and the alligatorweed stem borer (Vogtia malloi) in 1971. The flea beetle and stem borer proved to be fairly effective for suppressing growth of alligatorweed, although harsh winters can reduce their populations. Less effective have been introductions of the waterhyacinth weevils (Neochotina eichhorniae and N. bruchi), released in 1972 and 1974, and the waterhyacinth borer, released in 1977 (Sameodes albigutalis) for waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) control. A South American plant hopper (Megamelus scutellarius) was introduced for biological control of waterhyacinth in 2010. Effectiveness of a weevil (Neohydronomous affinis) and a moth (Namangama pectinicornis) released for control of water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) has been unpredictable. Waterhyacinth and water lettuce continue to be problems that require management by other methods. Current biological control research is focused on hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia), and Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius).

In more recent years, efforts to develop biological controls for natural area weeds have focused on melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia), tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum), Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius), and Old World climbing fern (Lygodium microphyllum). Current information on the status of these and other biological control programs can be found on the following websites: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu and http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu.

While classical biological controls are currently under study and will be implemented in the future, their development takes years and they cannot be expected to solve all invasive plant problems. Biological control programs are typically implemented by state and federal agencies, and the potential role of individual resource managers and the public will depend on the particular action being implemented.

Introduction of animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, or weed-eating fish may also be used to control certain invasive plants. However, environmental impacts of using such nonselective herbivores in natural areas should be carefully considered before implementation.

Manual Removal

Manual removal is very time-consuming but often a major component of effective invasive plant control. Seedlings and small saplings can sometimes be pulled from the ground, but even small seedlings of some plants have tenacious roots that will prevent extraction or cause them to break at the root collar. Plants that break off at the ground will often resprout, and even small root fragments left in the ground may sprout. Therefore, repeated hand pulling or follow-up with herbicide applications is often necessary.

Removal of uprooted plant material is important. Stems and branches of certain species (e.g., ligustrum and melaleuca) that are laid on the ground can sprout roots, and attached seeds can germinate. If material cannot be destroyed by methods such as burning, it should be piled in a secure area that can be monitored and new plants killed as they appear.

Pulling plants from the ground may cause unwanted soil disturbance in some natural areas, especially pine rockland habitat. This soil disturbance may result in further invasion by invasive nonnative plant species, again requiring follow-up control measures.

Mechanical Removal

Mechanical removal involves the use of bulldozers or specialized logging equipment to remove woody plants. Intense follow-up with other control methods is essential after the use of heavy equipment because disturbance of the soil creates favorable conditions for regrowth from seeds and root fragments, and recolonization by invasive nonnative plants. Plans for management or replanting of sites with native vegetation following mechanical removal should be carefully developed prior to implementation of mechanical removal. Mechanical removal may not be appropriate in natural areas because of the disturbance to soils and nontarget vegetation caused by heavy equipment.

Cultural Practices

Prescribed burning and water level manipulation are cultural practices that are used in management of pastures, rangeland, and commercial forests and may be appropriate for vegetation management in natural areas in some situations. One important consideration is the degree of degradation of the area in question. Cultural practices may have impacts to all parts of the habitat—native species included. If the habitat is so badly degraded that the need to reduce invasives strongly outweighs consideration of remaining native species, more aggressive control strategies can be considered. In less degraded areas, more careful use of integrated methods may be appropriate.

The land use history of an area is critical in understanding the effects of fire and flooding on the resulting plant species composition. Past practices affect soil structure, organic content, seed bank (both native and invasive nonnative species), and species composition. While there is evidence that past farming and timber management practices will greatly influence the outcome of cultural management, very little is known about the effects of specific historical practices. Similar management practices conducted in areas with dissimilar histories may achieve very different results. Even less is known about the effects of invasives entering these communities, and the subsequent management effects of fire on the altered communities.

Understanding the reproductive biology of the target and nontarget plant species is critical to effective use of any control methods, but particularly so with methods such as fire management, which often require significant preparation time. Important opportunities exist if management tools can be applied to habitats when nonnative invasive species flower or set seed at different times than the native species.

Prescribed Burning

Fire is a very normal part of most of Florida's many ecosystems, and native species have evolved varying degrees of fire tolerance. Throughout much of Florida, suppression of fire during this century has altered historical plant communities, such as flatwood and oak scrub communities, enhancing fire-intolerant species and reducing the coverage of species that possess fire adaptations. Within these communities, the fire-tolerant woody species have lingered in smaller numbers, and less fire-tolerant species have replaced ephemeral herbs. Little is known about the amount, frequency, timing, and intensity of fire that would best enhance the historically fire-tolerant plant species, and less is known about how such a fire management regime could be best used to suppress invasive species. Single fires in areas with many years of fire suppression are unlikely to restore historical species composition. Periodic fires in frequently burned areas do little to alter native species composition.

In a special case, invasion of tree stands by exotic vines and other climbing plants has greatly increased the danger of canopy (crown) fires and the resulting death of mature trees.

Added biomass by invasive plants can result in hotter fires and can greatly increase the risk of fires spreading to inhabited areas. In these situations, use of fire to reduce standing biomass of invasive species may protect the remaining plant populations better than doing nothing, even though impacts to nontarget native species will occur. Under these conditions, the expense of reducing standing biomass of invasive plant species might be justified by the savings on subsequent fire suppression.

In general, fire can be used to suppress plant growth, and even kill certain plants that are not fire tolerant. Most often, woody species are reduced while effects are less noticeable on herbaceous species. Some information has been published on responses of individual Florida plant species, but very little is known about the vast majority of native plant species, and less about invasive exotic species. Tolerance to fire can sometimes be predicted in species that have thick bark or seeds in the soil or held in the canopy; that are adapted to fire (either tolerant of high temperature; or requiring fire for seed release or germination); and seeds that are disbursed over a wide area.

Effects of a single burn are hard to predict, but under some conditions a single fire effect can persist for several growing seasons. The length of effect is due to the intensity of the fire, the timing (fire during the growing season can be more destructive than during dormant seasons), and the plant species involved. Smoke is now recognized as a germination triggering mechanism for fire-dependent and some non-fire-dependent species, so plant species composition following a burn is due in part to the type of fire and the distribution of the smoke from that fire. A single burn may or may not start a replacement sequence (succession) with its own effects on species composition.

Whether fire can play a logical role in suppression or elimination of invasive exotic plant species depends on many factors. In addition to the principal factors described above, the resource manager must consider potential fire effects on soil loss and water quality, historical and economic impacts to buildings, possible harm to human life, and the potential for escape of a fire to nontarget areas.

Fire has been successfully used to manage plant species in grasslands, to maintain open savannahs (scattered trees in herbaceous species dominated habitats), and to promote seral (fire-induced or fire-tolerant) stages of forest succession. However, very little is known about the use of fire to enhance natives while reducing invasive exotic plant species. As a final caution in the use of fire, overly frequent burning has been shown to reduce plant diversity under many conditions, and it appears possible that increased fire frequency could provide opportunities for invasive plants to enter new areas.

Water Level Manipulation

Some success has been achieved regulating water levels to reduce invasive plant species in aquatic and wetland habitats. Dewatering aquatic sites reduces standing biomass, but little else is usually achieved unless the site is rendered less susceptible to repeated invasion when rewatered. Planting native species may reduce the susceptibility of aquatic and wetland sites in some cases.

In most situations, water level manipulation in reservoirs has not provided the level of invasive plant control that was once thought achievable. Ponds and reservoirs can be constructed with steep sides to reduce habitat susceptible to invasion, and levels can be avoided that promote invasive species, but rarely are these management options adaptable to natural areas.

Carefully timed water level increases following mechanical removal or fire management of invasive species can provide effective control of subsequent germination, and with some species, resprouting. Specific methods applicable to natural areas have not been described.

Re-establishment of Native Plant Species

Planting native species can be an effective, though expensive, way to reduce the likelihood of exotic species reinvasion following removal of nonnative species. Commercial plant nurseries currently offer seeds and plants of several wetland and upland species. Because some species cover a wide range of habitats and latitudes, care should be taken to obtain plant material suitable to the habitat under consideration. Seed collected from plants growing in more northern latitudes may do poorly in Florida. Introduction of seeds, plant parts, or whole plants should include thorough screening for any unwanted pests—plant or animal.

It often takes several years for plantings to become thoroughly established, and extra care (water, nutrients) and protection (from fire and pests) may be necessary for a while. Also during this establishment phase, past management practices may have to be altered to avoid injury to the plantings. If periodic burning or flooding, for example, is part of the current management practice, it may be necessary to reduce the intensity or duration until the plantings are able to exhibit their typical resistance to injury, whatever that may be. Unfortunately, little is known about requirements for successful establishment of many native species, and less is known about their tolerances to cultural invasive plant management techniques. Even when tolerances are better known, responses may be affected by historical site effects, traits of particular genetic strains, site-specific nutrition and light conditions, and interactions of soil type, hydroperiod, and microclimate.

Herbicides

Training and Certification

Anyone who applies herbicides in natural areas should have basic training in herbicide application technology. Only topics specifically important to herbicide use in natural areas are emphasized in this publication, and the reader is expected to have prior knowledge of basic herbicide application technology.

A pesticide, or some of its uses, is classified as restricted if it could cause harm to humans or to the environment unless it is applied by certified applicators who have the knowledge to use these pesticides safely and effectively. Although none of the herbicides and few uses listed in this publication are classified as restricted use, the basic knowledge of herbicide technology and application techniques needed for safe handling and effective use of any herbicides can be obtained from restricted use pesticide certification training. This training can be obtained through the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Certified applicators can be licensed as either public applicators or commercial applicators. Persons must successfully complete two examinations before they can apply to the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) for a license. These examinations are a general standards core examination and a category examination. Categories applicable to target species in the publication include the Natural Areas category and/or Aquatics category. The content of the core exam is based upon the manual, Applying Pesticides Correctly: A Guide for Pesticide Applicators (IFAS publication SM 1); the Natural Areas exam is based on Natural Area Weed Management (IFAS publication SP 295) and Identification and Biology of Nonnative Plants in Natural Areas of Florida (IFAS publication SP 257); and the Aquatics exam is based on the Aquatic Pest Control Manual (IFAS publication SM 3). Additional information about pesticide applicator licensing can be found on http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu and http://www.flaes.org/complimonitoring/index.html.

Active Ingredients and Formulations

A herbicide formulation, or product, consists of the herbicide active ingredient dissolved in a solvent (e.g., oil, water, or alcohol), or adsorbed to a solid such as clay. Formulations often include an adjuvant that facilitates spreading, sticking, wetting, and other modifying characteristics of the spray solution. Special ingredients may also improve the safety, handling, measuring, and application of the herbicide. Products mentioned in this publication contain the active ingredients 2,4-D, aminopyralid, fluazifop, glyphosate, hexazinone, imazamox, imazapyr, metsulfuron, and triclopyr (amine or ester) (Table 1).

The active ingredients 2,4-D amine, triclopyr amine, imazamox, imazapyr, and hexazinone are formulated as water-soluble liquids (L). They are not compatible with oil-based diluents and are diluted in water for foliar applications and diluted in water or applied in their concentrated form for cut-stump applications. They are not normally used for basal bark applications.

Triclopyr ester, imazapyr, and fluazifop are formulated as emulsifiable concentrates (EC). Emulsifiable concentrates are compatible with oil-based diluents and also contain emulsifiers that allow the formulation to mix with water. Agitation is used to mix the EC in water. They may be diluted in water for foliar applications or mixed with oil-based diluents for low-volume applications (e.g., basal bark).

Hexazinone is also formulated as an ultra-low-weight soluble granule (ULW) formulation. This formulation is broadcast with specialized ground or aerial equipment.

Where Herbicides Can Be Used

No pesticide may be sold in the United States until the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has reviewed the manufacturer's application for registration and determined that the use of the product will not present unreasonable risk to humans or the environment. Pesticide users are required by law to comply with all the instructions and directions for use in pesticide labeling.

The EPA approves use of pesticides on specific sites, i.e., for use on individual crops, terrestrial non-crop sites, or aquatic areas. Only those herbicides registered by the EPA specifically for use in aquatic sites can be applied to plants growing in lakes, rivers, canals, etc. For terrestrial uses, the EPA requires herbicide labels to have the statement: “Do not apply directly to water, to areas where surface water is present, or to intertidal areas below the mean highmark.” Several active ingredients in this publication have separate products that are registered for applying directly to water for control of aquatic weeds (Table 1). Other products mentioned can be used in non-cropland areas and variously described low-lying areas, including wetlands, but cannot be applied directly to water (Table 1).

Absorption Characteristics

Herbicides recommended in this publication for invasive plant control are systemic. They move within the plant to the site where they are active after being absorbed by foliage, roots, or bark. The following herbicides can be absorbed by plant leaves and are effective for foliar applications: 2,4-D, aminopyralid, glyphosate, imazamox, imazapyr, metsulfuron, and triclopyr. Addition of an appropriate surfactant, as recommended on the herbicide label, is essential. Triclopyr, 2,4-D, and glyphosate are adsorbed by soils or broken down quickly in soil and are not absorbed effectively by plant roots, whereas imazapyr and hexazinone are readily absorbed by plant roots (Table 2). Only oil-soluble herbicide formulations (i.e., emulsifiable concentrates) are absorbed readily through tree bark.

Behavior in Soils

Herbicides used for invasive plant control vary in their persistence and sorption to soils (Table 2). The most important factor is the ability of various soil types to chemically bind herbicides. Soil-applied herbicides, such as hexazinone, have label recommendations that vary the application rate for different types of soils. In general, soils with more organic matter and/or clay have greater capacities for binding herbicides than coarse, sandy soils and require higher application rates. Because woody plants are a problem on a range of Florida soils, including highly organic muck, sand, and very thin soil layers over limestone, a broad range of herbicide behavior in different soils can be expected.

Selectivity

The ability to selectively control target vegetation with herbicides without harming nontarget plants is related to the relative sensitivities of target and nontarget plants, absorption and chemical characteristics of the herbicides, and placement.

Herbicides vary in their potential to damage nontarget vegetation, and unwanted results can be prevented or minimized by making the best choice of herbicides in conjunction with careful application. Fluazifop, which kills many grasses, can be used to selectively manage invasive grass species among nontarget broadleaf plant species. Formulations that contain the active ingredients 2,4-D, metsulfuron, and triclopyr can often be used selectively because many broadleaf species are more sensitive to them than to perennial grasses. Because 2,4-D, triclopyr, and glyphosate have little root activity and break down quickly (Table 2), they have little potential for causing nontarget damage due to root absorption when carefully applied to target vegetation. In contrast, caution must be used with root-active herbicides (i.e., hexazinone and imazapyr) to minimize damage to nontarget vegetation by root absorption. In shallow, porous soils, extra care should be taken to avoid root absorption of all herbicides by nontarget plants.

Care must be taken to avoid unwanted drift of herbicide spray to nontarget plants when applications are made. Particulate drift can be minimized by avoiding windy conditions when spraying and by using low pressures and large nozzle orifices. Volatile compounds such as ester formulations may cause nontarget damage due to vapor drift when applied on very hot days. This damage, which may be observed as wilting or curling leaves, has been minimal and has not caused permanent harm to woody nontarget plants.

Wildlife Toxicity

Invasive plant management is often conducted in natural areas with the purpose of maintaining or restoring wildlife habitat. Therefore, it is essential that the herbicides themselves are not toxic to wildlife. Risk assessment to wildlife is conducted as part of the registration procedure for herbicides and is determined as the product of hazard and exposure. Hazard is measured as the toxicity of the herbicide to test animals, and exposure depends on the use and persistence of the compound. Herbicides recommended in this publication have shown very low toxicity to wildlife with the exception of the relatively low LC50 of triclopyr ester (0.87 ppm) and fluazifop (0.53 ppm) for fish, neither of which can be applied directly to water (Table 3). Ester formulations are toxic to fish because they irritate gill surfaces. However, because triclopyr ester and fluazifop (1) are not applied directly to water, (2) are absorbed by soil particles, and (3) have low persistence, exposure is low, which results in low risk when properly used.

Herbicide Application Methods

Foliar applications

Herbicide in foliar applications is diluted in water and applied to the leaves with aerial or ground equipment. Dilution is usually about 20 parts water to 1 part herbicide concentrate for aerial applications, and 50 to 400 parts water to 1 part herbicide concentrate when making ground applications for woody plant control. Adjuvants, such as surfactants, drift control agents, or other spray modifiers, are often added to the spray mix, as specified on the herbicide label. Ground equipment ranges from handheld spray bottles for applications to small individual plants, to large high-pressure vehicle- or boat-mounted sprayers for larger areas. Foliar applications can either be directed, to minimize damage to nontarget vegetation, or broadcast. Broadcast applications are used where damage to nontarget vegetation is not a concern or where a selective herbicide is used.

For directed spray or selective applications, backpack sprayers such as the Solo Model 475 with diaphragm pump or Swissmex SPI are effective and commonly used. A spray tip such as a TP 2503 or TP 2504 produces large spray droplets to reduce spray drift. The 2503 spray tips may be installed in the spray wand that comes with the backpack sprayer, or a Model 30 Gunjet with the 2503 or 2504 spray tip may be attached to any backpack spray unit. If an adjustable tip is used, a Tee-Jet 5500 or equivalent is recommended. All backpack sprayers and spray guns should have chemical-resistant seals for the herbicides being used.

Power-driven ground equipment is commonly used to spray large/tall plants or large areas. Properly adjusted equipment should deliver a uniform spray with nozzle pressures of about 30 to 80 psi and should generate large spray droplets to reduce potential for spray drift. Higher spray pressures produce many small spray particles that may drift onto sensitive desirable plants adjacent to the treated area. Application is made by directing the spray on the target foliage, being sure to spray the growing tips and terminal leader. Techniques must be employed to prevent the spray from contacting foliage of desirable plants.

Commonly used power equipment consists of portable, power-driven spray units mounted on a truck or all-terrain vehicle. A wide variety of pumps, tanks, and accessories are used. The most common and maintenance-free pump is a diaphragm pump driven by a gasoline engine, or a self-contained, 12-volt pump unit. Routinely used spray guns are Spraying Systems Model 2 and 2A Gunjets. These are adjustable spray guns that produce patterns ranging from a solid stream to a wide cone spray. These spray guns may produce small spray particles at the cone spray setting, resulting in spray drift. Also, a Model 30 Gunjet with a Tee-Jet 5500-X10 adjustable tip is very effective for power sprayers. Dual spray Gunjets that accommodate two flat spray tips with different volumes and patterns are available. The spray gun can immediately be switched from one spray tip to the other by rotating the spray head. The most commonly used spray tips for the spray gun are TP 0512, TP 4010, or TP 4020. These tips produce few fine-spray particles so spray drift potential is reduced.

Basal bark applications

In basal bark applications, herbicide is applied, commonly with a backpack sprayer, directly to the bark around the circumference of each stem/tree up to 15 inches above the ground. The herbicide must be in an oil-soluble formulation (EC) and if not in a ready-to-use form, it may be mixed with a specially formulated penetrating oil. The spray tip should be a narrow angle (15-25 degrees), flat, fan-tip nozzle such as a TP 1502, TP 1503, or TP 2502/ TP 2503, a solid cone nozzle, or an adjustable cone jet such as a Tee-Jet 5500-X4 or 5500-X5 or equivalent. Any of these tips can be installed in the spray wand that comes with the spray unit. A good alternative is a brass tip shutoff wand such as a Spraying Systems Model 31 with brass extension and tip shutoff or a Spraying Systems Model 30 Gunjet. A TP-0001/TP-0002 tip or DE-1/DE-2 disc should be used with the Model 30 Gunjet. The Gunjet can be attached to most backpack spray units that produce pressures between 20 and 50 psi. All backpack sprayers and spray guns should have chemical-resistant seals for the herbicides and carriers being used.

Frill or girdle applications

Frill or girdle applications are sometimes called “hack-and-squirt.” With this type of application, cuts into the cambium are made completely around the circumference of the tree with no more than 3-inch intervals between cut edges. Continuous cuts (girdle) are sometimes used for difficult-to-control species and large trees. Do not make multiple cuts directly above or below each other because this will inhibit movement of the herbicide. Incisions should be angled downward to hold herbicide and must be deep enough to penetrate the bark and cambium layer. Herbicide (concentrated or diluted) is applied to each cut until the exposed area is thoroughly wet. Frill or girdle treatments are slow and labor intensive but sometimes necessary to kill target vegetation and minimize impact to desirable vegetation in mixed communities. To further minimize potential impact to desirable vegetation, cuts can be wrapped with tape to prevent rainfall from washing herbicide to the soil. Water- or oil-soluble formulations can be used for frill or girdle applications.

Backpack sprayers or 1- to 2-gallon pump-up sprayers can be suitable for frill or girdle herbicide mixtures as long as they contain chemically resistant seals such as Viton. Handheld, chemical-resistant spray bottles, such as the 1-quart Delta Industries “Spraymaster” are commonly used for frill or girdle herbicide applications.

Stump treatments

Stump treatments are applied after cutting and removing large trees or brush. The herbicide (concentrated or diluted) is sprayed or painted onto the cut surface of the stump. The cut surface should be as level as possible so that herbicide solution does not run off. Sweep off dirt and sawdust that may prevent the herbicide solution from being taken up by the stump. The herbicide is usually concentrated on the cambium layer on large stumps, especially when using concentrated herbicide solutions. The cambium is next to the bark around the entire circumference of the stump. When using dilute solutions, the entire stump is sometimes flooded (depending on label instructions) with herbicide solution. Water- or oil-soluble formulations can be used. Spray equipment can be used as long as it contains chemical-resistant seals. Best results are obtained if the herbicide is applied immediately after cutting (no more than one hour), especially when using a water-soluble formulation (with less-susceptible species seconds can count). Oil-soluble formulations can be effective when applied after some time has passed and should then be applied to the bark as well. The procedure must ensure that cut stems, branches, or seeds do not take root and produce additional plants.

Soil applications

A soil application of granular herbicide formulations can be applied by handheld spreaders, by specially designed blowers, or by air. Soil-applied water-soluble or water-dispersible formulations can be used with the same type of equipment described for foliar applications or spotguns that can accurately deliver a measured amount of herbicide.

Marker dyes

Marker dyes are very useful for keeping track of what vegetation has been treated when making applications to large numbers of individual trees or stumps. Dyes are also a useful indicator of the applicator's efficiency in limiting herbicide contact with nontarget vegetation.

Control Methods for Invasive Nonnative Plants

Control methods being used for invasive nonnative plants by land managers in Florida are listed in this section. All methods listed have been found effective under certain circumstances. However, many factors can affect the performance of a herbicide application and results can vary. Choice of application method, herbicide, and rate for individual species depend on environmental conditions and personal experience. Experience has shown that treatment success may vary from site to site and on the same site.

Pesticide product labeling is the primary method of communication between a herbicide manufacturer and the herbicide users and provides instructions on how to use the product safely and correctly. Changes in herbicide label directions may occur that are not concurrently updated in this publication. Because pesticide users are required by law to comply with all the instructions and directions for use contained in the pesticide label, no herbicide applications should be made based solely on information presented in this publication. Pesticide users must review and comply with all conditions set forth in the pesticide label.

NOTE: All dilutions of Garlon 4 basal bark and cut stump applications are made with oil. Original branded product names are used for convenience. Generic products that contain the same active ingredient may be available. Refer to Table 1 for active ingredient.

Tables

Table 1. 

Herbicides commonly used in natural areas of Floridaa

Product

Formulation

Comments

Several

2,4-D various

Some products may be applied directly to water.

Milestone VM

Aminopyralid 21.1% L

Do not apply directly to water.

Fusilade

Fluazifop 24.5% EC

Post emergence, grass specific. Cannot be applied directly to water.

Rodeo

Glyphosate (isopropylane salt) 53.8% L

May be applied directly to water.

Roundup

Glyphosate (isopropylamine salt) 41.0% L

May be applied to ditch banks, dry ditches, and dry canals. May not be applied directly to water.

Touchdown Pro

Glyphosate 28.3% L (diammonium salt)

May be applied directly to water.

Velpar L

Hexazinone 25% L

May cause groundwater contamination if applied to areas where soils are permeable, especially where the water table is shallow. Nontarget plants can be damaged by root absorption.

Velpar ULW

Hexazinone 75% ULW

Same comments as Velpar L.

Arsenal

Imazapyr 28.7% L

May be applied to nonirrigation ditches and low-lying areas when water has drained but may be isolated in pockets due to uneven or unlevel conditions. Otherwise, may not be applied directly to water. May be applied by government agencies or their contractors in Florida, under SLN, by injection, frill and girdle, or cut stump to melaleuca and Brazilian pepper when growing in water. Nontarget plants can be damaged by root absorption.

Stalker

Imazapyr 28.7% L

May be applied to nonirrigation ditch banks. Nontarget plants can

be damaged by root absorption.

Clearcast

Imazamox 12.1% L

Can be applied directly to water.

Escort XP

Metsulfuron 60% DF

May not be applied directly to water. SLN for control of Old World climbing fern in/on freshwater marshes, mesic forests, hydric forests, Everglades tree islands, and Everglades prairie scrub.

Brush-B-Gon

Triclopyr amine 8.0% L

Homeowner packaging readily available in retail stores. Lower concentration than Garlon 3A may require follow-up applications.

Brush Killer

Triclopyr amine 8.8% L

Homeowner packaging readily available in retail stores. Lower concentration than Garlon 3A may require follow-up applications.

Garlon 3A

Triclopyr amine 44.4% L

May be applied to nonirrigation ditch banks, seasonally dry wetlands, flood plains, deltas, marshes, swamps, bogs, and transitional areas between upland and lowland sites. May not be applied directly to water.

Garlon 4

Triclopyr ester 61.6% L

Same comments as Garlon 3A.

Pathfinder II

Triclopyr ester 13.6% L

Same comments as Garlon 3A. Ready to use.

a Alphabetical by active ingredient. All concentrations are active ingredients. Original, branded-product names are used for convenience. Generic products that contain the same active ingredient may be available.

Table 2. 

Soil behavior of herbicides commonly used in natural areas of Florida.

 

Half-Life (Days)

Mobility in Soil

Absorption by Plant Roots

2,4-D amine

10

Moderate

Slight

Aminopyralid

30

Low

Moderate

Fluazifop

15

Low

Negligible

Glyphosate

47

Negligible

Slight

Imazamox

20-30

Low

Moderate

Imazapyr

25-142

Mobile

Strong

Hexazinone

90

Moderate

Strong

Metsulfuron

30

Moderate

Strong

Table 3. 

Toxicity of herbicides commonly used in natural areas of Florida.

 

Bobwhite Quail 8-Day Dietary LD50a

Laboratory Rat 96-Hr Oral LD50a

Bluegill Sunfish 96-Hr LC50 b

2,4-D amine

>5,620

>1,000

524

Aminopyralid

>2,250

>5,000

>100

Fluazifop

>4,659 (5-day)

2,721 (Female)

0.53

Glyphosate

> 4,640

>5,000

120

Hexazinone

>10,000

1,690

420

Imazamox

>5,572

>5,000

119

Imazapyr

>5,000

>5,000

>100

Metsulfuron

>5,620

>5,000

>150

Triclopyr amine

>10,000

2,574

891

Triclopyr ester

9,026

1,581

0.87

a LD50 is the quantity of herbicide that is lethal to 50% of test animals expressed as mg herbicide per kg body wt.

b LC50 is the concentration in food (mg/kg) or water (mg/l) required to kill 50% of the population of test animals.

Table 4. 

Control methods for nonnative plants in use by land managers in Florida.

AGAVACEAE

Sansevieria hyacinthoides

 

Bowstring hemp, Mother-in-law's tongue

 

Treatment:

Cut surface, basal stem: 10% Garlon 4 in oil. Addition of 3% Stalker may increase consistency where nontarget vegetation will not be endangered. In sandy soils where a greater potential exists for nontarget damage 15%-25% Roundup can be used but control is less consistent.

 

Comments:

Plants often take six to twelve months to die and follow-up applications are necessary. Dense populations may require initial physical removal.

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family)

   

Schinus terebinthifolius

 

Brazilian pepper; Florida holly

 

Treatment:

Cut-stump: 50% Garlon 3A or Renovate, 10% Garlon 4, 50%-100% Roundup, Rodeo, or Touchdown Pro. Basal bark: 10%-20% Garlon 4 or undiluted Pathfinder II. Foliar: Garlon 4, Garlon 3A, Renovate, Roundup, Rodeo, Arsenal, or Habitat according to label directions. Glyphosate products are less effective when used alone in spring and early summer.

 

Comments:

Dioecious; female trees produce enormous quantities of bird-dispersed fruit; seed germinate readily; some people experience allergic reactions to the sap; target only female trees if time, funds, or herbicide limitations are a factor.

APOCYNACEAE (Oleander Family)

   

Alstonia macrophylla

 

Devil tree

Alstonia scholaris

 

Scholar tree

 

Treatment:

Basal bark or cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A or 10% Garlon 4.

 

Comments:

Both species invade hammocks, pinelands, and disturbed sites; leaves are reportedly toxic to eat; A. macrophylla is becoming widespread in Dade county.

Ochrosia elliptica

 

Ochrosia; Kopsia

 

Treatment:

Basal bark or cut-stump: 50% Garlon 3A.

 

Comments:

Fruits are bright red, paired, and reportedly poisonous to eat; often used in coastal landscaping.

ARACEAE (Arum Family)

   

Colocasia esculenta

 

Wild Taro

 

Treatment:

Foliar: 1.0% Rodeo, 0.5% Renovate, 0.5% Weedar 64, or 0.5% Habitat + silicone surfactant.

 

Comments:

Usually found in aquatic habitats, so only herbicides labeled for aquatic sites can be used. Large corms (underground storage structures) make control very difficult and repeat applications will be necessary.

Syngonium podophyllum

 

Nephthytis

 

Treatment:

Manual: hand pull vegetation and remove from site or destroy (place in plastic bags until decomposed). Foliar: 3% Garlon 4. Basal stem: 10% Garlon 4. Multiple treatments are required.

 

Comments:

Breaks readily when pulled; roots from nodes; difficult to control; sap is a skin, mouth, and eye irritant; only spreads vegetatively; many populations are the result of discarded landscape material.

Epipremnum pinnatum

cv. 'aureum'

 

Pothos

 

Treatment:

Same as nepthytis (see above).

 

Comments:

Roots at nodes; sap is skin, mouth, and eye irritant; may form extensive groundcover; leaves enlarge considerably when plants climb trees or other support; spreads vegetatively, apparently does not set seed in Florida.

ARALIACEAE (Aralia Family)

   

Schefflera actinophylla

 

Queensland umbrella; Umbrella tree

 

Treatment:

Large individuals (>10 inches diameter) have proven extremely difficult to eradicate. Cut stump (recommended): 50% Garlon 3A or 10% Garlon. Basal bark (if a cut-stump treatment is not possible): wide band of 10% Garlon 4 on smaller individuals and 20% Garlon 4 on larger individuals. It may take up to 9 months to kill large trees.

 

Comments:

Grows terrestrially or as an epiphyte; invasive in hammocks, particularly wet, rocky sites; bird-dispersed fruits.

ARECACEAE (Palm Family)

   

Caryota mitis

 

Fishtail palm (clumping species)

Caryota urens

 

Fishtail palm (solitary-trunked species)

 

Treatment:

Cut stump: Cut below growing point and treat with 50% Garlon 3A or 10% Garlon 4. Alternatively, Garlon 4 can be applied to the apical bud.

 

Comments:

Unlike any other palm genus, the leaves are twice compound; on multiple-trunked (clumping) species, when one trunk is cut the plant will resprout; fruits abundantly and is a common invasive plant in hammocks; fruit and sap are a skin, mouth, and eye irritant.

Chamaedorea seifrizii

 

Bamboo palm

 

Treatment:

Treat as fishtail palm, above.

 

Comments:

Pinnate-leaved, narrow-trunked, clustering species; invades hammocks.

Livistona chinensis

 

Chinese fan palm

 

Treatment:

Manual: hand pull seedlings; cut young specimens at ground level or spray Garlon 4 into the apical bud.

 

Comments:

Costapalmate leaves; green, curved, sharp spines along petiole; can be mistaken for Sabal and Thrinax species, but neither of the latter have spines on the petioles; differs from Washingtonia by having green, not brown, spines and lacking threadlike fiber on the leaves.

Phoenix reclinata

 

Senegal date palm

 

Treatment:

Cut stems near ground level and treat with 50% Garlon 3A or 10% Garlon 4 or apply 10% Garlon 4 to meristem.

 

Comments:

Common nonnative palm in hammocks, especially near coast; pinnate leaves with straight, sharp spines on petiole.

Ptychosperma elegans

 

Solitaire palm

 

Treatment:

Manual; hand pull seedlings; cut mature trees down at ground level; remove fruiting stems from site.

 

Comments:

Pinnate leaves, solitary trunk; commonly invades hammocks; high seed germination; fruit dispersed by birds, raccoons, and opossums; very common in the landscape.

Roystonea regia

 

Royal palm

 

Treatment:

Manual: hand pull seedlings; chainsaw mature trees down near the base.

 

Comments:

Commonly escapes into hammocks from landscape trees; best controlled in the seedling stage; Florida royal palm, Roystonea elata is similar and some taxonomists lump these two species together as synonyms; royal palms should only be treated as exotics if it is known that they are invading areas outside of their native Florida range; Florida royal palm still occurs as a wild plant in Everglades National park (Royal Palm Hammock), Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve, and Royal Palm Hammock in Collier Seminole State Park in Collier County.

Syagrus romanzoffianum

(=Arecastrum romanzoffianum)

 

Queen palm

 

Treatment:

Treat as Royal palm, above.

 

Comments:

Pinnate leaves, single trunk; common in the landscape; invasive in hammocks.

Washingtonia robusta

 

Mexican fan palm, Washingtonia palm

 

Treatment:

Manual: hand pull seedlings. Cut young specimens at ground level or spray Garlon 4 into apical bud. Large, mature trees in natural areas will need to be cut down.

 

Comments:

Palmate leaves with brown, curved, sharp spines along the petioles; mature trees may retain dead leaves along the trunk; leaves characteristically have brown, threadlike fibers attached; can be mistaken for Chinese fan palm, Livistona chinensis, but the latter has green petiole spines and costapalmate leaves; invades pinelands and disturbed sites.

ASTERACEAE (Aster Family)

   

Wedelia trilobata

 

Wedelia; Dune sunflower

 

Treatment:

Foliar: 2%-5% (low volume) Roundup or 0.25%-1.0% Garlon 4, with follow-up treatments as needed.

 

Comments:

Trailing species, forming dense groundcover; yellow, daisy-like flowers produced all year; invades a variety of open, sunny habitats, including beaches; often becomes established from discarded landscape material.

BERBERIDACEAE (Barberry family)

   

Nandina domestica

 

Nandina, Heavenly bamboo

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 15% Garlon 4 in mineral oil. Collect and destroy attached fruits.

 

Comments:

Naturalized in Gadsden, Jackson, Leon, Wakulla, and perhaps other counties.

CACTACEAE (Cactus Family)

   

Hylocereus undatus (=Cereus undatus)

 

Night-blooming cereus

 

Treatment:

Manual: hand pull and remove from site if possible; if removal is not feasible, lay the plants out on a plastic tarp and spray them with 10% Garlon 4; 15% Roundup has been successful but it takes much longer for the plants to die.

 

Comments:

Vining cactus that climbs and roots to tree trunks; sometimes epiphytic; very showy, fragrant flowers open at night in summertime.

CAPRIFOLIACEAE

   

Lonicera japonica

 

Japanese honeysuckle

 

Treatment:

Foliar: 3%-5% Garlon 3A or 1%-3% Roundup.

 

Comments:

Twining or trailing woody vine with young stems pubescent. Interrupts succession in once-forested areas by overtopping and smothering young trees, their recruitment to the overstory and can disrupt understory structure forests. May be confused with native honeysuckle, Lonicera sempervirens, and stems of which are not hairy and flowers red with yellow within.

CASUARINACEAE (Beefwood Family)

   

Casuarina equisetifolia

 

Australian pine

Casuarina glauca

 

Beefwood, Brazilian oak

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 10%-20% Garlon 4. Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A or 10%-20% Garlon 4. Remove scaly bark if present. Frill (larger trees): 20% Garlon 4. Addition of 3% Stalker will increase consistency on older trees. Soil: 4-6 pounds Velpar ULW/acre.

 

Comments:

C. equisetifolia has a single trunk and produces viable seeds that are wind- and bird-dispersed; C. glauca produces suckers at the base of the trunk, rarely sets seed in Florida, and has a weeping growth habit.

CLUSIACEAE (Pitch-apple Family)

   

Calophyllum antillanum

(=C. Calaba; C. brasiliense var. antillanum)

 

Brazilian beauty-leaf

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 10%-20% Garlon 4. Follow-up herbicide applications may be necessary. Manual: hand pull seedlings.

 

Comments:

Medium-sized tree with glossy, leathery leaves; has been found principally invading coastal areas, including mangrove fringe.

COMBRETACEAE (Combretum Family)

   

Terminalia arjuna

 

Arjun tree

Terminalia catappa

 

Indian almond

Terminalia muelleri

 

Mueller's almond

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 10% Garlon 4. Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A.

 

Comments:

The Indian almond is deciduous and invades coastal habitats, hammocks and disturbed sites; Arjun tree and Mueller's almond invade hammock interiors and margins.

COMMELINACEAE (Spiderwort Family)

   

Tradescantia spathacea (=Rhoeo

spathacea)

 

Oyster plant

 

Treatment:

Manual: hand pull and remove from site. Foliar: 10% Garlon 4 (low volume) applied to bud.

 

Comments:

Succulent with sword-shaped rosettes of leaves, green on upper surface, bright purple on lower surface; highly invasive, forming extensive colonies.

CONVOLVULACEAE (Morning-glory Family)

   

Merremia tuberosa

 

Wood rose

 

Treatment:

Foliar: 5% Roundup (low volume). Basal bark: 10% Garlon 4. Cut stem: 50% Garlon 3A or 10% Garlon 4.

 

Comments:

Individual plants can cover extensive areas; rarely roots at nodes; bright yellow morning-glory-like flowers produced in late fall, fruits profusely in early winter; later December and early January die backs occur; seeds germinate readily.

CRASSULACEAE (Orpine Family)

   

Kalanchoe pinnata

 

Life plant, Live leaf

 

Treatment:

Foliar: 5% Roundup. Manual: hand pull. Roundup is an effective treatment because it kills individual leaves that otherwise may produce new plants along leaf margins. Follow-up hand removal of leaves is necessary to prevent leaves from producing new plants.

 

Comments:

Often found along edges of natural areas, generally as a result of discarded landscape material.

DIOSCOREACEAE (Yam Family)

   

Dioscorea alata

 

Water yam

Dioscorea bulbifera

 

Air-potato; Air yam

Dioscorea sansibarensis

 

West African yam

 

Treatment:

Manual: cut vines that are high in trees; cut bulbils and remove from site. Dig up underground tubers if possible. Foliar: 1%-2% Roundup or Touchdown Pro. Cut stem: 10% Garlon 4.

 

Comments:

Monocot with heart-shaped leaves; dies back to tubers in winter in response to shortened day length, resprouts in spring from tubers; all three species produce aerial bulbils in late summer, early fall.

EBENACEAE (Ebony Family)

   

Diospyros digyna

(=D. ebenaster)

 

Black sapote

 

Treatment:

Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A.

 

Comments:

Black bark, shiny alternate leaves; scattered throughout a few hammocks in south Florida; fruits large, edible; green when ripe. Large individuals are difficult to kill.

ELAEAGNACEAE (Oleaster family)

   

Elaeagnus pungens

 

Silverthorn

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 15% Garlon 4 in mineral oil.

 

Comments:

Naturalized and targeted for removal in Florida Caverns State Park (Jackson County).

EUPHORBIACEAE (Spurge Family)

   

Aleurites fordii

 

Tungoil tree

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 20% Garlon 4.

 

Comments:

Found mainly in northern counties to Citrus County.

Bischofia javanica

 

Bishopwood; toog

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 10%-20% Garlon 4. Frill/girdle (larger trees): 20% Garlon 4. Manual: hand pull seedlings.

 

Comments:

Dioecious; compound leaves with three large leaflets; herbicide treatment may cause adventitious roots to form along trunk; female trees produce massive numbers of bird-dispersed fruits that hang in grape-like clusters; target only female trees if time, funds, or herbicide limitations are a factor.

Ricinus communis

 

Castor bean

 

Treatment:

Basal bark or cut stump: 10% Garlon 4. Revisit site several times to pull up seedlings or treat seedlings with 5% Roundup.

 

Comments:

High seed germination: seeds extremely poisonous to eat.

Sapium sebiferum

 

Chinese tallow, popcorn tree

 

Treatment:

Cut stump: 20%-30% Garlon 4, Garlon 3A, or Renovate, 10% Habitat. Basal bark: 15%-20% Garlon 4 or undiluted Pathfinder II. Addition of 3% Stalker will reduce resprouting on older trees. Foliar: 0.5%-0.75% Arsenal or Habitat. Follow-up treatment may be necessary for root sprouts.

 

Comments:

Seedlings up to 10 inches tall can be hand pulled.

FABACEAE (Pea Family)

   

Abrus precatorius

 

Rosary pea

 

Treatment:

Basal stem: 10% Garlon 4. Foliar: 5% Roundup (low volume). Remove seed pods if possible. Site must be revisited several times to pull seedlings.

 

Comments:

Seeds black and red, highly poisonous.

Acacia auriculiformis

 

Earleaf acacia

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 10% Garlon 4. Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A. Addition of 3% Stalker will increase consistency.

 

Comments:

A frequent invader of pinelands and disturbed sites.

Adenanthera pavonina

 

Red sandalwood

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 10% Garlon 4. Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A or 10% Garlon 4. Manual: small seedlings can be hand pulled.

 

Comments:

Can be confused with Albizia lebbeck, which has larger leaflets; bark of red sandalwood is typically reddish; produces hard red seeds that seem to persist in soil for up to 5 years.

Albizia lebbeck

 

Woman's tongue; Rattle pod

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 20% Garlon 4 or undiluted Pathfinder II. Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A or 10% Garlon 4, follow-up treatments necessary for root sprouts with 10% Garlon 4.

 

Comments:

Large, dry, brown pods with few large seeds, mature principally in winter; common in pinelands and hammocks.

Albizia julibrissin

 

Mimosa

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 15% Garlon 4 or undiluted Pathfinder II.

 

Comments:

Apply to 1-2 feet of trunk on larger trees. Trees >3 inches diameter may require retreatment.

Bauhinia forficata

 

Spiny orchid tree

Bauhinia purpurea

 

Orchid tree

Bauhinia variegata

 

Orchid tree

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 10% Garlon 4. Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A.

 

Comments:

All three species invade disturbed sites and the edges of natural areas in Dade County.

Dalbergia sissoo

 

Indian rosewood

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 10% Garlon 4. Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A.

 

Comments:

Medium to large tree with compound leaves bearing 3 to 5 leaflets; papery seed pods are wind-dispersed; invasive along hammock margin, canopy gaps, and disturbed sites.

Delonix regia

 

Royal poinciana

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 20% Garlon 4 or undiluted Pathfinder II. Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A.

 

Comments:

Large spreading tree with bi-pinnately compound leaves; very popular flowering tree in the landscape; invades hammock margin, canopy gaps, and disturbed sites; seeds commonly sprout beneath parent trees.

Leucaena leucocephala

 

Lead tree, jumbie bean

 

Treatment:

Difficult to control and variable results have been reported. Basal bark or cut stem: 10%-20% Garlon 4 has been reported to be effective while others report only partial success with higher rates. 25% has been effective on trees <3 inches diameter, while larger trees were not killed. Large trees must be completely girdled for frill/girdle applications. Experimental application of Milestone indicates that basal bark, cut stump, and foliar applications can be effective. Rates have not been refined.

 

Comments:

Usually found on edges of natural areas; can be mistaken for native wild tamarind, Lysiloma latisiliquum. A larger band of Garlon 4 is applied to larger trees or those growing in sandy soils.

Mimosa pigra (=M. pelita)

 

Catclaw mimosa

 

Treatment:

Basal bark or cut stump: 30%-50% Garlon 4. Foliar: Repeat applications of 1.5% Roundup or Rodeo or 2%-3% Garlon 3A or Renovate.

 

Comments:

Repeated site visits are necessary to control seedlings and prevent further seed production. An estimated ten years are needed for seed bank eradication.

Mucuna pruriens

 

Cow itch

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 10% Garlon 4, Foliar: 5% Roundup. Manual: hand pull mature vines and seedlings; does not resprout from roots. It is important to continue pulling seedlings until seed bank is exhausted.

 

Comments:

Hairs on seed pods cause intense itching.

Pueraria montana (=P. lobata)

 

Kudzu

 

Treatment:

Foliar: When actively growing, at or post bloom, apply 2% Roundup, during early to mid growing season, 2% Garlon 3A.

 

Comments:

Follow-up treatments are necessary as resprouting occurs from root crowns and tubers.

Wisteria sinensis

 

Chinese wisteria

 

Treatment:

Cut stump: 20%-30% Garlon 4 or 100% Garlon 3A.

 

Comments:

High-climbing woody vine with showy lavender flowers in spring. Can top and kill mature trees. Legume densely, velvety pubescent compared to the native Wisteria frutescens, with glabrous fruits.

GOODENIACEAE (Goodenia Family)

   

Scaevola sericea

(=S. frutescens; S. taccada)

 

Beach naupaka; Half-flower; Scaevola

 

Treatment:

Manual: hand pull, at least fruit, from site whenever possible. Basal bark: 10% Garlon 4. Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A or 10% Garlon 4. Foliar: (monocultures) 4% Garlon 4.

 

Comments:

Semi-woody shrub with either glabrous or pubescent, somewhat succulent leaves; flowers fan shaped, white or blushed with purple; fruit are white, which helps distinguish it from the black-fruited, native Inkberry, Scaevola plumieri; seeds of the exotic scaevola are carried by ocean currents where they sprout and colonize beaches and other shoreline habitats. Branches in contact with ground may root. Seed bank lasts one year.

LYGODIACEAE (Climbing fern family)

   

Lygodium microphyllum

 

Old World climbing fern

 

Treatment:

Foliar: For ground applications, cut plants that grow high into trees; thoroughly spray foliage to wet with 1%-2% Roundup or Rodeo, 2% Garlon 3A, 1% Plateau, or equivalent of 1-2 ounces Escort XP/100 gallon diluent; light infestations use 2%-4% Roundup or Rodeo (low volume). For aerial application, 7.5 pints Rodeo or 2 ounces Escort XP in sufficient volume and using spray pattern to maximize coverage.

 

Comments:

Fern with twining, climbing fronds, leaflets unlobed. The most serious natural area weed in Florida. Land managers should be on constant lookout for it and take immediate steps to control it when encountered.

Lygodium japonicum

 

Japanese climbing fern

 

Treatment:

Foliar: 3% Roundup per 100 gallons. Do not exceed 40 gallons spray solution per acre. Arsenal 50 oz/100 gal (use only where appropriate relative to non-target species). Plateau 40 oz/ 100 gal.

 

Comments:

Fern with twining, climbing fronds, leaflets lobed. Occurs throughout west and north Florida into central Florida. Smothers seedlings of overstory tree species.

MALVACEAE (Mallow Family)

   

Hibiscus tiliaceus

 

Sea hibiscus; Mahoe

 

Treatment:

Manual: hand pull seedlings. Basal bark: 10%-20% Garlon 4. Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A.

 

Comments:

Multi-trunked, large, spreading tree with long-petioled, rounded cordate leaves, hibiscus-like yellow flowers turn pink or red with age; seeds float and drift to new coastal habitats; erroneously considered native by some people.

Thespesia populnea

 

Seaside mahoe; Portia tree

 

Treatment:

Manual: seedlings can be hand pulled. Basal bark: 10%-25% Garlon 4. Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A for cut stump applications.

 

Comments:

Multi-trunked, large, spreading tree; heart-shaped leaves with a pronounced driptip; hibiscus-like yellow flowers turn pink or red with age; seeds float and drift to new coastal habitats; erroneously considered native by some people.

MELIACEAE (Mahogany family)

   

Melia azedarach

 

Chinaberry, Pride of India

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 15%-30% Garlon 4. Addition of 3% Stalker may increase consistency. Trees > 3 inches diameter may require retreatment. Cut stump: 30% Garlon 4. Foliar: low volume 1% Arsenal covering 50% of the foliage.

 

Comments:

Often shrubby and root-suckering, forming thickets. Fruits poisonous to humans and some other mammals. Most abundantly found in north and west Florida but often escaping cultivation in peninsular counties, south to the Keys.

MORACEAE (Mulberry Family)

   

Broussonetia papyrifera

 

Paper mulberry

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 10%-30% Garlon 4. Addition of 3% Stalker will increase consistency.

 

Comments:

Large tree with scabrous leaves and reddish-orange balls of flowers. Invades hammocks and disturbed sites; young trees can be mistaken for the native red mulberry, Morus rubra.

Ficus altissima

 

Lofty fig

Ficus benghalensis

 

Banyan fig

Ficus microcarpa

 

Laurel fig

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 10% Garlon 4.

 

Comments:

All three species invade the interior and edges of hammocks; often found growing as epiphytes (on trees) or epiliths (on rocks or stone structures); exercise care when treating epiphytic figs to ensure that herbicide does not come in contact with the host tree; members of this genus are very sensitive to Garlon 4; extreme care must be taken when treating any vegetation near the native strangler fig and shortleaf fig; spray that contacts surface roots can kill a large tree.

MYRSINACEAE (Myrsine Family)

   

Ardisia elliptica (=Ardisia solanacea)

 

Shoe-button ardisia

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 10% Garlon. Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A. Broadcast foliar: per acre rates. In 50 gal spray solution per acre of: 96 oz Arsenal Powerline, 6 gal Krenite, 25 oz Lineage Clearstand or 3 oz Escort XP + 112 oz Rodeo. The addition of 3 oz of Escort greatly enhanced all other herbicides tested. Manual: hand pull seedlings.

 

Comments:

Often found in wetter areas; prolific reproduction; closely resembles the native Ardisia escallonioides (Marlberry) but differs in that new growth, petioles, and stem tips are pink to red, and fruit are produced in axillary, not terminal, clusters.

Ardisia crenata

 

Coral ardisia

 

Treatment:

Foliar: 3% Garlon 3A + 1% Plateau, 5% Garlon 4 (low volume). Basal bark: 10% Garlon 4.

 

Comments:

Small shrub, easily recognized by bright shiny leaves, with crenate (scalloped) margins and calluses in the margin notches and persistent bright red (sometimes white) fruits.

MYRTACEAE (Myrtle Family)

   

Eugenia uniflora

 

Surinam cherry

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: For plants up to ½ inch diameter, 10% Garlon 4. Cut-stump: 50% Garlon 3A or 10% Garlon 4. Seedlings should be hand pulled.

 

Comments:

Looks quite similar to native species of Eugenia; leaves have a distinct odor when crushed.

Melaleuca quinquenervia

 

Cajeput; Punk tree; Melaleuca

 

Treatment:

Manual: seedlings and saplings can be hand pulled, being sure not to break plant off of root system, and removed or placed in piles to help reduce the chance that they will re-root. Foliar: Low volume spot application of 5% Rodeo (seedlings and saplings only). Aerial application of 3 quarts Rodeo + 3 quarts Arsenal + 4 quarts methylated seed oil per acre. Follow-up ground or aerial application may be necessary. Cut stump: 10%-20% Arsenal or Habitat, 50%-100% Roundup or Rodeo, or 40% Roundup or Rodeo + 10% Arsenal or Habitat. Use of imazapyr product provides more consistent results. Frill and girdle: 20%-50% Arsenal or Habitat or 10% Arsenal or Habitat and 40% Roundup or Rodeo. Lower amounts of imazapyr may be effective.

 

Comments:

Tall, highly invasive tree in freshwater wetlands; thick, papery bark; extremely high seed production; seeds dispersed by wind following natural or mechanical disturbance.

Psidium guajava

Psidium cattleianum

 

Common guava

Strawberry guava

 

Treatment:

Basal bark or cut stump: 10% Garlon 4.

 

Comments:

Yellow, edible fruits; common invader in disturbed areas, hammock margins and wetlands.

Rhodomyrtus tomentosa

 

Downy rosemyrtle

 

Treatment:

Basal bark or cut stump (individual plants): 10%-20% Garlon 4. Re-treatment may be necessary. Foliar: 1% Arsenal + 2% Roundup or 2 quarts Vanquish/acre in 50 gallons spray volume.

 

Comments:

A very aggressive evergreen shrub to 6 feet tall found as far north as Pasco County on the west coast. Action should be taken immediately to remove it when found in natural areas. Identified by opposite, simple entire leaves, which are glossy green above, densely soft-hairy below, with three main veins form blade base; round, dark purple fruit with sweet aromatic flesh.

Syzygium cumini

 

Jambolan plum; Java plum

Syzygium jambos

 

Rose apple

 

Treatment:

Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A or 10% Garlon 4. Basal bark: 10%-20% Garlon 4 or Pathfinder II.

 

Comments:

Large trees, bird- and mammal-dispersed fruits. Mature trees may take up to 9 months to die.

OLEACEAE (Olive Family)

   

Jasminum dichotomum

 

Gold coast jasmine

Jasminum fluminense

 

Brazilian jasmine

 

Treatment:

Cut-stump: 50% Garlon 3A or 10% Garlon 4. Basal bark: 10% Garlon 4. It is helpful to pull runners back to the main stem, cut, and apply Garlon 3A or Garlon 4 to the cut stem. Re-treatment of areas is usually necessary. Foliar: 5% Roundup. Manual: newly emerged seedlings can be hand pulled.

 

Comments:

Jasmines produce a large number of bird- and mammal-dispersed seeds with very high germination; highly invasive.

Ligustrum lucidum

 

Glossy privet

Ligustrum sinense

 

Chinese privet

 

Treatment:

Basal Bark or cut stump: 15%-20% Garlon 4 or undiluted Pathfinder II.

 

Comments:

L. sinense widespread in northern Florida mesic woods, road shoulders, and farmlands. Invades logged areas, dispersed by mammals, birds, and floodwaters.

PASSIFLORACEAE (Passion-flower Family)

   

Passiflora edulis

 

Passion-flower

 

Treatment:

Basal bark or cut stem: 10% Garlon 4.

 

Comments:

Large attractive flower; fruit purple, edible; invasive in hammocks.

PIPERACEAE (Pepper Family)

   

Lepianthes peltata

 

Lepianthes

Piper aduncum

 

Bamboo piper

Piper auritum

 

Makulan

 

Treatment:

Manual: hand pull when possible (broken roots may resprout); remove entire plant from site. Basal bark: 20% Garlon 4 or undiluted Pathfinder II. Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A; remove cut stems from the site to avoid resprouting from nodes.

 

Comments:

All three of the above species invade hardwood hammocks, especially margins and canopy gaps.

POACEAE (Grass Family)

   

Imperata cylindrica

 

Cogongrass

 

Treatment:

Foliar: 3-4 quarts. Roundup Pro, 2-3 quarts. Arsenal, or 0.5 quarts Fusilade per acre. For high volume, spot treatment use 3%-5% Roundup Pro or 0.25%-0.5% Arsenal. Herbicides should be used in combination with burning or tillage for optimum control. See IFAS Publication SS-AGR-52 for additional information.

 

Comments:

If not controlled, cogongrass will spread along roadways and into pastures, mining areas, forest land, parks, and other recreation areas. Extensive rhizomes must be eliminated for long-term control.

Neyraudia reynaudiana

 

Burma reed

 

Treatment:

Foliar: 1%-3% Roundup. Cut stem: 10% Garlon 4. In areas with surrounding desirable vegetation, the culms can be cut to ground level and sprayed with 5% Roundup when the plant reaches a height of approximately 12 to 18 inches (cut stems should be removed from the site). Removing seedheads before treatment will reduce need for follow-up. Responds quickly after fire and should be targeted as soon as new growth reaches 12 to 18 inches. Most native plants will not have resprouted from the fire by the time Burma reed has reached this height, and it can be easily treated with little concern about nontarget damage.

 

Comments:

Tall cane grass; extremely invasive in pine rockland habitat and open dry habitats, as well as roadsides, vacant lots, and other disturbed sites; fire tolerant.

Panicum repens

 

Torpedograss

 

Treatment:

Foliar: 0.75% - 1.5% Rodeo and/or 0.5% Habitat, 4 pints Habitat per acre, or 5% Rodeo low volume spot treatment.

 

Comments:

Numerous dormant buds associated with extensive rhizomes make this plant extremely difficult to control. Several years of reapplication may be necessary to completely eliminate a population.

Pennisetum purpureum

 

Napier grass

 

Treatment:

Foliar: 1%-3% Roundup. If nontarget damage is a concern, cut stems to ground level and allow sprouts to reach 8-12 inches and treat the same as Neyraudia. Broadcast 3-5 quart/acre Roundup Pro, 2 quart/acre Arsenal, or 1 quart Arsenal and 2 quart Roundup Pro.

 

Comments:

Tall cane grass with white stripe down the center of the leaf blade and a fox taillike inflorescence; prefers wetter substrates.

Phyllostachys aurea

 

Golden Bamboo

 

Treatment:

Foliar: Cut mature plants and apply 5% Roundup.

 

Comments:

Not a common problem, but once established can spread extensively. Populations should be controlled immediately. Can become established by dumping of yard waste.

RHAMNACEAE (Buckthorn Family)

   

Colubrina asiatica

 

Latherleaf; Asian colubrina

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 10%-20% Garlon 4 or undiluted Pathfinder II. Cut-stump: 50% Garlon 3A. Foliar: 3% Garlon 3A or Garlon 4. Follow up for 3 to 4 weeks. Manual: hand pull seedlings.

 

Comments:

Sprawling shrub commonly invading coastal habitats; has become a serious pest plant in mangrove/buttonwood habitat and in coastal hardwood forests. Capsules spread by tides and currents. Seeds resemble small pebbles and may be used as crop stones by seed-eating birds, such as doves, and dispersed.

ROSACEAE (Rose Family)

   

Rubus albescens

 

Mysore raspberry

 

Treatment:

Cut stem: 50% Garlon 3A or 10% Garlon 4.

 

Comments:

Sharp thorns on stems and leaves; arching stems and branches of intact plants root where they touch the ground; seeds bird- and mammal-dispersed.

Eriobotrya japonica

 

Loquat

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 10% Garlon 4. Cut-stump: 50% Garlon 3A or Garlon 4.

 

Comments:

Invasive in hammocks; commonly cultivated for its yellow, fuzzy, edible fruit; seeds spread into natural areas by mammals; exotic, free-flying parrots are known to feed on the fruit as well, and may also be vectors of seeds.

RUBIACEAE (Madder Family)

   

Paederia cruddasiana

 

Sewer vine; skunk vine; Chinese fever vine

 

Treatment:

Foliar: 3%-5% Roundup. Basal bark: 10% Garlon 4. Within 2-4 weeks re-treat the area with basal applications of 10% Garlon 4. This second treatment can be time-consuming because many underground runners sprout. The area should continue to be monitored for follow-up treatments.

 

Comments:

Climbing vine; related to Paederia foetida, which is established in central Florida; flowers profusely; produces viable seeds.

Paederia foedida

 

Skunk vine

 

Treatment:

Foliar: 1%-3% Garlon 3A, Garlon 4, or 1%-1.5% Plateau to thoroughly wet foliage. Homeowners can use Brush-B-Gon or Brush killer at maximum label rates. Cut stem: 10% Garlon 4.

 

Comments:

Perennial twining vine from woody rootstock having leaves and stems with disagreeable odor, especially when crushed. Most common in west central Florida, documented northward to Gadsen County and southward to Broward County.

RUTACEAE (Rue Family)

   

Murraya paniculata

 

Orange jessamine

 

Treatment:

Manual: hand pull seedlings. Basal bark or cut stump: 10% Garlon 4.

 

Comments:

Shrub or small tree with small, glossy, compound leaves that are fragrant when crushed; white, citrus-like, heavily perfumed flowers produced in summertime; small orange fruit are bird dispersed; invasive in hammocks, especially when bordered by residential areas that use this plant in the landscape.

SAPINDACEAE (Soapberry Family)

   

Cupaniopsis anacardioides

 

Carrotwood

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 10%-20% Garlon 4 or undiluted Pathfinder II. Cut stump: 10%-50% Garlon 3A or undiluted Roundup. Frill and girdle: 10%-20% Garlon 4.

 

Comments:

Invades interior of hammocks; becoming a popular landscape tree; bird dispersed. Note label restrictions with respect to high-tide mark and use extra caution near mangroves.

SAPOTACEAE (Sapodilla Family)

   

Manilkara zapota

 

Sapodilla

 

Treatment:

Hand pull seedlings. Basal bark: 10%-20% Garlon 4, larger trees may require several applications. Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A.

 

Comments:

Large, spreading tree; edible fruit; seeds dispersed by raccoons and opossums; invades hammock interiors.

Pouteria campechiana

 

Egg fruit; Canistel

 

Treatment:

Hand pull seedlings. Basal bark: 10% Garlon 4.

 

Comments:

Small to medium tree; yellow, edible fruit; prolific invader of hammocks but local in distribution; fruit eaten by raccoons and opossums.

SOLANACEAE (Nightshade Family)

   

Cestrum diurnum

 

Day jessamine

 

Treatment:

Manual: hand pull when possible (if soil disturbance is not an issue). Basal bark: 10% Garlon 4. Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A.

 

Comments:

Shrub or small tree with small, tubular, very fragrant flowers (in daytime) small purple fruit dispersed by birds.

Solanum tampicense

 

Wetland nightshade, misleadingly called aquatic soda apple

 

Treatment:

Foliar: 1.5% Garlon 3A. Aggressive follow-up treatments are necessary.

 

Comments:

An aggressive invader of wetlands and floodplains. Should be eliminated whenever located.

Solanum viarum

 

Tropical soda apple

 

Treatment:

Hand pull and destroy individual plants when practical. Foliar: 1% Garlon 4, 3% Roundup, 0.5% Arsenal, or 5-7 ounces Milestone/acre. Milestone (7 ounces/acre) provides residual control of seedlings.

 

Comments:

Destroy fruit and treat plants immediately after detection. Spreads extremely fast. Livestock and wild animals eat fruits and readily disperse seed. For additional information see IFAS publication SS-AGR-58.

VERBENACEAE (Verbena Family)

   

Lantana camara

 

Shrub verbena; Lantana

 

Treatment:

Basal bark: 10% Garlon 4. Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A or 10% Garlon 4.

 

Comments:

Shrub with prickly stems and branches; multi-colored flower heads; ripe fruit blue; green unripe fruit highly toxic if eaten; this exotic species should be controlled to help avoid hybridization with the endemic Lantana depressa; typically a plant of roadsides and other disturbed sites but also invades pineland as well as hammock margins; numerous cultivars exist in the nursery trade.

     
Table 5. 

Appendix A: Common Names and Botanical Family Names

Common Name

Botanical Family Name

Air-potato

Dioscoreaceae

Air yam

Dioscoreaceae

Ardisia

Myrsinaceae

Arjun tree

Combretaceae

Asian colubrina

Rhamnaceae

Australian pine

Casuarinaceae

Bamboo palm

Arecaceae

Bamboo piper

Piperaceae

Banyan fig

Moraceae

Beach naupaka

Goodeniaceae

Beefwood

Casuarinaceae

Bishopwood

Euphorbiaceae

Black sapote

Ebenaceae

Bowstring hemp

Agauaceae

Brazilian beauty-leaf

Clusiaceae

Brazilian jasmine

Oleaceae

Brazilian oak

Casuarinaceae

Brazilian pepper

Anacardiaceae

Burma reed

Poaceae

Cajeput

Myrtaceae

Canistel

Sapotaceae

Carrotwood

Sapindaceae

Castor bean

Euphorbiaceae

Catclaw mimosa

Fabaceae

Chinaberry

Meliaceae

Chinese fan palm

Arecaceae

Chinese privet

Oleaceae

Chinese tallow

Euphorbiaceae

Chinese wisteria

Fabaceae

Cogongrass

Poaceae

Coral ardisia

Myrsinaceae

Cow itch

Fabaceae

Day jessamine

Solanaceae

Devil tree

Apocynaceae

Downy rose myrtle

Myrtaceae

Dune sunflower

Asteraceae

Earleaf acacia

Fabaceae

Egg fruit

Sapotaceae

Ficus

Moraceae

Fishtail palm

Arecaceae

Florida holly

Anacardiaceae

Glossy privet

Oleaceae

Gold Coast jasmine

Oleaceae

Golden bamboo

Poaceae

Guava

Myrtaceae

Half-flower

Goodeniaceae

Heavenly bamboo

Berberidaceae

Hunter's robe

Araceae

Indian almond

Combretaceae

Indian rosewood

Fabaceae

Jambolan plum

Myrtaceae

Japanese climbing fern

Lygodiaceae

Japanese honeysuckle

Caprifoliaceae

Jasmine

Oleaceae

Java plum

Myrtaceae

Kopsia

Apocynaceae

Lantana

Verbenaceae

Latherleaf

Rhamnaceae

Laurel fig

Moraceae

Lead tree

Fabaceae

Lepianthes

Piperaceae

Life plant

Crassulaceae

Live leaf

Crassulaceae

Lofty fig

Moraceae

Loquat

Rosaceae

Mahoe

Malvaceae

Makulan

Piperaceae

Melaleuca

Myrtaceae

Mexican fan palm

Arecaceae

Mimosa

Fabaceae

Mother-in-law's tongue

Agauaceae

Mueller's almond

Combretaceae

Mysore raspberry

Rosaceae

Nandina

Berberidaceae

Napier grass

Poaceae

Nephthytis

Araceae

Night-blooming cereus

Cactaceae

Ochrosia

Apocynaceae

Old World climbing fern

Lygodiaceae

Orange jessamine

Rutaceae

Orchid tree

Fabaceae

Oyster plant

Commelinaceae

Palms

Arecaceae

Paper mulberry

Moraceae

Passion-flower

Passifloraceae

Piper

Piperaceae

Popcorn tree

Euphorbiaceae

Portia tree

Malvaceae

Possum grape

Vitaceae

Pothos

Araceae

Punk tree

Myrtaceae

Queen palm

Arecaceae

Queensland umbrella

Araliaceae

Raspberry

Rosaceae

Red sandalwood

Fabaceae

Rosary pea

Fabaceae

Rose apple

Myrtaceae

Rosewood

Fabaceae

Royal poinciana

Fabaceae

Royal palm

Arecaceae

Sapodilla

Sapotaceae

Scaevola

Goodeniaceae

Schefflera

Araliaceae

Scholar tree

Apocynaceae

Sea hibiscus

Malvaceae

Seaside mahoe

Malvaceae

Senegal date palm

Arecaceae

Sewer vine

Rubiaceae

Shoebutton ardisia

Myrsinaceae

Silverthorn

Elaeagnaceae

Skunk vine

Rubiaceae

Solitaire palm

Arecaceae

Surinam cherry

Myrtaceae

Toog

Euphorbiaceae

Torpedograss

Poaceae

Tropical soda apple

Solanaceae

Tung oil tree

Euphorbiaceae

Umbrella tree

Araliaceae

Washingtonia palm

Arecaceae

Water yam

Dioscoreaceae

Wedelia

Asteraceae

West African yam

Dioscoreaceae

Wild taro

Araceae

Woman's tongue

Fabaceae

Wood rose

Convolvulaceae

Table 6. 

Appendix B: Genus Names and Botanical Family Names

Genus Name

Refer to Plant Family

Abrus

Fabaceae

Acacia

Fabaceae

Adenanthera

Fabaceae

Albizia

Fabaceae

Aleurites

Euphorbiaceae

Alstonia

Apocynaceae

Ardisia

Mysinaceae

Bauhinia

Fabaceae

Bischofia

Euphorbiaceae

Broussonetia

Moraceae

Calophyllum

Clusiaceae

Caryota

Arecaceae

Casuarina

Casuarinaceae

Cereus

Cactaceae

Cestrum

Solanaceae

Chamaedorea

Arecaceae

Colocasia

Araceae

Colubrina

Rhamnaceae

Cupaniopsis

Sapindaceae

Dalbergia

Fabaceae

Delonix

Fabaceae

Dioscorea

Dioscoreaceae

Diospyros

Ebenaceae

Elaeagnus

Elaeagnaceae

Epipremnum

Araceae

Eriobotrya

Rosaceae

Eugenia

Myrtaceae

Ficus

Moraceae

Hibiscus

Malvaceae

Hylocereus

Cactaceae

Imperata

Poaceae

Jasminum

Oleaceae

Kalanchoe

Crassulaceae

Lantana

Verbenaceae

Lepianthes

Piperaceae

Leucaena

Fabaceae

Ligustrum

Oleaceae

Livistona

Arecaceae

Lonicera

Caprifoliaceae

Lygodium

Lygodiaceae

Manilkara

Sapotaceae

Melaleuca

Myrtaceae

Melia

Meliaceae

Merremia

Convolvulaceae

Mimosa

Fabaceae

Mucuna

Fabaceae

Murraya

Rutaceae

Nandina

Berberidaceae

Ochosia

Apocynaceae

Neyraudia

Poaceae

Paederia

Rubiaceae

Panicum

Poaceae

Passiflora

Passifloraceae

Pennisetum

Poaceae

Phoenix

Arecaceae

Phylostachis

Poaceae

Piper

Piperaceae

Pouteria

Sapotaceae

Ptychosperma

Arecaceae

Psidium

Myrtaceae

Rhaphidophora

Araceae

Rhodomyrtus

Myrtaceae

Rhoeo

Commelinaceae

Ricinus

Euphorbiaceae

Roystonea

Arecaceae

Rubus

Rosaceae

Sansevieria

Agauaceae

Sapium

Euphorbiaceae

Scaevola

Goodeniaceae

Schefflera

Araliaceae

Schinus

Anacardiaceae

Solanum

Solanaceae

Sphagneticola

Asteraceae

Syagrus

Arecaceae

Syngonium

Araceae

Syzygium

Myrtaceae

Terminalia

Combretaceae

Thespesia

Malvaceae

Tradescantia

Commelinaceae

Washingtonia

Arecaceae

Wedelia

Asteraceae

Wisteria

Fabaceae

Footnotes

1.

This document is SP 242, one of a series of the Department of Agronomy, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. First printed: 1997. Revised: September 2000, March 2009, and August 2011. Please visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document was prepared in cooperation with the Metropolitan Dade County Park and Recreation Department, Natural Areas Management, and the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council.

2.

Kenneth Langeland, professor; Jason A. Ferrell, associate professor, Department of Agronomy; Brent Sellers, associate professor, Department of Agronomy, Range Cattle Research and Education Center--Ona; Greg E. MacDonald, professor; and Randall Stocker, professor emeritus, Department of Agronomy; Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.