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Publication #SS-AGR-332

Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum): Overview and Management1

Yoana Newman, Joao Vendramini, and Ann Blount2

Bahiagrass is the most common and widely used warm-season perennial grass in Florida. It is planted to over two million acres in the state and over four million acres in the Southeastern United States. This grass is popular in Florida because of its adaptation to low soil fertility and low input management. Bahiagrass can be established by seed and thus provides easy propagation. It is used mainly for pasture and hay production with intermediate yield and acceptable animal performance. Additional uses include wildlife habitat, erosion control, phytoremediation of phosphorus-impacted soils, and integrated pest management of nematodes and fungal diseases when used in rotation with annual crops.

This publication provides an overview of the grass and details of management and production.

Figure 1. 

Bahiagrass pasture


Yoana Newman, UF/IFAS

[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Originally from South America, bahiagrass is well adapted to coastal areas in Florida and the Coastal Plains in the southern United States, including Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and east Texas. It establishes well in sandy soils with low water retention and low fertility, and tolerates drought, sporadic flooding, and continuous grazing.

Bahiagrass is a dense, tufted grass with leaves that are crowded at the base and shallow, but sturdy, underground stems (rhizomes). It can grow 12–25 inches tall in a prostrate habit, and the seedhead has typically a two-branched raceme with protruding anthers for pollen production with characteristic purple coloration (Fig. 2). Reproduction is by seed, and bahiagrass spreads vegetatively by short, heavy runners (stolons). Genetically, there are two types or two ploidy levels found in this species that are cultivated: diploids and tetraploids. These will be discussed in the next section.

Figure 2. 

Bahiagrass seedhead. The purple anthers can be observed covering each raceme.


Carlos Acuna, UF/IFAS

[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Bahiagrass is best adapted to sandy loams and tolerates low fertility and low pH. It grows well on soils with acidic pH from 4.5 to 6.5, and the target soil pH is 5.5. At pH greater than 6.5, the grass shows chlorosis and stunted growth. It survives well on droughty soils, where it presents a more open stand to compensate for the low moisture available.

Bahiagrass grows vigorously under high temperature and long days, and herbage production is greatest from April to October. More than 85% of the production occurs during the six warmest months (April through September).

History and Released Cultivars

The center of origin of this grass is subtropical South America. It is abundant in northern Argentina, Brazil, eastern Bolivia, and Paraguay. In Florida, bahiagrass has a century-long history as "common" bahiagrass. It was first introduced by the Bureau of Plant Industry and grown by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station in 1913.

Since the initial release, new cultivars have been adopted. The most popular cultivars are the diploid ones including Pensacola, Tifton 9, TifQuik, and UF-Riata. The tetraploids are Paraguay, Argentine, and "common."

Bahiagrass Introductions

Pensacola—Thought to originate from the Santa Fe Province of Argentina, this grass arrived in the Pensacola area of Florida as ship ballast in the 1920s. This variety was identified in 1938 by E. H. Finlayson, Escambia County Extension Agent. He collected and distributed seed of this bahiagrass and promoted it for pastures and land conservation. Pensacola bahiagrass has narrow leaves, good seed production, and is very persistent under intensive grazing. It is more cold tolerant than most tetraploid types. Most bahiagrass pastures in the southeastern United States today are Pensacola bahiagrass, and 60% of the bahiagrass acreage in Florida is estimated to be Pensacola.

Tifton 9—This cultivar was developed and released by the University of Georgia and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1989 by Glenn Burton. Tifton 9 is a selection from Pensacola that was found to have superior yields in early spring and late fall. Tifton 9 is estimated to occupy 10% of the bahiagrass acreage in Florida.

TifQuik—This cultivar, recently released by the USDA and the University of Georgia, has fewer hard seeds and results in a more rapid or "quick" stand establishment. In the spring, it grows faster than Tifton 9 or Pensacola because of increased seedling emergence.

UF-Riata—The University of Florida released this cultivar in 2007. UF-Riata was selected from Pensacola for further improvement in early spring and late fall production, and its longer period of forage production extends grazing into late fall and early spring in areas where bahiagrass is adapted.

Common—This bahiagrass has prostrate growth habit, is cold sensitive, good at spreading, and persistent under grazing.

Paraguay and Paraguay 22—These ecotypes were plant introductions from Paraguay; they are more upright than common bahiagrass but are not routinely used in pastures. Very few acres planted to Paraguay 22 remain in Florida.

Argentine—This ecotype from Argentina is highly productive with excellent spreading, lower seedhead production, but it has less frost and cold tolerance than Pensacola. It is estimated that Argentine makes up 25% of total bahiagrass acreage in Florida.

Wilmington—Collected in coastal North Carolina, it has more narrow leaves than typical tetraploid bahiagrass introductions, darker green color, and is adapted to higher latitudes. It has turf potential.


Bahiagrass herbage production is greatest under the combination of high temperature, moisture, and long days. Annual production ranges from 3,000 to 10,000 lb/acre, depending on soil fertility and moisture conditions. Under highly fertilized management, yields of 12,000–14,000 lb/acre may be obtained. In south Florida—under warmer conditions and a mild winter—production is usually 30% or more than that reported in central and north Florida.

As stated previously, bahiagrass growth is affected by temperature and rainfall. During the months of March, April, and May, the temperatures may be adequate for bahiagrass, but the herbage mass is limited by rainfall. The production will be more limited in areas where soils are predominantly composed of fine sands.

Research reports have shown that rotational grazing will result in greater productivity than continuous stocking (approximately 60 vs. 40 lb/acre of dry matter per day). However, nutritive value is not affected by grazing method.

Nutritive Value

Energy concentration of bahiagrass—which is reflected in digestibility of the herbage—declines considerably as the season progresses (Table 1), regardless of fertility or defoliation management. Different studies show that well-fertilized bahiagrass remains at 10%–12% crude protein (CP).

As a result, bahiagrass is not well suited to support demands of livestock with high nutritional requirements, such as growing animals or lactating dairy cows.

Concentrations for phosphorus (P) in leaf tissue may range from 0.15% to 0.4%, and for potassium (K), may range from 1.2% to 2.5%. If the leaf concentrations of phosphorus drop below 0.15%, or 1.2% for potassium, the addition of fertilizer will be necessary to maintain adequate herbage production.

Animal Performance

Average daily gains (ADG; lb of live weight gained per day) of bahiagrass are usually lower than other warm-season perennial grasses such as limpograss or bermudagrass. Studies on continuously grazed (continuous stocking) bahiagrass pastures have ADG of crossbred yearling heifers ranging from 0.3 to 1.2 lb/day. However, these numbers generally decline from summer to fall. The ADG in summer will often range from 1.2 to 1.3 lb/day in June–July, 0.4 to 0.3 lb/day in August–September, and lower (0.2) in September. When pastures are understocked in the summer, daily gains are usually low, associated with overmature growth.


Bahiagrass planting is by seed. Areas selected for planting should have good soil moisture and be well drained. Renovation and replanting of pastures is common, but if planting new sites to Tifton-9 bahiagrass, the ideal planting site would be one that has not already been planted with bahiagrass, such as a bermudagrass or crop field.

In Florida, it is best to establish bahiagrass during the rainy season (June–August). However, if irrigation is available, bahiagrass can be planted as early as March and possibly earlier in south Florida if warm temperatures are present. Better results are obtained if planting in March since bahiagrass will come up before crabgrass and other summer annuals. When planting without irrigation, late March through early May in Florida should be avoided, as these are usually drier months compared to those in the summer. If targeting establishment with only summer rains, seedbed preparation should be initiated two months prior to planting (April–May). Control weeds first (see "Weed Control" section), and once weeds are controlled and seedlings emerged, apply fertilizer following the soil test recommendations as detailed below.

After the seedbed is prepared and before broadcasting the seed, pack the soil with a roller to seal in the moisture. Next, plant the seed ¼ to ½ of an inch deep. Beware that a common mistake with bahiagrass planting is burying the seed too deep. Using a cultipacker planter or any precision seeder helps in placing the seed at a uniform depth.

Table 1. 

Bahiagrass Seeding Rates


Seeding Rates






Tifton 9






Source: Adapted from Newman et al. (2008)

Use sufficient seed. The higher the seeding rate, the quicker the stand will close, and the opportunity for weeds to fill in the open areas will be minimized. After seeding, pack the soil with a roller to seal the moisture in the soil.

The weed control in bahiagrass at seedling stage needs to be done mechanically by mowing. From emergence to approximately six inches in height (seedling stage), bahiagrass does not tolerate most herbicides.

Light fertilization of bahiagrass will generally be necessary within 7–10 days after seedling emergence. The initial application should consist of 30 lb nitrogen (N)/acre, all of the recommended P2O5, and 50% of the recommended K2O. Approximately 40–50 days after the initial application, an additional 50 lb of nitrogen and the remaining K2O should be applied. If manure or biosolids are used as the main source of nutrients, apply the entire annual application at one time after the plants are large enough to withstand physical damage from the application.

Well-fertilized plants will form a dense stand in 60–90 days, at which time a light grazing or mowing can be done.


A. Fertilizer and Liming Recommendations

Liming is needed only when soil pH is below the recommended target pH of 5.5. Lime as needed three to six months prior to fertilization to allow for the lime to react with the soil. Test your soil pH every two to three years.

1. Fertilization for Grazed Pastures

Phosphorus Fertilization

In Florida, special attention should be given to phosphorus fertilization in order to avoid environmental problems associated with phosphorus losses. A soil test in combination with tissue analysis should be used to determine if phosphorus fertilization is needed. A soil test alone is not adequate to determine bahiagrass phosphorus needs, and producers are encouraged to submit both a soil test and a tissue sample. For information on how to submit a tissue sample, see IFAS publication SL 252, Tissue Analysis as a Nutrient Management Tool for Bahiagrass Pastures (

Established Pastures

Nitrogen is the nutrient that is most limiting to bahiagrass growth, so producers should first consider needs and how much nitrogen they can afford. A medium nitrogen option for grazed, established stands is to apply 100 lb N/acre. The application should be split in two, and the first 50 lb N/acre and all of the soil test–recommended P2O5 and K2O levels should be applied in early spring. The second 50 lb N/acre should be applied in early summer. For a minimum fertilization alternative, apply 50–60 lb N/acre in the early spring to maximize much-needed forage. Do not apply K since N will be the limiting nutrient that the bahiagrass is dependent upon in this low-cost option. Apply 25 lb P2O5/acre if your soil tests "Low" in P and tissue P concentration is below 0.15%. Do not apply P if tissue P concentration is at or above 0.15%, even if the soil tests "Low" in P. For "Medium" and "High" soil P levels, neither P application nor tissue analysis is recommended since there will be no added benefit of P fertilization on bahiagrass yields.

2. Fertilization for Hay Production Only

Apply 80 lb N/acre in early spring. Also in spring, apply 80 lb K2O/acre if your soil tests "Very Low" or "Low" in K and 40 lb K2O/acre if it tests "Medium." Apply 40 lb P2O5/acre if your soil tests "Low" in P and tissue P concentration is below 0.15%. Apply an additional 80 lb N and 40 lb K2O/acre after each cutting, except the last in the fall. Include 20 lb of P2O5/acre after each cutting if the soil tested "Low" in P.

3. Fertilization for Seed Production

Apply 60 to 80 lb N/acre in February or March. At the same time, apply 80 lb K2O/acre if your soil tests "Low" in K and 40 lb K2O/acre if it tests "Medium." Apply 40 lb P2O5/acre if your soil tests "Low" in P and tissue P concentration is below 0.15%. Graze until May, June, or July, depending on variety. Remove cattle before seedheads start to emerge, and apply an additional 60–80 lb N/acre.

If the bahiagrass is not grazed, do not apply fertilizer in February or March since this may stimulate excessive top growth. Mowing from February to April may be needed to remove excessive top growth. Apply 60–80 lb N/acre before seedheads first appear. Apply 25 lb P2O5/acre if your soil tests "Low" in P and tissue P concentration is below 0.15%. Do not apply P if tissue P concentration is at or above 0.15%, even if the soil tests "Low" in P. For "Medium" and "High" soil P levels, neither P application nor tissue analysis is recommended. Apply 50 lb K2O/acre if your soil tests "Low" in K and none if it tests "Medium" or "High." Fertilize Pensacola and Tifton 9 in March/April and Argentine in May/June.

For additional information about bahiagrass fertilization, see IFAS publication SL 129, UF/IFAS Standardized Fertilization Recommendations for Agronomic Crops (

B. Weed Control

Bahiagrass seedlings are susceptible to phenoxy-type herbicides (2,4-D, dicamba, others), and they should not be applied until seedlings are at least six inches tall.

Another caution: Pensacola-type (Pensacola, Tifton 9, UF-Riata, and TifQuik) bahiagrass will be severely injured by the herbicide metsulfuron. When Pensacola bahiagrass is a weed in a bermudagrass pasture, metsulfuron will selectively and effectively remove bahiagrass without harming bermudagrass.

Bahiagrass pastures that are well fertilized and growing under optimal conditions will be competitive with weeds. However, many ranchers in Florida use low fertility management, which may require additional intervention for weed control. Most broadleaf weeds can be controlled with dicamba (brand names are Banvel, Clarity, or Vanquish), 2,4-D (several brands), or a combination of the two. Sulfosulfuron (brand name: Outrider) can be applied to established pastures for control of annual or perennial sedges. Hexazinone (brand name: Velpar) is used for smutgrass control, but sprays of this herbicide will need to be kept away from desirable trees, especially oaks. To control specific weeds, there are many options. For more information, see IFAS publication SS-AGR-08, Weed Management in Pastures and Rangeland (

C. Grazing Management

Bahiagrass is a highly persistent grass that has high tiller, rhizome, and root density. Because of its rhizomes, bahiagrass is able to withstand close defoliation. The stubble height in midsummer season should be approximately two inches for hay production, three inches if rotational grazing, and five inches if under continuous stocking. There is plenty of evidence that shows that when pastures are overgrazed and close grazing continues, the bahiagrass will become weak and stand loss will eventually occur.

On the other hand, rapid growth of bahiagrass is associated with rapid decline in nutritive value. By increasing the stocking during rapid growth of bahiagrass, excess old growth would be avoided. Also, the improvement of forage crude protein and digestibility, as well as the better performance of cows and calves will likely occur.

D. Association with Legumes

In late fall, bahiagrass can be overseeded with annual ryegrass, small grains, or clovers. In north and central Florida, annual ryegrass, small grains, crimson, white, ball, berseem, and red clover, and medics are recommended, while berseem clover can be used in central and south-central Florida. Because of the dense nature of bahiagrass sod, competition from bahiagrass needs to be suppressed or minimized before overseeding with the legumes. A common practice is to graze it very short as the fall season approaches and afterwards do a light disking of the soil to suppress bahiagrass competition with legume seedlings. Another practice is to burn the pasture with herbicide (chemical mowing), but this practice is risky and often results in stand loss.

During the summer, companion legumes to bahiagrass are Aeschynomene and carpon desmodium since these species are well adapted to moist, flatwood soils. Other possible companion legumes are alyceclover, cowpeas, hairy indigo, stylo, and perennial peanut; these require good moisture and adequate soil drainage.

Figure 3. 

Bahiagrass and perennial peanut association.


Joseph Walter, UF/IFAS

[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]


A. Hay

Bahiagrass that is well fertilized and cut prior to seedhead production will make good quality hay. The quality of the grass drops dramatically once the seedheads are present.

Tifton 9, TifQuik, and UF-Riata have a more upright growth and are recommended for producers who want to grow bahiagrass exclusively as a hay crop. These varieties produce long leaves and a lot of herbage mass.

Figure 4. 

Round bales and square bales of bahiagrass hay.


Yoana Newman, UF/IFAS

[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

B. Phytoremediation

Intensively managing bahiagrass for hay or sod production is an option for remediating P-impacted soils due to the increased yields that can be achieved with N fertilization. Studies have shown that yield increases about 70% with N applications at the IFAS recommended rate of 60 lb/acre/harvest. Research reports also show that application of N fertilizer increases bahiagrass P uptake and consequently decreases P losses to groundwater.

Cumulative P removals by bahiagrass under hay production management for a two-year period have been reported at 16 lb P2O5/acre (with no nitrogen fertilizer application) to 50 lb P2O5/acre when bahiagrass was fertilized at the recommended IFAS rate of 60 lb N/acre/harvest. If plant tissue phosphorus is at a high of 0.35% and eight tons of dry matter is produced, approximately 50 lb of phosphorus/acre/year would be removed. Well-managed bahiagrass supplied with adequate N fertilizer for hay production could offer a practical and cost-effective alternative for reducing offsite phosphorus losses from phosphorus-impacted soils.

When managed for sod production, significant P removal can be obtained. For information about P removal from sod, see IFAS publication SL 309, Phosphorus Removal Rates from Sod Production Systems (

C. Turf and Conservation (Sod)

Bahiagrass can make excellent low-maintenance lawns. It forms an extensive and deep root system that makes this grass drought-tolerant and desirable for sod production. With escalating urbanization in Florida, many ranches are increasing their acreage for commercial sod production.

Argentine bahiagrass is a preferred variety and used broadly for turf production because of its low height, wide leaves, and dark green color, but mainly because it produces less seedheads than other bahiagrasses. For additional information, see IFAS publication BUL 260, Sod Production in Florida (

Figure 5. 

Peanut crop after bahiagrass.


David Wright, UF/IFAS

[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

D. Seed Production

Bahiagrass seed from unprotected varieties (Argentine, Paraguay 22, and Pensacola) is produced regularly by some ranches to generate additional income. Frequently, seed companies harvest, process, and market the seed. Bahiagrass is an obligate, long-day plant that will produce the most inflorescences (seedheads) with long days. Argentine bahiagrass will flower only at day length greater than 13.8 hours in Florida.

Highest seed yields are obtained when herbage residue from the previous growing season is removed between late April and May and immediately fertilized. If residue is removed early or high N fertilizer is applied, more vegetative growth will occur with less flowering stems developing. Usually, the management of pastures for seed production requires fertilization in early spring and grazing until the longest days approach or the first signs of flowering occur in early June.

It is not legal to harvest and sell seed of varieties that are plant variety protected (PVP), such as Tifton 9, TifQuik, or UF-Riata. These varieties are protected by federal seed laws and can only be sold by variety name. When purchasing seed of any variety of bahiagrass, it is always best to buy seed from a reputable seed source. Labels on the seed bag should indicate the state variety, % seed germination, date of testing, and purity.

E. Sod-Based Rotation with Agronomic Crops

A recommended sod-based rotation with row crops is a four-year cropping system that includes two years of bahiagrass, followed by peanut and then cotton. This sod-based rotation, which replaces the traditional peanut/cotton rotation, has positive impacts on soil health, pest reduction, water use, and sustainable farm production. Studies conducted in north Florida have shown that this is a viable system for farms that are in the 100–800 acre range. More specifically, the suggested crop rotation is to grow two years of bahiagrass followed by an oat cover crop. Afterwards, the bahiagrass is killed off in the second year. Next, oat is planted into it, and then peanuts are strip-tilled the following warm season. Oat is again used as a cover crop, and then cotton is planted before going back into bahiagrass. Cotton is not recommended right after bahiagrass, because of reported excessive juvenile (rank) growth. Bahiagrass in the rotation can be grazed by cattle, sold as seed, or baled as hay.

Bahiagrass's extensive root system penetrates the natural compaction zone that exists at a depth of six to eight inches in most Southeastern coastal-region soils. The roots of the subsequent crop use the channels created by the bahiagrass sod. After bahiagrass, there can be a four- to six-fold increase in crop roots down to a soil depth of five feet. Nutrient extraction, especially nitrates, is also greatly enhanced when rooting depths are increased. When included in the peanut/cotton rotation, bahiagrass reduces nematode infestation since most nematodes will not feed on bahiagrass. With a limited food source, nematode levels decline to a point that will not cause economic damage when the host crop is planted.

For additional information, see IFAS publication SS-AGR-126, Sod/Livestock-Based Peanut/Cotton Production System: Why We Recommend It! (

Table 2. 

Peanut yield for two crop rotations in Florida during 2003 and 2004.












Insects and Plant Diseases

Mole crickets can cause serious damage to bahiagrass pastures in Florida. There are three pest mole crickets (Scapteriscus spp.) found in Florida: the southern, tawny, and short-winged mole cricket. Of these three, the tawny is the most damaging. Fortunately, insecticidal-nematode control (Steinernema scapterisci) and biological control with a wasp (Larra bicolor) are available for controlling these mole crickets.

Bahiagrass is susceptible to "dollar spot" (Sclerotinia homoeocarpa) and "ergot" (Claviceps paspali) diseases in hot, damp weather conditions (July–early September). These diseases will affect seed and production yield, but, in general, none of these diseases are toxic or a problem to livestock. However, if grass is heavily infected, pregnant mares may experience abortion, and cattle under stress might have some behavioral impact. If ergot is present, it can be managed by mowing the seedheads or by keeping pregnant horses confined. Dollar spot seems to have more severity in Pensacola-type bahiagrass than in Argentine.

Figure 6. 

Dollar spot on Pensacola-type (left) and Argentine (right) bahiagrass cultivars.


Ann Blount, UF/IFAS

[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]


  • Bahiagrass is a warm-season plant adapted to areas of low soil fertility typical of Florida's deep, sandy soils. It does not grow well in pH 6.5 and higher.

  • Bahiagrass production is highest during midsummer when days are long.

  • Bahiagrass is low to medium in crude protein and digestibility.

  • Pensacola and Argentine are recommended cultivars for grazing, Tifton 9 and UF-Riata are recommended for hay production, and UF-Riata is recommended for extending the production season in the fall.

  • Mole crickets are a serious pest to bahiagrass, but biological control through nematodes and wasp parasites is effective.


Adjei, M. B., P. Mislevy, and W. Chason. 2000. Timing, Defoliation Management, and Nitrogen Effects on Seed Yield of 'Argentine' Bahiagrass. Agron. J. 92:36-41.

Inyang, U., J. M. B. Vendramini, L. E. Sollenberger, B. Sellers, A. Adesogan, L. Paiva, and A. Lunpha. 2010. Forage Species and Stocking Rate Effects on Animal Performance and Herbage Responses of 'Mulato' and Bahiagrass Pastures. Crop Sci. 50:1079-1085.

Katsvairo, T. W., D. L. Wright, J. J. Marois, D. Hartzog, P. K. B. Balkcom, J. Wiatrak, and J. R. Rich. 2007. Performance of Peanut and Cotton in a Bahiagrass Cropping System. Agron. J. 99:1245-1251.

Newman, Y. C., S. Agyin-Birikorang, M. B. Adjei, J. M. Scholberg, M. L. Silveira, J. M. B. Vendramini, J. E. Rechcigl, L. E. Sollenberger, and M. Chrysostome. 2009. Enhancing Phosphorus Phytoremediation Potential of Two Warm-Season Grasses with Nitrogen Fertilization. Agron J. 101:1345-1351.

Newman, Y. C., J. A. Ferrell, A. R. Blount, and L. E. Sollenberger. 2008. Seeding rate and cultivar effect on bahiagrass establishment. p. 209. In 21st Int. Grassl. Cong., 21st, Hohhot, China. June 25-Jul 5th

Sellers, B. A., and J. A. Ferrell. 2009. Weed Management in Pastures and Rangeland – 2009. EDIS Publication SSAGR08, Department of Agronomy, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Sollenberger, L. E., W. R. Ocumpaugh, V. P. B. Euclides, J. E. Moore, K. H. Quesenberry, and S. C. Jones, Jr. 1988. Animal performance on continuously stocked "Pensacola" bahiagrass and "Floralta" limpograss pastures. J. Prod. Agric. 1:216-220.

Additional Information

Bahiagrass—Forages of Florida website:

Table 3. 

Pasture Nutritive Value (Digestibility and Crude Protein) and Herbage Mass of "Pensacola" Bahiagrass Pastures during the Grazing Season.




Crude Protein


Herbage mass

(lb DM/acre)











































Source: Inyang et al. (2010)



This document is SS-AGR-332, one of a series of the Agronomy Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date May 2010. Revised July 2014. Visit the EDIS website at


Yoana Newman, assistant professor, Agronomy Department; Joao Vendramini, assistant professor, Agronomy Department, Range Cattle Research and Education Center, Ona, FL; and Ann Blount, professor, Agronomy Department, North Florida Research and Education Center, Marianna, FL; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition. All chemicals should be used in accordance with directions on the manufacturer's label. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow directions on the manufacturer's label.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.